TODAY -

Crime against women in Manipur : A legal perspective

Sagolsem Jasobanta *



The problem of crimes against women in Manipur is a multi-faceted problem that requires serious legal consideration. Despite laws and regulations to protect women’s rights, women in Manipur still face various forms of violence, discrimination and exploitation.

Legal framework : The legal framework for crimes against women in Manipur & India consists of various National and local laws as well as international agreements. Some of these important legal provisions include:

1. Constitution of India: The Constitution of India guarantees the fundamental rights of all citizens, including equality, non- discrimination and freedom from violence. Articles 14, 15 and 21 of the Constitution are of great importance in terms of solving the problems affecting women.

2. The Indian Penal Code (IPC): The IPC contains various vital provisions criminalizing various forms of violence against women, including rape (Section 375), sexual assault (Section 354), domestic violence (Section 498A), and dowry-related offenses (Section 304B). These provisions stipulate the penalties for those who commit these crimes.

3. Protection of Women from Domestic Violence, 2005: This Law provides comprehensive legislation to regulate domestic violence against women. It defines domestic violence as a general term that includes physical, sexual, emotional, verbal, and financial abuse and provides legal remedies for survivors, such as protective orders, restraining orders, and financial assistance.

4. Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013: Popularly known as Nirbhaya Act & enacted in response to the gangrape incident in Delhi in 2012, this law brought significant changes to the IPC and other laws related to sexual offences. The definition of rape was broadened, penalties for sexual offenses increased, and new crimes such as acid attacks and stalking were introduced.

5. Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015: This law deals with crimes against children, including sexual offences. It provides special methods and measures to protect children who have survived violence, recognize their weaknesses, and need support.

OBSTACLES TO IMPLEMENTATION:

1. Weaknesses of Law Enforcement: Despite strong laws, law enforcement agencies in Manipur often face difficulties in implementing and enforcing them effectively. Factors such as corruption, lack of resources, inadequate education and social prejudice can hinder the investigation and prosecution of crimes against women.

2. Limited Access to Justice: Many women in Manipur, particularly those from marginalized communities or rural areas, face barriers in accessing justice due to factors such as geographical remoteness, lack of legal awareness, social stigma, etc.

3. Non-disclosure of crimes: Crimes against women in Manipur are mostly not disclosed due to fear of retaliation, social stigma and lack of trust in justice.

4. Inadequate Support Services: Despite legal provisions for support services such as shelters, counselling, and legal aid, the availability and accessibility of these services in Manipur are often limited.

MAJOR FACTORS FOR CRIME AGAINST WOMEN IN MANIPUR:

1. Patriarchal Traditions: Patriarchal attitudes perpetuate a culture of inequality where women are viewed as inferior and subjected to various forms of discrimination and violence.

2. Socio-economic inequalities: Poverty, lack of education and limited economic opportunities increase women’s vulnerability in Manipur. Economic disadvantage forces many women into situations of exploitation where they cannot fight for their rights or receive compensation.

3. Conflict and militancy: Manipur has been grappling with armed and military conflict for decades, seriously affecting the safety of women in the state. The presence of armed groups, security forces and militarized environments has fuelled violence and created a culture of impunity where women are subjected to gender-based violence, abuse and violence.

4. Inadequate legal framework: Despite legal provisions aimed at protecting women’s rights, imple- mentation and enforcement of the law remains inadequate in Manipur. Weak enforcement, corruption and lack of access to justice prevent survivors from seeking justice and holding perpetrators accountable. Moreover, the prevalence of customary laws and informal justice can further marginalize women and undermine their rights.

5. Cultural values and beliefs: Cultural values and beliefs deeply perpetuate gender stereotypes, limit women’s freedom, and legitimize violence against them. Moral values such as marriage, chastity, and chastity put pressure on women to comply with their own desires, making them vulnerable to abuse and exploitation.

6. Lack of awareness and education: Many women may not know their rights or fear punishment when reporting crimes to authorities.

7. Economic dependence: Economically depen- dent women may not be able to leave an abusive relationship or seek help due to fear of insecurity. Economic empowerment programs, such as access to employment and income-generating opportunities, are critical in reducing women’s experiences of violence and abuse.

8. Migration and Human Trafficking: Poverty, lack of economic opportunities, and social instability contribute to women’s vulnera- bility, making them vulnerable to traffickers. The absence of border control and enforcement mechanisms further exacerbates the problem of human trafficking in Manipur.

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT:

1. Psychological trauma: Victims may experience depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental health problems. The psychological scars of abuse can affect survivors’ self-esteem, relationships, and overall well-being, leading to long-term emotional problems and difficulties coping with daily life.

2. Physical Health Effects: Survivors may be at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STDs), reproductive health problems, and other physical health problems as a result of the violence they experience.

3. Humiliation and isolation: Survivors of domestic violence often face stigma, shame, and ostracism from their families. This social violence can lead to isolation, loss of support networks, and social problem.

4. Economic impact: Survivors may lose money due to the inability to work, medical expenses, and other financial burdens related to the abuse they experienced.

5. Interference with education and employment: Survivors may drop out of school or lose their jobs due to the trauma and stigma associated with the violence they experience, perpetuating poverty and inequality.

6. Generational Impact: The impact of crimes against women in Manipur can reach future generations as children who witness or experience domestic violence may suffer long-term psychological and emotional consequences.

7. Obstruction of social cohesion : Crimes against women in Manipur can undermine community cohe- sion and trust, as fear of violence and distrust of authorities can prevent people from seeking help or reporting crimes.

8. Restrictions on development activities: Violence against women reduces women’s participation in education, work and social life, devalues the state, and undermines gender equality and the Sustainable Development Goals.

POSSIBLE WAYS FOR REFORMATION:

1. Strengthening Law Enforcement: This could include providing specific training for gender-sensitive policing, establishing special units to investigate crimes against women, and ensuring prompt and impartial justice for survivors.

2. Raising Legal Awareness: A literacy program should be implemented to sensitize the women of Manipur about their rights and the legal remedies available to them in case of violence or discrimination. These programs may include education, community outreach, and legal aid clinics.

3. Improving access to justice: Steps should be taken to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the justice system in Manipur, especially for marginalized women. This may include establishing legal centres in rural areas, providing free or low-cost legal aid, and ensuring that interpreters are available for women who do not speak English.

4. Strengthening Support Services: This may include increasing the number of shelters, providing comprehensive psychological support, and ensuring survivors have access to medical, counselling and rehabilitation services.

5. Promoting gender sensitization: Gender sensi-tization awareness programs should be implemented for law enforcement officers, justice officials, healthcare professionals and other stakeholders involved in the fight against crimes against women.

Bottomline: Only through sustained efforts and collective action, can we ensure that Manipur’s women exercise their rights, access justice, and live free from violence and discrimination.


* Sagolsem Jasobanta (Advocate) wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on 22 April 2024

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Imphal valley districts flooded #1 : Gallery
  • June Calendar for Year 2024 : Tools
  • Violence in Manipur 2023-2024 : Timeline
  • Flood: Control Rooms & Helpline numbers
  • Economic impact of ongoing conflict
  • Army Recruitment Rally for Manipur
  • Cut deficit, boom likely
  • Are Gods angry ? Wake up call for Manipur
  • Beating of the Retreat #2 : Gallery
  • We did Overcome: Mayhem of Month of May
  • Training on mushroom at Potshagbam
  • Famous female Mathematicians in India
  • Disinformation campaign thengnare
  • Human trafficking puts humanity to shame
  • Sky opens up in all its fury
  • Licypriya meets Italy PM & Pope Francis
  • HSLC (Class X) 2024 : Full Result
  • HSLC 2024 : Important Info & Grading System
  • HSLC 2024 : Pass % : Private Schools
  • HSLC 2024 : Pass % : Aided Schools
  • HSLC 2024 : Pass % : Govt Schools
  • HSLC 2024 : Statistical Abstract
  • HSLC 2024 : Comparative Statement
  • Combined Defence Services Exam 2024
  • Good show in Class X exams
  • Downplaying the crisis
  • Birth Centenary of Jananeta Irabat, 1996 : #3
  • Reviving Lamphelpat : Conservation : Gallery
  • Commemorate Naga Plesbicite Day 1951 #1
  • "ST status for Meetei" at Hojai
  • The Power of Poppy - 32 :: Poem
  • Insights from CUET-UG Counselling
  • International Day for Biological Diversity
  • Unseen force at work: Time to unravel it
  • Sheikh Hasina's revelation
  • The Vanishing Meitei Tribe
  • Building career in defence & strategic study
  • Why example of model code of conduct ?
  • Ownership of responsibility
  • Will pressure mount on key players in NE
  • How to save your foot after an accident
  • Children Camp @JNMDA Imphal #3 : Gallery
  • Education Fair @Imphal #1 : Gallery
  • Project Associate @ CSE, Assam Univ
  • Understanding schizophrenia
  • Advancement in Multi Objective Optimization
  • When will women in voter list increase ?
  • Making 2 plus 2 is equal to 5
  • Changing face of drug menace
  • Scientist of Manipur: Jayanta Manoharmayum
  • 25 yrs since Atal Vajpayee visit to RIMS
  • 4 Lakhs donated to support (L) Maipak Family
  • Clarification: Guwahati Meet on Humanitarian
  • Start UPSC prep after 12th for success
  • Tips to avoid melting makeup in summer
  • Giving a big solid push to ST demand
  • Time to come clean
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba: 1 occasion, 2 narratives #3
  • Khongjom Day @Khebaching #2 : Gallery
  • A year of hostilities
  • Licypriya Kangujam to travel to Italy
  • Declining moral standards in public life
  • Healthy democracy with independent media
  • Why endangered species matter to us
  • Significant Guwahati meeting : 1st visible step
  • The Pallel story
  • Aftermath of ferocious hailstorm #2 : Gallery
  • Ukhrul: Climate change grip on water supply
  • Commemoration of World Eld's Deer Day
  • Indo-Naga Talks (From 2012) :: Timeline
  • "ST status for Meetei" at Hiyanglam
  • Dance of democracy, a miracle in making !
  • Learn to look 10/20/30 years hence
  • The zero FIR, zero lesson
  • 'Ishanou' Selection @ Cannes #1: Gallery
  • MOU signed: MTI-HUB & KIIT-TBI & SAbF
  • Lament of the Mourning Choir :: Poem
  • "ST status for Meetei" at Wabagai
  • RSS-BJP fracas
  • Trials for Canoe Slalom World Cup
  • Poser from a villager says it all Kamjong
  • The cover-up effort
  • Birth Centenary of Jananeta Irabat, 1996 : #2
  • Manipuri women in the arena of politics
  • "ST status for Meetei" at Assam
  • Aimee Baruah at red carpet of Cannes
  • National Defence Academy Exam 2024
  • How digital media changed communications
  • Manipur stands scandalised
  • All eyes on UP battle
  • Descent of Radha-Krishna #32: Download
  • Riots to a shrine- Ram Mandir of Ayodhya
  • Handle with care. F.R.I.E.N.D.S inside!
  • The Power of Poppy - 31 :: Poem
  • Celebrate the journey !
  • Career counselling : A life guidance tool
  • Scientist of Manipur: Amom Ruhikanta
  • Conspiracy, thy name is Kuki !
  • "ST status for Meetei" at Thounaojam
  • Ket Meth New Album "Ghost Stories"
  • World Hypertension Day
  • International Day of Families
  • Let the rule of law prevail
  • When donation becomes obligatory demand
  • Tourism of Manipur through Gastronomy
  • Beyond Eternity :: Poem
  • Patriarch subjugation on women
  • Celebrate Manipuri Cinema shine at Cannes
  • Training on cultivation of various mushroom
  • Transformative impact of Ayurveda & Yoga
  • War for over a year : Delhi is answerable
  • The logic behind illogical chargesheet
  • Preserving Thang-Ta :: Rare Photos
  • Regarding Human Rights Situation in Manipur
  • World Hypertension Day 2024
  • Article 355 of Constitution of India #3
  • Disinformation campaign touba thengnarey
  • Deeply mourn the demise of Oja Biren Lamba
  • Water Mimosa for sustainable development
  • Publicity drives of educational institutions
  • ED's revolutionary move!!!
  • Malemnganbi Laishram : Science Topper
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2024 #2: Gallery
  • Thokchom Sheityajit : Arts Topper
  • Aiena Naorem : Commerce Topper
  • AISSE 2024 Exam Result- RKM Imphal
  • Gold, new world currency !
  • Milk for hair and skin
  • Of illegal immigrants & the larger picture
  • The missive from Kamjong
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024 : Science Topper
  • HSE 2024 : Subject Pass Percentage
  • HSE 2024 : District Pass Percentage
  • HSE 2024 : Candidates with Highest Marks
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024: Science Full Result
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024: Arts Full Result
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024: Commerce Result
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024 : Arts Topper
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024 : Commerce Topper
  • Sezo Ringa- Debut Music Video "Revival"
  • Journalism - A thrilling career #2
  • After Class XII where? The eternal question
  • Entry of Arvind Kejriwal
  • Birth Centenary of Jananeta Irabat, 1996 : #1
  • Our nurses, our future: Power of care
  • Screenplay Writing course concluded
  • Workshop on IP & Patent Filing held
  • Let there be less Politics in Sports
  • Sam Pitroda is absolutely white
  • Motherhood: Soul & spirit of family & society
  • Time has come to criminalise ecocide
  • Meiteis, a disappearing community in Manipur
  • World Bamboo Congress @Taiwan : Gallery
  • Ima Manipur should smile more
  • 2nd National Lok Adalat at High Court
  • The Power of Poppy - 30 :: Poem
  • Army impact on Tamphasana Wushu odyssey
  • Aftermath of ferocious hailstorm #1 : Gallery
  • "Dynamic library service" :: Book Rvw
  • Radio E-pao: Manipuri Film OST (130+ song)
  • Artificial Intelligence & Environment
  • Article 355 of Constitution of India #2
  • Integrated Farming Systems for farmers #4
  • Delhi's stand after 1 year of clash
  • A new type of terrorism
  • Scientist of Manipur: Waikhom Vishwanath
  • SRF, JRF, RA @ Assam University
  • The Bleeding River :: Poem
  • Executive Meeting of WMC Assam Unit
  • Journalism - A thrilling career #1
  • Raising the call to replace Minister
  • A storm in a political teacup
  • Cheirao-chingkaba @ Chinga : Gallery
  • Happy Mother's Day
  • Empowering hill communities via U-Mangra
  • African Swine Fever
  • Free Training on Mushroom at Nagamapal
  • Harshit Dhingaun recieves award from Korea
  • Look for ways to restore normalcy
  • The danger of last kicks of a dying horse
  • Preserving Thang-Ta traditions
  • Resolving ST issue by democratic process
  • Top 5 songs to awaken your inner patriot
  • Project Assistant @ Manipur University
  • Leishemba Sanajaoba conferred Doctorate
  • Double tragedy: No time for red-tapism
  • A Youtuber called Dhruv
  • Nupi Landa Thaunaphabishing : Full Book
  • 174th Anniv Maharaj Narasingh #2 : Gallery
  • Challenges in Healthcare in rural Manipur
  • A salute to leadership quality of PM Modi
  • Career in press for freedom of expression
  • One day after devastating hailstorm
  • Understanding the suffering of others
  • A ferocious hailstorm @Imphal : Gallery
  • Article 355 of Constitution of India #1
  • Integrated Farming Systems for farmers #3
  • Election gossip & rumours
  • 'Melodic Minds' Tour in Guwahati
  • Leaving a trail of destruction
  • Political see-saw
  • A brand-new Scientific discovery
  • In memoriam of the happiness we shared !
  • Crop/animal for higher productivity in NE #5
  • "ST status for Meetei" at Sekmaijin
  • Oh Motherland :: Poem
  • Animal life should be treated with dignity
  • '365 Days of Chin-Kuki Aggression' : Gallery
  • Renaissance of politics in our youth
  • TB & tobacco co-epidemics in Indonesia
  • The Power of Poppy - 29 :: Poem
  • Advanced Charging Infrastructure in NE
  • Lessons learnt in the last one year
  • True colour of politics
  • World Heritage Day @ MU : Gallery
  • "ST status for Meetei" at Kakwa
  • Joint Combing Operations in Jiribam
  • Reboot PSUs for jobs: Task for new Govt
  • Ayurvedic remedies to keep healthy eyes
  • May 3, 2023 to May 3, 2024
  • One year of crisis, and what next ?
  • Scientist of Manipur: Nongmaithem Rajmuhon
  • Whither social justice & work for women?
  • Taiwan to enhancing economic ties with India
  • Integrated Farming Systems for farmers #2
  • Athoubasingi Numit #2 : Gallery
  • Privilege trap of While Male Meitei
  • Crop/animal for higher productivity in NE #4
  • 'Chizami Model' working in Gujarat ?
  • Racing towards the one year mark
  • On misattribution & falsifying history
  • Nupi Landa Thaunaphabishing #15 :: Book
  • National Science Teacher workshop
  • Scientists of Manipur : Laishram Ladu Singh
  • Lok Sabha polls in Manipur #2 : Gallery
  • Id-ul-Fitr @Hatta #2 : Gallery
  • Workshop @ NSU Manipur : Gallery
  • Children Camp @JNMDA Imphal #2 : Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #2 : Gallery
  • Scientists of Manipur : Laitonjam Warjeet
  • Community seed bank @Umathel : Gallery
  • Athoubasingi Numit #1 : Gallery
  • Scientists of Manipur : Ngangkham Nimai
  • Kenedy Khuman (Singer) : Gallery
  • GHOST of PEACE :: Download Booklet
  • List of Kings of Manipur: 33 - 1984 AD