TODAY -

The history of Anals in the context of ethnic violence

L Wolring *

A traditional Anal Dance presented by 'The Anal Lenruwl Taangpi, Imphal' on Oct 19, 2007 at Kuki inn, Imphal
A traditional Anal Dance presented by "The Anal Lenruwl Taangpi, Imphal" on Oct 19, 2007 at Kuki inn, Imphal
Pix : Jinendra Maibam



The Anals were first settlers of Chandel District since BC. The historical ethnic violence prevailing today in Manipur state is the same condition as it was done in 18th century. The Kukis came to Manipur in A.D. 1840 and reached Khangbarol village in Chandel District in 1854 AD and they have killed many innocent Anals in their attempt to occupy the Anal land as they repeatedly do that at the present situation. The Churachandpur District is also the original land of "Hmar" or "Pakan". Most of the Shingphos of Manipur have surrendered to the Kukis. Their names are ending with "Te" like – Paite, Ralte, Zoute, Simte, Sukte, Gangte, Mate and Baite etc.

THE "ANAL" IS NEITHER OLD KUKI NOR NEW KUKI

Sir Alexander Mackenzie says in his book (The North East Frontier of India), pp. 83 & 146 that the Old Kukis were reported in 1853 to be four clans, viz., Khelema, Ranthai, Bete and Lamkron. The New Kukis (of 1851-52) were of three tribes – Changsen, Thado and Shingshon. They inhabited "Kuki Country", a portion of the Barail mountains which is one side of the head-waters of the Lanting and Dhansiri take their rise and go off towards the west and north. And on the otherside, Chuline, Makho and Jhiri Rivers flow towards east and south, a tangled mass of forest-clad hills comparatively low ridges thrown off from the present range upon which the broad conical peaks of Angoolo and Laishang rise up nearly 7,000 feet above the sea level. It helped us to understand that the Anal is neither reported to be Old Kuki or New Kuki even in Kuki country.

In Manipur, a god of waters (Sea King) appeared in the form of Python-man called Wangparel who married an Anal-woman WL. Shanghra of Anal Khullen village in A.D. 15 and to whom a male child was born and he became the first King of Manipur (A.D. 33-154). The name of the said King was called "Nongda Lairen Pakhangba". The word "Lairen" or "Python" is simply interpreted in Sanskrit language as "Nag or Naga or Snake". The Anals of Manipur are not real snakes but the Snake King ruled over them and converted all the Anals to the Naga tribe. This historical event proves that the Anal became Naga more than one thousand years ahead before the arrival of the Kukis in Manipur.

According to Shri L. Joychandra Singh in his book "The Lost Kingdom (Royal chronicles of Manipur) page 5 para I stated that in the year Sak 1479 (English Era 1557-58), King Chalamba conquered the Naga villages of Anan, Moirang, Thingnong and Engthi but died in 1484. His son King Mungyanba also conquered the Naga villages of Chakpa, Cherang, Sakang, Anan, Kabui, Shama, Thingnong, Engthi, Torang, Lanhang, hooitok and Tongal in Sak 1495 (English Era 1562-63). In the year Sak 1600 (English Era 1678-79) during the month of August, King Paikhomba attacked and conquered the villages of Anan and captured 30 men as captives. It was during the reign of Raja Charairongba arrested 23 Anan Nagas and convicted then in the year Sak 1626 (English Era 1704-05). These historical records of Ancient Manipur Kings proved that the Anals were original Nagas for thousand years before Kuki came to Manipur in 1840.

Some people who have read the book "The Lushai Kuki Clans" might have believed J. Shakespear's note, "Anal is one of the Old Kuki Clans of Manipur" is not an innate occurrence. But it is an attempt to absorb the Anal tribe into Kuki Group. The meaning of "old" proves that the Anal is an old tribe of the first settler. In the book "Report on the Eastern Frontier of British India" – by Capt. R. Beileau Antiquarian studies in Assam, Gauhati 1966, page no. 58, Para no. 60th – stating that "Anal is one of the tribes belonging to Nagas". And also G.A. Grierson states in his book "Linguistic Survey than the other dialects of the Kuki-Chin group.

Moreover, Capt. Rajendra Singh in his book "The Anals of Manipur" pp. 18 & 19 states that in the wake of Naga insurgency, the underground movement gathered momentum in the Anal area in 1961. The so-called 10th battalion of the Naga Army operated in the present Chandel District while the 11th Battalion was in Tangkhul area and the 12th Battalion was in Mao area. In this present situation, Chandel District is an area of NSCN activities as the area is occupied by the Anals and other Nagas from time immemorial.

R. Brown observed in his book "Statistical Account of the Native State of Manipur and Hill territory under its rules, 1893' that the stone (Patha) as landmark erected by the Anals can be found as standing even today on the hill sides in Burma, the Lushai hills, and South East Manipur. For example, Thanlon in Churachandpur District is the word derived from the Anal dialect. The word "Than" means grave and "Lon" means hill so the meaning of Thanlon" means "Grave-Hill". This proved that the Anals were the first settlers in Thanlon Sub-Division of Churachandpu District. And also, the Zote village situated just opposite of Aizawl in Mizoram is the old village of Anals as it has an evidence proof supported by one of Anal Folk songs which is still sung by Anal cultural dance group. It reminds us that the Anals were one of the major offshoots of the Indo-Mongoloid people. And their historic events have contributed greatly for day-to-day historic events of the Manipur State.

NON-RELATIONSHIP BY BLOOD

Non-relationship by blood means – not having co-existence between the Anal-Naga and the Kuki-Chin through all the bygone times. Referring to the history of Manipur at a glance, King Kiyamba was noted for military and civil administrative achievements. He made military expedition to the east in order to make eastern boundary of Manipur with annexation of Kabow valley to Manipur bounded by the Chindwin River. And also, he sent military arbitrators to the South-Front line of Manipur where inter-tribal feuds intensified the aggressive role of the Awa (Burmese) King.

At that time, there were seven features of tribal folks in the South-Front line of Manipur namely Pawite (Pwois), Sukte (Chhawhte), Ralte, Kelki, Lungting, Adang and Pholkong were recognized as "Anan Hao" and "Chaba thakpa nanba Anan Hao". The Kuki proverb says "Mikhou kaphatle mi anette kanet, yuongkhou kaphatle yuong anette kanet". It is meant that the Kuki community is not serious minded of dirt and cleanliness about eating and drinking in the olden days. These two groups were fighting each other through all the bygone times. Today, their names are changed to the Kuki-Chin and the Anal-Naga.

The Anal Naga people are first settlers of Chandel District and their brethren namely Maring, Lamkang, Moyon, Monshang, Tarao and Chothe tribes are also first settlers of Chandel District.

May I take this opportunity to appeal to my brethren Nagas and Kukis in Chandel and Manipur to remember that the world today is troubled. People everywhere are seeking the solution to their problems and longing to know what is the real meaning of life and the destiny to which it leads. The world ever remains as a big house of sickness, suffering and death. Fear, hatred and distrust within the hearts of every mankind. Earthquakes, famines and disaster multiply on every hand. Despair grips the hearts of millions. Leaders of men labour in confusion, disorder and bewilderment. Despite of all the religious, social and governmental organizations for the welfare and security of people in this present world, we still have sin, sorrow, poverty and woe. We could not buy a friend, character, peace of mind, a clear conscience, or a sense of eternity.

In a hundred ways man dies by the machines and weapons of his own invention. Thousand perish by the accidents. The time has come when a deceived person believes that he is right when he is wrong, or thinks a thing is wrong when it is right. Satan is the master of such trickery and deception. It seems there is no security everywhere in this present world. The whole world lieth in wickedness – 1 John 5:19. Jesus Christ was betrayed by one of His own disciples. The deposed Iraqi president Saddam Hussain was betrayed by none other than one of the members of his families and was captured without firing even a single shot. It is because of love of big prize money for the head of Saddam. Missionary Paul said, the love of money is the root of all evils but according to the new gospel, love of money is the very root of all success.

God said, "Nevertheless I have this against you that you have left your first love. Remember therefore from where you have fallen; repent and do the first works, or else I will come to you quickly and remove your lampstand from its place unless you repent." – Rev. 2:4-5. Jesus said, "Thou shall love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." Matthew 22:37-39.

As we professed as Christians or followers of Christ and became as a neighbor, let us adjust ourselves as neighbours and respect each other's original history, rights of land and peaceful way of life. Let the love of God be within our heart and house. Joshua said, "Choose you this day whom ye will serve… but as for me and my house, we will serve Lord." – Joshua 24:15. Let us all join Joshua to serve the Lord and live peacefully.

Lastly, in the conflict between good and evil, between love and sin, between Christ and Satan, we are all involved. The present feelings of our human heart for just livelihood are not a safe guide in taking decision to determine our destiny. In my conclusion, though our present life is full of pride, arrogance and rebellion, God is still lovingly, tenderly and patiently speaking to us:

Look unto me and be ye saved – Isaiah 45:22

Come unto me, I will give you rest – Matthew 11:28

I am extending my special gratitude to Dr. Mono T Inbung of Chakpikarong Khupi, Chandel District, Manipur for guiding me, Mr. S. Wurngam, Former CEO, Chandel District Council for providing valuable book in preparation of this brief history.


* L Wolring wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was posted on December 30, 2012 and updated on Dec 31 with a date correction for 1854 AD.

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • What is Khongjom Battle to Manipuris
  • State Level Boxing C'ship 2017 :: Gallery
  • Lhaijaneng, Lumsing, Phalneilhing :: eMing
  • Destination beyond Manipur..after Class XII
  • International Yoga Day #2 :: Gallery
  • Agenda of the BJP led Government #1
  • The Killing Fields :: News Timeline
  • Know your test: Vitamin B12
  • Nafisha Ali felicitated
  • Japan keen for development of NE
  • Ban on cow slaughter not acceptable..
  • Study shows greenery loss
  • Manipur Governor praises Maj Gogoi
  • Ngayaising Jagoi : Conquered Mt Everest
  • Shirui Lily Festival, Ukhrul #3 :: Gallery
  • Working Of Panchayats In Manipur #1
  • Media & Contemporary Manipuri Society #3
  • Campus Talk 2.0: Interaction Prog at MU
  • International Biodiversity Day
  • Sendra Park & Resort #1 :: 360 ° View
  • Sibilong & Phaitol rejects Oil Exploration
  • 1st JCRE Alumni Meet
  • Vacancies post in NEC, Shillong
  • Lecturer required at Ajmal College, Hojai
  • Indo-Naga Talks 2017 :: News Timeline
  • The complaint caveat
  • Kanchan Soibam :: eRang Photos
  • Handloom @Temporary Market #2:: Gallery
  • Ahing Ama : Book (short story) review
  • Seminar on 'Life of Gangmumei Kamei' #3
  • Oil happy in Manipur
  • Menstrual Hygiene Day, 2017 at Imphal
  • NE students hail Higher Education initiative
  • Forced Displacement of Chin Civilians
  • National Robotic- 'Escalade 6.0' @IIT Ghy
  • Winners take it all : BJP on a roll
  • Opportunity towards progress
  • NEROCA, 2nd Div League winner:: Gallery
  • Thounaojam Loiyangamba :: Gallery
  • Nachom Arts Residency #1 :: Gallery
  • Bombing of a bridge in 1944 during WWII
  • Road side hawker culture in Khwairamband
  • Maharaja Bodhachandra Samadhi :: 360 °
  • Jadhav case: Return to India will need more
  • Admission Counselling in NE, Delhi
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Letting professionals run DIPR
  • Articulating freedom of speech
  • HSE 2017 : Toppers in Science :: Gallery
  • CCpur victims laid to rest :: Gallery
  • Class XII result announced :: Gallery
  • 2nd Startup Weekend Imphal
  • Interdependence is key to #endTB
  • Urban flood effective mgmt strategies #2
  • Public Meet resolves No Oil Exploration
  • UG admission info for Delhi University 2017
  • College Principals' Conference at NEHU
  • Mortal remains of CCpur victims laid to rest
  • Redefining Manipuri Hindu
  • Last rites of CCpur bodies performed
  • Private tuition : Financial burden on parents
  • Nungbi Chaphu - Ukhrul Pottery :: Gallery
  • International Yoga Day #1 :: Gallery
  • New Government, New Hope #2
  • Auditorium of High Court of Manipur :: 360 °
  • Book publishing as a career option
  • Simplifying the pursuit of happiness
  • Shirui festival: Let us not go with words..
  • Count pigeons around you
  • Hill dists : Lagging in Science stream
  • The lesser truth of National media
  • HSE 2017 Result :: Science Toppers
  • HSE 2017 Result :: Arts Toppers
  • HSE 2017 Result :: Commerce Toppers
  • HSE 2017 Result :: Science Stream
  • HSE 2017 Result :: Arts Stream
  • HSE 2017 Result :: Commerce Stream
  • Barak Spring Festival @Senapati :: Gallery
  • Incarnations of Goddess Nongthang Leima
  • Ebudhou Thanjing Laishang #1 :: 360 °
  • Media & Contemporary Manipuri Society #2
  • Cleaning up the air we breathe
  • 'Maj Rati Keteki', an author's insight
  • SC notices in Biren son case
  • Army act extended by six months
  • Timely acted, but need to rethink...
  • Lamkang Cultural Day @Chandel :: Gallery
  • Ambassador Of Japan with CM :: Gallery
  • JNIMS Ortho scripts history
  • Indigenous people are ST, so are Meeteis
  • Grooming security experts in admin service
  • Parents are supposed to be cheer leaders ..
  • Applauds CM for Building Peace & Harmony
  • 2 trucks carrying logs seized
  • Japan to invite 25 people from Manipur
  • Bomb blasts rock border town in Manipur
  • Shirui Lily Festival, Ukhrul #2 :: Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • 73rd anniv of Battle of Imphal :: Gallery
  • Nachom Arts : Encouraging Artists
  • Manipur: In the waiting room of justice
  • Cheiraoba Ching Kaba :: 360 ° View
  • Of storms, flying saucers & lazy thoughts
  • Anti-Terrorism day observed
  • Ex-Servicemen Meet organised
  • Managing natural resources
  • Ksh Bhaktakumar- Mr India 2017:: Gallery
  • Tanglei Music Festival :: Gallery
  • Effort To Bridge The Hills And Valley
  • Colloquium: Japanese Culture & Nationalism
  • Meet rejects oil exploration at Khaidem
  • Training on Service Marketing in Healthcare
  • Illegal migrant detection with 1951 cut-off
  • Ghost of 2010 continues to haunt
  • Brahmacharimayum Roji - Actress :: eRang
  • Handloom @Temporary Market #1:: Gallery
  • New Government, New Hope #1
  • Nightmares of event management
  • Big data for big impact
  • Free Counselling & Awareness Program
  • One belt one road
  • Jobs: Counseller for Family Court, Ukhrul
  • Sadar Hills Demand 2011-2017 : Timeline
  • Total shutdown against blast in Moreh
  • Tribals reject MoU signed- govt, JACAATB
  • Naga Hoho appeals NIA over arrests
  • First visible step to check corruption
  • International Dance Day :: Gallery
  • Gudui Ngai @Majorkhul #2 :: Gallery
  • Manipur Children Club:: 360 ° View
  • Take smart choice before admissions
  • Love one another ... for living together
  • Shirui Lily Fest off to a grand start
  • On Shirui festival
  • Shirui Lily Fest @Shirui, Ukhrul #1 :: Gallery
  • Civil Service Tennis Tournament :: Gallery
  • Barak(Spring) Festival at Senapati
  • When will India cashless island go cashless
  • The winsomeness of human mind
  • Jobs at NIELIT centers
  • Aadhar Registration & Distribution Program
  • Work starts on Trilateral Highway in Myanmar
  • AI plans NE expansion, to inject more flights
  • People's Day Bridging the gap
  • Reality bite - something seems fishy
  • Meeyamgi Numit hosted by CM :: Gallery
  • Andro AMMA FC : Winner of Doon Cup 2017
  • How great is my mother's love for me
  • Boat House, Kangla :: 360 ° View
  • Pinch of love :: Poem
  • Fingerprint & Iris code for Aadhaar
  • Sharmila solidarity with Africans
  • Trust deficit in Framework Agreement
  • Equality in place of majoritarianism
  • A hope for better Manipur
  • Kangleipak Kang Trophy #3:: Gallery
  • Featured Photo for 2017 #2 :: Gallery
  • Gudui Ngai : Festival of Zeliangrong
  • Fishery as an agenda for Barak Festival
  • Supermom :: Poem
  • 2nd Startup Weekend Imphal
  • May Day #2 :: Essay
  • For inclusion of Meitei in ST category
  • Hands that rock the cradle rule the world
  • Film Personalities #1 :: eRang Classic
  • Handicrafts of the Zeliangrong #2
  • High Court of Manipur :: 360 ° View
  • From head-hunters into money-hunters
  • Importance of dialectic in Philosophy
  • Binalakshmi Nepram threatened by Police
  • Cleanliness drive conducted at CCpur
  • Gudui Ngai @Majorkhul #1 :: Gallery
  • Bringing TB out of the shadows
  • Women are the salt of the earth
  • Superstition and its side-effects
  • Temples of learning
  • Guidelines of play schools
  • Bucket of cold water after a hot shower
  • Breaking the barrier
  • Lai Lamthokpa @Yaiskul #2 :: Gallery
  • MIMS (MU) - ManFete #4 :: Gallery
  • Impact of October Revolution Manipur #2
  • Bir Tikendrajit Park :: 360 °
  • Nurses are heart beat of healthcare
  • Go to the hill districts too
  • Beginning of a new era; but ...
  • Seminar on 'Life of Gangmumei Kamei' #1
  • OORJA football Closing ceremony :: Gallery
  • May 10, 1942: first bomb hit Imphal in WW2
  • Manipur killings: Amicus Curiae on Army...
  • A white paper on good governance
  • Butterfly a living parable of resurrection
  • Global Manipuri Mega Photo Contest
  • Inquiry on "School Van accident"
  • Inking an MoU with CCpur JAC
  • Calls for human security
  • Laishram Lalitabi - Actress :: eRang
  • Manipur & Nagaland CMs :: Gallery
  • Cheirao Ching Kaba #1 :: 360 ° Photo
  • MLA - defection politics in Manipur
  • Japan interest to develop Education in NE
  • CM floral tribute to Martyred Jawans
  • More than a 'courtesy call'
  • Development & security matters
  • Thongjao potters adapt to modern reqt
  • Prize Distribution- MU Sports :: Gallery
  • Handicrafts of the Zeliangrong #1
  • Imphal Intl Airport : How International?
  • The mystery of nine :: Poem
  • RIST popular talk 29 - Molecular Electronics
  • 122nd rank in the list of cleanliness
  • Consumers' rights
  • Sagol Kangjei Exhibition :: Gallery
  • Musuem, Kangla :: 360 ° photo
  • Landscape of Manipur #6: Wallpaper
  • Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon #1 :: Gallery
  • Arbind Soibam - Emerging Singer :: eRang
  • Traditional Thabal @Pourabi :: Gallery
  • Arambai show #2:: Gallery
  • Shakuhachi meets Pena, Manipur & Japan
  • Laishram Birendrakumar recieve Padmashri
  • 'Nura Pakhang'(Video) @Portugal:: Gallery
  • Mr India 2017- Ksh Bhaktakumar :: Gallery
  • Purul, Senapati :: 360 View Panorama
  • Manipur Sangai Festival 2016 #4 : Ooba
  • Nungshiba Khongel @Sylhet :: Gallery
  • Maphou Dam :: 360 View Panorama
  • SPONSORED ADS