Why Separate Administration can pose threat to India's sovereignty and foreign relations

RK Sanayaima Singh *

Manipur's fleeting stability shattered as ethnic turmoil erupted in May 2023 between the Meitei community in the valley and the Kuki community in surrounding hills and urban areas. The catalyst was a 'Tribal Solidarity March' opposing the demand for inclusion of Meitei in the Scheduled Tribes.

Violence ensued, claiming over 100 lives and displacing 60,000 people. Deeper causes included forest protection measures, Kukis' solidarity with displaced Chin people, and the Government's crackdown on poppy cultivation. Tensions grew as Kuki populations extended into reserved forest areas, while Meitei harboured resentment over limited access to land in the hills.

However, to understand the ongoing mayhem, there exists a deeper layer, intertwined with geopolitical dynamics and the echoes of transboundary Pan-nationalism. At the heart of this narrative lies the idea of a sovereign land known as Zalen'gam, an aspiration for ethnic groups of Chin-Kuki-Mizo, collectively also referred to as the Zo peoples. The term translates to "land of freedom" encapsulating the homelands inhabited by these tribes across the North Eastern States of India and Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh, and parts of Burma, now Myanmar.

In the realm of this ethnic mobilization, a distinct feature emerges—a transactional and transborder nature that defies conventional boundaries. PS Haokip, the leader of the Kuki National Organisation (KNO), sheds light on the formation of the first Kuki armed movement in his propaganda book, "Zalen-Gam–The Kuki Nation."

He highlights how the Kuki people's ancestral land, their Zalen'gam, was forcibly divided by the drawing of international boundaries between India and Myanmar, depriving them of their consent. Driven by the desire to reclaim their perceived "lost lands," the KNO, along with its armed wing, the Kuki National Army, was established in 1988, along the Indo-Myanmar border in Manipur. Their objective was clear—the reunification of their fragmented territory.

"Pan-Nationalist Mobilization: The Resonance of the Chin-Kuki-Mizo Movement in India's North East"

The yearning for a separate State or distinct political arrangement for the Chin-Kuki,-Mizo ethnic groups in Manipur has deep historical roots. Since 1960, the Paite National Council and its leader T Goukhenpau advocated for the establishment of Chinland, uniting diverse tribes under the "CHIN" category. In 1972, the Zomi National Congress (ZNC) emerged, aiming to unify the Chin-Kuki-Mizo communities and achieve political emancipation.

The Zo Re-unification Organization (ZORO) was formed as a powerful platform, culminating in the World Zomi Convention in 1988, where delegates from India, Myanmar, and Bangladesh pledged solidarity and integration for the Zo people's reunification. In subsequent years, in 2010, the Kuki State Demand Committee (KSDC) was established, endorsing the call for a separate Kukiland.

They submitted a memorandum to the Government of India, demanding the formation of a separate Kuki homeland comprising Churachandpur, Chandel districts, Sadar Hills, and other contiguous Kuki-inhabited areas of Manipur. The KSDC resorted to occasional strikes, and highway blockades, obstructing the flow of goods into the Imphal Valley.

In Manipur's southern border State of Mizoram, amidst the ongoing Meitei-Kuki clash, a powerful movement for territorial integration has resurfaced. The voices of the Chin-Kuki-Mizo ethnic nationality resound, reigniting age-old aspirations for unity and collective identity. Kuki BJP MLA Paolienlal Haokip boldly expressed their determination, considering options like a separate State, Union Territory, or even becoming part of "Greater Mizoram." This reflects their commitment to rejuvenating their political imagination.

In line with this sentiment, Mizoram's Chief Minister Zoramthanga, a former militant leader, addresses the Mizo National Front (MNF) workers, emphasizing the unification of inhabited areas belonging to the Chin-Kuki-Mizo in neighbouring States. He recalls the peace talks and the MNF's pursuit of a cohesive "one administrative unit" encompassing Mizo-inhabited regions across different States. This echoes the historic Mizo National Front's secessionist movement in the 1960s, which sought a greater Mizoram and culminated in the Mizo Accord of 1986.

Forging Unity: The Chin-Kuki-Mizo Ethnic Consolidation Movement in Myanmar and Bangladesh

The Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh experience an ongoing armed movement led by the Kuki-Chin National Army, the armed wing of the Kuki-Chin National Front. The Kuki-Chin National Army, also known as the "Bawm Party," comprises members from six Kuki-Chin ethnic groups. Amidst unrest in Manipur, a Kuki-Chin National Army ambush on May 16 in the Bandarban district resulted in the loss of two Bangladesh Army soldiers and injury to two officers.

In Myanmar's border regions with Indian States, authorities' reluctance to grant autonomy has led to the reorganization of insurgent groups among the Chin-Kuki-Zo communities. An insurgency movement emerged among the Zo ethnic tribes in 1964, led by Hrangnawl, Lt. Col Sonkhopau, and Tunkhopum. Despite limited success, the insurgency persisted, fuelling Zo ethnic tribal Nationalism.

The Chin National Front/Chin National Army (CNF/CNA) and Chin Liberation Army (CLA) continue the pursuit, advocating for political autonomy. Established in 1988, the CNF has become a powerful Ethnic Armed Organization (EAO) in Myanmar.

Turbulent Inter-Ethnic Clashes: Navigating the Complexities of Demands for Separate Administration and Homeland in Manipur

Amidst the recent upheaval of inter-ethnic clashes between the Meitei and Kuki communities, the consideration of endorsing the Kuki demand for a separate Administration/Homeland or even Greater Mizoram for the Chin-Kuki-Mizo ethnic groups beckons grave consequences, both internally and externally.

A profound evaluation suggests that preserving peace, and harmony in Manipur, safeguarding India's integrity, as well as maintaining amicable relations with neighbouring Nations, necessitate careful deliberation and prudence.

What are the potential cycles that may emerge in the future?

Firstly, the Government’s endorsement of a separate Arrangement/Homeland or Greater Mizoram based solely on ethnic lines would inflict severe damage upon Manipur's social and political cohesion. The Meitei community in the valley would steadfastly refuse any division of Manipur's territorial integrity, which has been promised and upheld by the Indian State since the merger of Manipur with India in 1949. Furthermore, the territorial claims of the Kuki community overlap with those of the Nagas in Manipur, exacerbating tensions and complexities.

Secondly, the prolonged territorial dispute between the Chin-Kuki-Mizo community and the Nagas has engendered a contentious environment. The Kuki-Naga ethnic conflict witnessed a blood-stained chapter in 1992-1993, characterized by fierce clashes over contested land, resulting in numerous fatalities.

On May 31st, the influential United Naga Council (UNC), an apex body representing the Nagas, unequivocally conveyed to the Government of India that they "will not accept any disintegration of Naga areas" concerning the recent demand for a separate homeland by the Chin-Kuki-Mizo community.

In a memorandum submitted to Union Home Minister Amit Shah, the UNC cautioned that any fragmentation of Naga areas or detrimental effects on the Nagas would have far-reaching consequences, instigating senseless violence among various communities.

Thirdly, In the intricate web of administrative arrangements based on ethnic lines, the demand for a separate administrative setup for the Chin-Kuki-Mizo in Manipur presents a distinct peculiarity when compared to existing models in North East India.

Entities like the Bodoland Territorial Council, Garo Hills Autonomous District Council, Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council, Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council, and Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council have found relative clarity in area demarcation and their respective ethnic groups, resulting in lesser controversy.

However, the case of the Chin-Kuki-Mizo community differs significantly. Their contiguous population straddles the borders of three countries, introducing a complex dynamic that has the potential to shape a broader Pan-Nationalist sentiment. This unique circumstance raises concerns about the gradual emergence of Pan-Nationalism among the Chin-Kuki-Mizo, which could pose unforeseen challenges for India in the future.

The existing administrative setups in North East India, though not without their complexities, have managed to navigate these issues with relative ease due to their lack of cross-border presence.

In contrast, the Chin-Kuki-Mizo's geographic distribution across multiple Nations adds an additional layer of complexity to the equation. The demand for a separate homeland arrangement for this group requires careful consideration, as it could pave the way for a growing sense of Pan-Nationalism, potentially shaping the future landscape in ways that India must be prepared to address.

Fourthly, any recognition of a separate homeland for the Chin-Kuki-Mizo community would reverberate internationally, causing significant ramifications. This move by the Government of India would undoubtedly strain relations with Myanmar and Bangladesh, as these Nations are already grappling with armed militancy originating from Chin-Kuki-Mizo ethnic groups within their territories.

In light of these multifaceted implications, it is imperative for the Indian Government to tread cautiously, considering the broader ramifications on Manipur's stability, India's relations with neighbouring countries, and the potential for future conflicts arising from ethnic separatism.

A measured and balanced approach, fostering inclusive dialogue and addressing underlying grievances, may offer a more sustainable path towards peace, unity, and harmonious coexistence for all ethnic communities involved.

(Writer’s note -

This piece first appeared in India Today NE.

The opinion piece initially appeared in INDIATODAY N-E on June 26, 2023. The corresponding web link is provided below. This opinion aims to provide insights into the challenges and complexities surrounding the demands for separate administration and homeland in Manipur.

The ethnic clashes in Manipur have been a recurring issue, and understanding the underlying causes and implications is crucial for promoting peace and harmony in the region. This article delves into the historical and political factors contributing to these clashes, with a specific focus on the demands for separate administration and homeland put forth by the Kuki community.

By exploring the intricate dynamics of these demands, the article aims to shed light on the complexities faced by Manipur in addressing the aspirations and concerns of different ethnic communities. Additionally, the opinion write-up discusses the potential implications and the broader impact of meeting or not meeting these demands, both for Manipur and India as a whole.

* RK Sanayaima Singh wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on 02 December 2023.

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Naorem Roshibina- Wushu Medallist : Gallery
  • Violence in Manipur 2023-2024 : Timeline
  • 7 facts about Meitei Goddess Khunu Leima
  • Discrimination of Meiteis in Manipur #1
  • Entry : Manipur State Film Awards, 2024
  • Understanding profundity of secularism
  • Fencing of Indo-Myanmar Border: Zeliang
  • Politics of inking the SoO pact
  • A chink in Kuki-Chin legislators armour
  • Protest against SoO agreement #1 : Gallery
  • March Calendar for Year 2024 : Tools
  • Press conference at Press Club of India
  • Workshop : Listening to our environment
  • Meetei bears more tribal characters
  • Calling out AR men from their bunkers
  • Re-activating state economy
  • History & Culture of Manipur through Puyas
  • Blood Donation at Mongshangei
  • 8 from Manipur- Sangeet Natak award 2023
  • National Science Day on Indigenous Tech
  • Grand finale of Mega Miss North East
  • Coming close to understanding of anarchy
  • Reasonable suggestion
  • Nupi Landa Thaunaphabishing #8 :: Book
  • Finding all & treating all TB
  • Facts about Article 371-C #1
  • The Power of Poppy - 21 :: Poem
  • Radio E-pao :: Contemporary (350+ songs)
  • The silence continues, the clash continues
  • A sage advice on NRC
  • Consequences of Hereditary Chieftainship
  • e-Archiving of Manipur Gazettes launched
  • Grand finale of Mega Mister North East
  • Children are clay pots, parents are potters
  • Spring skin & hair care & make-up
  • GHOST of PEACE :: Download Booklet
  • 'Terminate SoO with Kuki Armed Groups'
  • ST demand & Govinda ji
  • Memorandum to Union Home Minister
  • Role of parents during board exams
  • In perfect imperfection: Love's untold story
  • Descent of Radha-Krishna #24: Download
  • Shaheed Memorial Football Final : Gallery
  • O, Martyrs, Martyrs
  • Remembering the fire at Sainik School Imphal
  • Meephamlen & Life Time Achievement
  • Program: Youth Leadership & Development
  • 7 facts about ancient Goddess Panthoibi
  • Myanmar border fencing; arson in CCpur
  • Research Officer- Financial @ Amethyst
  • Exploring nutritional virtues of maternal milk
  • Fine dining with flavours of Northeast
  • ST categorisation : Not the job of judiciary
  • Growing demand for abrogating SoO pact
  • Save Manipur : Protest [Feb 15] #2 : Gallery
  • Agro forestry for sustainable agriculture
  • Relief materials & interaction at Kangpokpi
  • Exodus from Myanmar justify 'border fencing'
  • Earth Civilization :: Poem
  • Enhancing domestic fish consumption in India
  • Growing call to abrogate SoO pact
  • Acquitting the criminal, penalising the victim
  • Nupi Landa Thaunaphabishing #7 :: Book
  • Recipe for a full fledged civil war
  • Health Camp at Santhong Relief Camp
  • Farming- loss-making but MSP is not practical
  • Magic ingredients for radiant & flawless skin
  • First Assam LitArt Festival concludes
  • Silence of the guns, for the moment
  • A brighter side of the conflict
  • Interview with Naorem Roshibina (Wushu)
  • Memo to Chief Minister : The Way Forward
  • Best wishes to all students of classes 10th
  • The Power of Poppy - 20 :: Poem
  • Boost student retention power for board exam
  • Claiming ancestral rights over Thangjing
  • Indeed, no comparison with Manipur violence
  • Arambai Tengol & SFs #4 : Gallery
  • Rising above adversity for excellence
  • 7 facts about Meitei Goddess Nganu Leima
  • 149 experts call to find all TB to stop TB
  • Resilient tourism for vibrant career
  • Non-stop assault on Sugnu : The pattern
  • Nearly 5mn candidates for 60k posts
  • Folktales of Manipur 2.0
  • Nothing to kill or die for
  • The Kutsapo Proclamation
  • Nagas oppose border fencing with Myanmar
  • Great game for peace and security
  • IIT Delhi at Abu Dhabi
  • Restraining armed forces vis- Kuki militants
  • Drawing the battle line for Moreh at last
  • Descent of Radha-Krishna #23: Download
  • Aira Thoudam - coveted scholarship in Egypt
  • Condemns violence committed in CCpur
  • Last Smile of our Fallen Comrade : Poem
  • Sachinker ties knot with Raina Rajkumari
  • Complex challenges & calls for resolution
  • Save Manipur : Protest [Feb 15] #1 : Gallery
  • Sonia Nepram at 74th Berlinale, Germany
  • Manipur: Best AIFF Grassroots Award 2024
  • Children struggling tough competition
  • Reliance Foundation partners with NSDC
  • Bigger agenda behind CCpur protest
  • When Frankenstein acts as a law unto itself
  • A Cloud in Trousers : A translation #4
  • Manipur imbroglio and our lessons
  • The Living Song :: Poem
  • Entries : Mumbai International Film Festival
  • MG Motor India's new facility in Silchar
  • Self-funded Rail budget earns profits
  • Points Imphal should lay before Delhi
  • Dissenters not to go down without a fight
  • Art Exhibition @ RKCS Museum #5 : Gallery
  • Article 371 C aggravates ethnic divide
  • Into the lap of nature : Udupi #2
  • Delhi's dance with Meitei-Kuki conundrum
  • 'Vividhata ka Amrit Mahotsav' in Delhi
  • 2024 may pose challenges in 11 States
  • FMR scrapped, border fencing assured
  • Time to take a final call
  • Legacies of the Khamba-Thoibi classics
  • Transforming education in Manipur
  • The Power of Poppy - 19 :: Poem
  • Beauty tip to look awesome- Valentine's Day
  • Towards understanding of human journeys
  • If them then why not the Meiteis ?
  • Ensuring basic rights of conflict children
  • 75th Republic Day @ Kangla #2 : Gallery
  • Bambam Thounaojam - MMA World Champion
  • Distress Relief @ Sugnu [Jan] : Gallery
  • Manipur's struggle for peace amidst tension
  • Hold govts to account for ending tobacco
  • Meghalaya Cancer Conclave 2024
  • Not the time to take political mileage
  • Way off the mark
  • Abnormal population growth of Kuki from 1881
  • May 3 violence :: Poem
  • Bharat-Burma border barbed
  • Importance of STEM careers for girls
  • Development of mental health in school
  • Displaced children in relief camps
  • Is it the end of Kuki-AR honeymoon period ?
  • Descent of Radha-Krishna #22: Download
  • Manipur Technology Innovation Hub Startup
  • As Time Ticks Away :: Poem
  • Architecture & design confluence - BAIC
  • UG Scholarships 2023-24 results announced
  • Occupational therapy role in erb's palsy
  • National Voters' Day @ Lamphel : Gallery
  • Into the lap of nature : Udupi #1
  • Stop disrespect for places of worship
  • IBSD & NBRC joined hand for research
  • MedTech Mitra : A facilitation highway uptake
  • First edition of Assam LitArt Festival
  • Weed out the illegal immigrants
  • Behind and beyond the rhetoric
  • Nupi Landa Thaunaphabishing #6 :: Book
  • Training on cultivation of mushroom at Tera
  • Workshop: Exploring genomic resources of NE
  • India-Australia Partnership in Education
  • Why a new dawn of development in NE
  • Healthy Hair : keep it healthy
  • Beyond scrapping FMR
  • The letter of WKZIC to ADB
  • A Northeasterner's Reflection on India
  • Feathers of different birds flock together
  • Manipur : 9 months into endless killings
  • Call to make Big Tobacco pay for health
  • Mahotsav : Richness of Northeast India
  • Noting the call from AMCO
  • Not enough to rest assured anyone
  • Resilience in adversity | Kumbi : Gallery
  • Why effective treatments for TB not out
  • Cease the strife :: Poem
  • Balancing mental well-being of students
  • FM Hi debt funds Rs 45 tr budget
  • Submission of admission, apology
  • Unveiling the mask of Kuki MLAs once again
  • Arambai Tengol & SFs [24 Jan] #3 : Gallery
  • Lessons from Manipur on vigilantism
  • Exposure to air pollution can lead to cancer
  • Interim budget: Need comprehensive reforms
  • From exam stress to success
  • Adding more teeth to the silence
  • Still, a far-off land for Mr Prime Minister
  • A Cloud in Trousers : A translation #3
  • Dissecting the strength of Kukis #2
  • Self Defence Training : for school girls
  • Bharat Ratna for the Mandir man
  • Desi remedy for farm sector
  • Noting the words of caution from UNC
  • The best way to settle Thangjing issue
  • Descent of Radha-Krishna #21: Download
  • Maharaj Gambhir Singh #2: Gallery
  • To Our Fallen Village Volunteers :: Poem
  • "It's Not My Choice" triumphs in every aspect
  • Jamir congratulates Advani for Bharat Ratna
  • Climate change needs to be taught
  • 75th Republic Day @ Kangla #1 : Gallery
  • Management fest at Assam University
  • Transformation from adulthood to parenthood
  • NEP's vision is to make India competitive
  • 35th Road Safety Campaign in North East
  • Budget - Welfare with Fiscal Discipline
  • Understanding call against lifting FMR
  • Nine months and counting
  • Statue in front of Western Gate, Kangla ?
  • My memories of Imphal from 1941 : Review
  • Auditions: 20th Mega Miss North East
  • Face scrubs for glowing skin
  • Auditions: 13th Mega Mister North East
  • Seaweed: Sea of opportunities
  • Continuing clash: Dialogue the way forward
  • The truth behind the objection
  • Gaan-Ngai at Keishamthong #2 : Gallery
  • Protests attack @ Moreh [18 Jan] #2: Gallery
  • Seeking solutions, not scapegoats: Response
  • Indo-Naga Talks (From 2012) :: Timeline
  • Gaan-Ngai at Keishamthong #1 : Gallery
  • Transforming education, building our future
  • Arambai Tengol & SFs [24 Jan] #2 : Gallery
  • Arambai Tengol & SFs [24 Jan] #1 : Gallery
  • Protests attack @ Moreh [17 Jan] #2 : Gallery
  • Protests attack @ Moreh [18 Jan] #1: Gallery
  • Guard of honor - W Somorjit : Gallery
  • 13 martyrs brought to JNIMS : Gallery
  • Mangani Leihul of 13 martyrs #2 : Gallery
  • Oinam Chaoba Devi: Sepak Takraw : Gallery
  • Ayekpam Maipak (Sepak Takraw) : Gallery
  • Shanglakpam Nilakanta (Hockey) : Gallery
  • List of Kings of Manipur: 33 - 1984 AD