TODAY -

Pre-merger political party struggle (Merger Series - IV)

Dr Th Suresh Singh *



It all started with the formation of Nikhil Hindu Manipuri Mahasabha (NHMM) in 1934 among the Meiteis. It is the 1st seed of political party in the state with Hijam Irabot as the Pioneer.

The 1st session was held at Rasmandal of the present palace on 30/05/1934 with Churachand Maharaj as President with over 300 delegates from Cachar, Tripura, Dacca and Burma attending it. Its objective was to bring unity and overall welfare of Manipuris settled in different parts of the world. Though the 2nd session was held at Sichar and the 3rd one at Mandalay with Irabot as president, the 4th session, known famously as 'Chinga Session" held on 29-30/12/1938 was unique in that it was the 1st unpublished political party in the state.

The word Hindu was dropped and only known as NMM. It took far reaching resolutions like removal of untouchables, restoration of self-rules etc.

All these were anti-king, but popular demands. The king had earlier distanced himself from the Mahasabha. The English version of the resolution was forwarded to Mr. Mac Donald, President of State Darbar, by its Secretary Chingakham Pishak Singh on 11/02/1939. The Darbar rejected the same, branded it as a political party and banned all its activities.

The Mahasabha was split on the question of support to Nupi Lal on 11/10/1939. Irabot led faction formed the Praja Sa melon and supported the 1st Nupi Lal and he was jailed. Tompok faction ultimately became part of Indian National Congress.

In the hills- Vaiphei National Organisation and Hmar Association was formed in 1944 and 1945 respectively.

The pertinent question here is that Churachand was unable to bring unity among various factions. Had he continued as President of NMM and shown a little flexibility, he could have brought unity among the various factions. Instead, he jailed the popular leader Irabot.

The king was not able to grape popular public demand as witnessed by the 1st and 2nd Nupi Lal of 1904 and 1939 respectively. He was never popular like his great grandpa Nara Singh. He was satisfied with his throne and did little for general public. Had he shown a little political maturity, the legacy would have continued during Bodh Chandra's reign. Manipur's misfortune continues.

With the enthrone of Bodh Chandra, the political struggle continued. Return of Irabot in early part of 1945 mad the struggle more intensified. With end of World War 11 on 2nd September 1945 with Japanese surrender, the king should have known popular demands; but alas, that ought not to be!

It is also the time where intense political struggle continued throughout India for its independence. The shadow for a popular rule definitely lingers on Manipur also.

Other events worth mentioning are

i) 05/04/1946 meeting of Manipur Krisik Sabha and Manipur Praja Sangha at Wangkhei took strong objection against Coupland Plan of "Crown Colony" i.e. formation of an independent N-E Frontier Province including neibouring areas of Burma and Indian National Congress Plan of "Poorvanchal Pradesh" combining Cachar, Manipur and Tripura

ii) May Nambol meeting of Krisik Sabha elected Irabot as President and demanded restoration of popular rule

iii) on 21/08/1 046, Praja Mandal and Praja Samelan merged with Irabot as President and R.K. Bhuvansana as General Secretary. Its 1st meeting demanded restoration of responsible form of government

iv) 4th October 1946 Aryan Theatre Meeting called by pro-Mahasabha students to form a united party, with Bhubansana presiding, showed disunity when Irabot's name was proposed as a representative. Irabot supporters walked out. Then the remaining members formed Manipur State Congress with Bhubansana as President and Khoimusana as Secretary.

Thus at every critical juncture, Manipur's disunity and division were witnessed. By this time, the political permutations and combinations are crystallised into 3 distinct groups :-
i) The Praja Santi Party which is fiercely pro-Royal, but anti- Congress and anti-merger
ii) the Manipur State Congress (becoming a part of Indian National Congress) which favours merger to free India and
iii) Irabot and co. led remaining party which is deadly anti-Congress, anti-royal, anti-merger but for an independent state.

In the hills- Vaiphei National organisation and Hmar Association was formed in 1944 and 1945 respectively. Other hot political steam found in the hills in 1947 were : formation of Manipur Zeliangrong Union, Zeliangrong council, the Kuki National Army (KNA), agitation by Mizo Union for a union of Kuki areas with Lusai Hills etc.

Another important one was the coming of Daiho's Mao Naga Party under the influence of Phizo's Naga National Party (limited to a few in the beginning).

At this critical juncture, Irabot tried to form a United Front to fight the election with others viz, Shimray of Tangkhulong, Lunneh of KNA, Kakhangai of Kabui Association and some other valley organisations. But unfortunately it did not materialised. Had it materialised, the political landscape might have turned the other way round.

This is Unfortunate for us, unfortunate for Manipur. The year 1948 saw establishment of state units of various national parties e.g. the Socialist Party( it was formed inside the Manipur State Congress in 1946), the Communist Party (Irabot was still underground). The Manipur State Congress was recognised as a branch of Assam Congress Committee by the Indian National Congress in that year.

All these points to the inability of Maharaja Bodh Chandra to bring popular demands to a common platform and thereby bring the much needed political consensus. He was thinking only for his Gaddi and nothing else.

Not only he, his advisor and Darbar members are also to be blamed, as stated in preceding series, for their inability to advice him properly. These gentlemen had to bear a slide of the blame; that is for sure.


* Dr Th Suresh Singh wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writer is Ex-Director, Health & WHO Fellow
This article was posted on November 06, 2017.


* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • DESAM Protest- remove MU VC : Gallery
  • Konung Kang Chingba #2 : Gallery
  • Unbiased Retake Manipur University Issues
  • BoSEM Imbroglio: Educational smuggling
  • Jobs available in NIELIT centers
  • Commanding Officer-i-c must be punished
  • Public official's escorts assault lawyer
  • Is Govt underestimating MU Community
  • MU impasses : Getting uglier
  • Art Exhibit @Imphal Art College #1 : Gallery
  • HSLC students @ Chalwa, KPI : Gallery
  • Arambam Modhu Kalabhusan-Lairik Haiba
  • Interferences in private school affairs
  • Diagnostic Testing Phases -complexities
  • The Kite Runner :: Poem
  • Call for joint mass protest at New Delhi
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Manipur CM warns of extreme steps
  • Naga civil society playing key role
  • This will be an Acid test for N. Biren
  • Best option : A graceful exit ..for Pandey
  • Kang Khichri chaba @Kwakeithel : Gallery
  • Plastic Surgery Day @RIMS : Gallery
  • Kang Chingba @Keishampat : Gallery
  • Human rights of women in our society
  • AFSPA Gesture and Better Alternative
  • Leisure :: Poem
  • Restore Life After Burns : Plastic Surgery
  • IM accuses AR of 'cold-blooded murder'
  • Konung Kang Chingba #1 : Gallery
  • Dont waste searching for word/phrases
  • Hill People & Merger of Manipur
  • Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 #5
  • U-Mangra for biofuel for economic devpt
  • Painting competition on environment
  • Condemn Moreh terror attack
  • Climbing Shirui Hills, Ukhrul #3 : Gallery
  • Ichangthoubi, Thotmungchan :: eMing
  • Kang Chingba - Rath Yatra : Book
  • Why the impasse at Manipur University
  • Condolence Message for Tamenglong
  • Maharaj parleys Bizando
  • Opt for fruit/vegetable beauty product
  • DG Assam Rifles meets Governor
  • Recreation - a Serious Business
  • Tuilha Kolt waterfall @Kpi #1 : Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Lamjing Meira Ningsing Numit #2 : Gallery
  • Who Created the Border Pillar Conflict ?
  • EEVFAM amidst Numbness and Noise
  • Special Olympics Unified Cup 2018
  • Path for youth's bright future
  • Addressing core issues
  • Students Vs Centre's man : MU
  • Thangjam Manorama Anniversary: Gallery
  • A reflection on POCSO Act, 2012
  • Fear :: Poem
  • War veterans laboured to clean compound
  • Free Career Counselling Program
  • NEFIS writes to University bodies
  • Sit-in-Protest Against House Search
  • 50th World Population Day celebrated
  • Something worrying
  • Congress : 2 days session too short
  • Jadugi Chei :: Funga Wari
  • Tribal protest for MU normalcy : Gallery
  • Framework Agreement: What is it ?
  • Some cairns from the way: Artist's retake #2
  • Cry of a Dying River # 36 :: Poem
  • Overview on Manipur University imbroglio
  • Tribal Students memo to HRD on MU
  • India-Vietnam Film Show 2018 at Delhi
  • Why the CM is helpless ?
  • No end in sight to MU crisis
  • Indo-Myanmar Pillar 81 @Kwatha #1: Gallery
  • Global Bamboo Congress @Beijing : Gallery
  • Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 #4
  • Kamesh Salam : Speaker at BARC, Beijing
  • Career in Cooperatives
  • Nagaland CM's speech at NEC
  • NPF Rejoinder to JD (U) of July 9
  • The Killing Fields - 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • Unfair Game
  • Expecting documentary proof from villagers
  • Lamjing Meira Ningsing Numit #1 : Gallery
  • Woken Youth Clubs in season of World Cup
  • Converting tourism potential into reality
  • Let me live in your heart :: Poem
  • D-Jent.... Djentleman... Anyone ?
  • Socialism or destruction of humanity ?
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Demand action against KSO activists
  • 3 Manipur girls in BCCI U-19 squad
  • Rights meet on bill outcome
  • Naga integration will be democratic..
  • Ichangi Laidhi #3 :: eRang
  • Modernizing Manipur University Library
  • In the grip of nothingness :: Poem
  • Password protection - I
  • Congenital Heart Defect operated
  • Hill area bandh relaxed temporarily
  • State & central govt must stop conflict
  • Cohesion is sports
  • Explain 'devious purpose'
  • Willong Khullen, Maram #2 : Gallery
  • Manipur merger agreement 1947
  • Wari Jalsa at New Delhi
  • Congress grass menace in North-East
  • M A Thomas National Human Rights Award
  • What does worry do to us ?
  • Is Manipur a part of India ?
  • Rumours of child lifters : Dangerous
  • List of MLA (Jan 2018) #3 : Gallery
  • Forest Rights Act 2006 -context of Manipur
  • Supreme Court Hearing on EEVFAM case
  • Cry of a Dying River - 35 :: Poem
  • Terirama Th. met South Korea's first lady
  • Securing security cameras: invisible eye
  • Rejoinder to Nagaland CM's statement
  • Meitei Mayek - are the scales tipped now
  • Patronising non-locals : Nail the insiders
  • UNC oppose indefinite Manipur bandh
  • Tribal University @ Senapati : Gallery
  • Rally to remove MU VC #2 : Gallery
  • Some cairns from the way: Artist's retake #1
  • Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 #3
  • UN experts on 'fake encounter' killings
  • Nagaland CM Rio statement on July 4
  • Condemns inhuman eviction by Govt
  • Trainees Certificate of RPL at Kamrup
  • Minor reunited with mother after 26 days
  • Non-Operative Closure of "hole in the heart"
  • We are for the people, for the society
  • Over 30 days : Centre sleeps, MU 'burns'
  • Thokchom Brindashabi Devi :: Profile
  • Kshetri-bengoon Eviction Protest : Gallery
  • Successive pay commissions: It's impact
  • Research Support @ R-Square Design
  • leingakki thouwong - state terrorism
  • Rebuttal: Interview of Ranju Singh
  • Different forces pulling Manipur : Lim
  • Pakhangba Cheng Hongba #3 : Gallery
  • Some ideas for prevention of flood
  • Satisfaction :: Poem
  • Supreme Court hearing on EEVFAM - 2 July
  • Dark lips .. causes and care
  • Training on Handloom Weaver at Hojai
  • CME on 'Congenital Heart Diseases'
  • Nagaland CM should make his stand clear
  • 2019 LS polls : BJP on the offensive
  • Great June Uprising @Kekrupat #4 : Gallery
  • Naga American conference in California
  • Life of an army officer's daughter
  • The Winter Blues :: Poem
  • 16th Mega Miss North East
  • NDPP on Naga integration
  • Allegations against VC holds no ground
  • Rally to remove MU VC #1 : Gallery
  • July Calendar for Year 2018 :: Tools
  • A Washed-Out Summer Vacation in MU
  • Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 #2
  • My short interaction with Penna Donna
  • 9th Men Mega Mister North East
  • Memo submitted to Kiren Rijiju
  • India- no interest to protect its boundary
  • Idea of who is a citizen of the land
  • Poumai Purul Hiimai Paoki #3 : Gallery
  • Dr Thingnam Kishan Memorial : Gallery
  • Black sheep in movement for ILPS #3
  • Our Common Crisis: What are We to Do #2
  • Jackichand Singh signs for FC Goa
  • No co-operation to MU VC
  • Nagaland CM contradicting himself : NPF
  • Career Guidance Workshop at Ukhrul
  • The tales of a forgotten University
  • Pulling at idea of Manipur : Lim, ATC
  • Climbing Shirui Hills, Ukhrul #2 : Gallery
  • Moirangthem Arup: 90 Km Marathon, Africa
  • Pitfalls on land acquisition for Mapithel Dam
  • Chinese dominance in 21st century
  • Caring for the elderly
  • IIT-G's Technothlon prelims at UAE
  • Mass Rally from Manipur University
  • Nagaland CM releases book by teenager
  • Why trying to dictate media time & again
  • MU, border pillar, Citizenship Bill
  • Oinam Dilip's Painting Exhibition
  • Intl Day Against Drug Abuse : Gallery
  • The Manipur Merger Agreement 1949
  • A road to Mandalay
  • Keeping up: medical diagnostics tech
  • The mother of all preventive strategies
  • Relief camps for Flood affected families
  • The dark side of Indian democracy
  • From three time CM to Oppn leader
  • Khumang Pokpa Haraoba #1 : Gallery
  • Enduring Theatre of Guerrilla War
  • Intl Day in Support of Victims of Torture
  • Impact of trade & floods on economy
  • Imparting training as profession #2
  • Najmaji's flood fixing formula
  • History of Yoga
  • Intl Day against Drug Abuse
  • Politicising MU issue: by whom ?
  • Effective ban on plastics needed
  • Thaunaphaba Marup :: Funga Wari
  • Naga Nationalism & Naga Integration
  • Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 #1
  • Great June Uprising @Kekrupat #3 : Gallery
  • Mova Cave, Hungpung, Ukhrul #1 : Gallery
  • Tribal Cultural Festival #2 : Gallery
  • General Thangal Eco Park : Gallery
  • Garlic Festival @Ukhrul #4 :: Gallery
  • Dzuko valley #4 :: 360 Panorama View
  • Manglandasu Nang - OST :: e-pao Radio
  • Laitonjam Rajnikanta : Profile
  • Kang Tournament @ Yaiskul : Gallery
  • HSLC 208 Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • Aerial view from Chingmeirong : Gallery
  • Front Page Photo 2018 #2: Gallery
  • Class XII Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • Temples of Manipur : Gallery
  • Recipients of Akademi Awards for 2014
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic
  • SPONSORED ADS