TODAY -

Rumours and bloody September: Two episodes
- Part 1 -

Aheibam Koireng Singh *



Rumours are associated with collective behaviour and are compared to a spark and the people who hear it with either cement or dry grass. It may or may not catch fire. In a tense atmosphere, the frenzied crowd becomes so manipulable that it tends to accept every charge cast as its real or supposed enemies.

Here, I deal with two episodes, one in the year 1993 and the other in 2015 where in both the instances, rumour is purposively used to instigate the crowd sentiment to spark the blood-bath by creating an atmosphere of distrust, hostility, apathy and prejudice.

The first one occurred in 13 September 1993 in the early years of Kuki-Naga clash. Already since the beginning of 1993, as many as 242 Kukis have been killed and over 242 houses belonging to Kukis have also been burned down. The villagers of Joupi Kuki village at Tamei Subdivision of Tamenglong District were already living with acute fear as the United Naga Council (UNC) had served Quit Notice to the Kukis as early as 2nd September 1992.

They received quit notice in advance from the Nagalim Guard (NLG) and Naga Students Volunteer Organisation (NSVO) intimidating them to vacate their land on or before 15 September 1993. Two days before the expiry of the dateline, they left their houses and took shelter in the field. On 13 September 1993 at about 8 a.m., they came under attack while they were in the process of displacement.

The attackers, including women, were both civilians and Naga ethnic armies with sophisticated weapons. In it, 80 persons including a woman were killed. 15 of them, all male, were fatally injured, out of which seven later succumbed to their injuries. Two days before it, Saramjao, a Liangmai Naga village also known as Makui-II, came under attack on 11 September 1993 at about 6 a. m.

An exchange of fire took place between the Kuki ethnic armies and the security personnel guarding the village. And in Tamei, people were inflamed by rumours that from dawn to dusk, Saramjao came under heavy attack from the Kuki ethnic armies and many villagers including women and children were killed and their properties burnt down. Tamei Sub-Division has the highest concentration of the Liangmais population. The miscreants must have spread this very rumour in the Tamei area so that the civilian population by either believing or half-believing the rumour will either collaborate with them or show no disapproval in the genocide.

In addition to it, on the same day there was a pre dawn attack at Gelnel Kuki Village near T. Waichong of Senapati District. The villagers received Quit Notice in advance. As defensive measures, the village elders and youths performed vigils round the clock using single barrel and 'Pumpi' (country made canon). The village came under attack at about 4 am and the exchange of fire continued up to 8 am. Three of the attackers including a female also got killed.

The villagers were compelled to flee as the attackers outclassed them both in terms of numerical strength and superiority of weapons. In the said attack, there were 17 death and seven injured casualties among the villagers. 80 out of hundred houses were completely burned down. Valuable items like money and livestock were taken away. Church and school were also burned down.

As maximum number of death casualties occurred on this day of 13th September 1993, the Kuki communities chose to observe onwards from succeeding years the day as the 'Black Day' in remembrance of those killed, injured and displaced in the Kuki-Naga clash. The apex body of the Kuki, Kuki Inpi Manipur (KIM) had consistently been maintaining that the Kuki people will not accept the outcome of the talks between the Government of India and the NSCN-IM before the issue of the 'killing of 905 innocent Kukis, uprooting of 360 villages and displacement of more than One Lakh Kukis by the NSCN-IM is settled.

In the later part of the Kuki-Naga clash, concerted efforts were made by the Naga cohorts to buy peace with the Non-Thadou Kukis, viz., Hmar, Paite, Vaiphei, Simte and Tedim Chin when civilians belonging to these communities fell prey to the bullets of the Naga ethnic armies. In such cases the Nagas represented by UNC, Manipur successfully arrived at an amicable solution with the respective apex organisations of the ethnic groups concerned to which the victims belonged, by paying adequate compensation to the victim's family.

On the other hand, in case of their conflict with the Thadou-Kukis, the Nagas represented by UNC or otherwise show no such urgency of sorting out their conflict. Later, in the year 1997-1998, Churachandpur (CCPur) District witnesses the Thadou-Paite conflict in which both the warring groups belonged to the same kindred tribe of Chin-Kuki-Mizo/Zomi (CHIKIMZ) community.

In it, the main protagonist was the armed group, Kuki National Front-President (KNF-P) and the Zomi Reuification Organisation ( ZRO) and its armed wing Zomi Revolutionary Army ( ZRA) allegedly trained and armed by the NSCN-IM. As regards the occurrences of the said clash is concerned, there have also been opinions that it occurred partly because the NSCN-IM tried to set their foot in CCPur District in proxy via ZRO/ZRA.

The clash resulted to dethroning of Rishang Keishing from the Chief Ministership of Manipur as his impartiality in dealing with the clashes is being questioned by some tribal MLAs. With it, Shri W. Nipamacha became Chief Minister on 16 December 1997, and the effort of his new MSCP led Government to resolve the conflict led to fruition as the final peace accord between the two warring kindred tribes was signed on 01 October 1998 with Thadou Kukis represented by the Kuki Inpi Churachandpur (KIC) and the Paite Zomis represented by the Zomi Council.

To be continued...


* Aheibam Koireng Singh wrote this article for Imphal Times
The writer is Asst. Professor at Centre for Manipur Studies in Manipur University
This article was webcasted on September 13, 2016.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Meira Rally protest of MU VC : Gallery
  • Jianthailiu, Paopu :: eMing
  • Role of Bamboo in Social Housing
  • Issues surrounding boundary of Manipur
  • To Adya Prasad Pandey :: Poem
  • Troubles -from Buddhist point of view
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • 13 July Moreh Terror Attack
  • Opposition's stand: A new turning point
  • Waiting for PMP Bill
  • Kangkhui Khullen, Mt Khorung #1 : Gallery
  • Bandh demanding VC removal #2 : Gallery
  • Front Page Photo 2018 #3: Gallery
  • ILP bill yelhoumee di kanba ngamloi
  • The Killing Fields - 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • Slow Loris: only known venomous primate
  • The mystery of nine :: Poem
  • Student protesters met with police brutality
  • Why MU rejects fact finding committee
  • 48 hrs bandh total : MUSU delivers point
  • Ravi explains basis of framework agreement
  • Bandh demanding VC removal #1 : Gallery
  • Greater Nagaland or Mini Nagaland ? #1
  • We just need a little bit of luck
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Cry of a Dying River - 37 :: Poem
  • Manipur : Context & Structural Violence
  • Procrastinations and protests
  • Protests against MHRD at New Delhi
  • Scientists from NASA during IIT Techniche
  • Mission 'Go to Village'
  • Even Monkey falls from the tree
  • Lim divide : Strong statement from CM
  • DESAM Protest- remove MU VC : Gallery
  • Konung Kang Chingba #2 : Gallery
  • Unbiased Retake Manipur University Issues
  • BoSEM Imbroglio: Educational smuggling
  • Jobs available in NIELIT centers
  • Commanding Officer-i-c must be punished
  • Public official's escorts assault lawyer
  • Is Govt underestimating MU Community
  • MU impasses : Getting uglier
  • Art Exhibit @Imphal Art College #1 : Gallery
  • HSLC students @ Chalwa, KPI : Gallery
  • Arambam Modhu Kalabhusan-Lairik Haiba
  • Interferences in private school affairs
  • Diagnostic Testing Phases -complexities
  • The Kite Runner :: Poem
  • Call for joint mass protest at New Delhi
  • Manipur CM warns of extreme steps
  • Naga civil society playing key role
  • This will be an Acid test for N. Biren
  • Best option : A graceful exit ..for Pandey
  • Kang Khichri chaba @Kwakeithel : Gallery
  • Plastic Surgery Day @RIMS : Gallery
  • Kang Chingba @Keishampat : Gallery
  • Human rights of women in our society
  • AFSPA Gesture and Better Alternative
  • Leisure :: Poem
  • Restore Life After Burns : Plastic Surgery
  • Konung Kang Chingba #1 : Gallery
  • Dont waste searching for word/phrases
  • Hill People & Merger of Manipur
  • Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 #5
  • U-Mangra for biofuel for economic devpt
  • Painting competition on environment
  • Condemn Moreh terror attack
  • Climbing Shirui Hills, Ukhrul #3 : Gallery
  • Kang Chingba - Rath Yatra : Book
  • Why the impasse at Manipur University
  • Condolence Message for Tamenglong
  • Maharaj parleys Bizando
  • Opt for fruit/vegetable beauty product
  • DG Assam Rifles meets Governor
  • Recreation - a Serious Business
  • Tuilha Kolt waterfall @Kpi #1 : Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Lamjing Meira Ningsing Numit #2 : Gallery
  • Who Created the Border Pillar Conflict ?
  • EEVFAM amidst Numbness and Noise
  • Special Olympics Unified Cup 2018
  • Path for youth's bright future
  • Addressing core issues
  • Students Vs Centre's man : MU
  • Thangjam Manorama Anniversary: Gallery
  • A reflection on POCSO Act, 2012
  • Fear :: Poem
  • War veterans laboured to clean compound
  • Free Career Counselling Program
  • NEFIS writes to University bodies
  • Sit-in-Protest Against House Search
  • 50th World Population Day celebrated
  • Something worrying
  • Congress : 2 days session too short
  • Jadugi Chei :: Funga Wari
  • Tribal protest for MU normalcy : Gallery
  • Framework Agreement: What is it ?
  • Some cairns from the way: Artist's retake #2
  • Cry of a Dying River # 36 :: Poem
  • Overview on Manipur University imbroglio
  • Tribal Students memo to HRD on MU
  • India-Vietnam Film Show 2018 at Delhi
  • Why the CM is helpless ?
  • No end in sight to MU crisis
  • Indo-Myanmar Pillar 81 @Kwatha #1: Gallery
  • Global Bamboo Congress @Beijing : Gallery
  • Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 #4
  • Kamesh Salam : Speaker at BARC, Beijing
  • Career in Cooperatives
  • Nagaland CM's speech at NEC
  • NPF Rejoinder to JD (U) of July 9
  • Unfair Game
  • Expecting documentary proof from villagers
  • Lamjing Meira Ningsing Numit #1 : Gallery
  • Woken Youth Clubs in season of World Cup
  • Converting tourism potential into reality
  • Let me live in your heart :: Poem
  • D-Jent.... Djentleman... Anyone ?
  • Socialism or destruction of humanity ?
  • Demand action against KSO activists
  • Ichangi Laidhi #3 :: eRang
  • Modernizing Manipur University Library
  • In the grip of nothingness :: Poem
  • Password protection - I
  • Congenital Heart Defect operated
  • Hill area bandh relaxed temporarily
  • State & central govt must stop conflict
  • Cohesion is sports
  • Explain 'devious purpose'
  • Willong Khullen, Maram #2 : Gallery
  • Manipur merger agreement 1947
  • Wari Jalsa at New Delhi
  • Congress grass menace in North-East
  • M A Thomas National Human Rights Award
  • What does worry do to us ?
  • Is Manipur a part of India ?
  • Rumours of child lifters : Dangerous
  • List of MLA (Jan 2018) #3 : Gallery
  • Forest Rights Act 2006 -context of Manipur
  • Supreme Court Hearing on EEVFAM case
  • Cry of a Dying River - 35 :: Poem
  • Terirama Th. met South Korea's first lady
  • Securing security cameras: invisible eye
  • Rejoinder to Nagaland CM's statement
  • Meitei Mayek - are the scales tipped now
  • Patronising non-locals : Nail the insiders
  • Tribal University @ Senapati : Gallery
  • Rally to remove MU VC #2 : Gallery
  • Some cairns from the way: Artist's retake #1
  • Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 #3
  • UN experts on 'fake encounter' killings
  • Nagaland CM Rio statement on July 4
  • Condemns inhuman eviction by Govt
  • Trainees Certificate of RPL at Kamrup
  • Minor reunited with mother after 26 days
  • Non-Operative Closure of "hole in the heart"
  • We are for the people, for the society
  • Over 30 days : Centre sleeps, MU 'burns'
  • Thokchom Brindashabi Devi :: Profile
  • Kshetri-bengoon Eviction Protest : Gallery
  • Successive pay commissions: It's impact
  • Research Support @ R-Square Design
  • leingakki thouwong - state terrorism
  • Rebuttal: Interview of Ranju Singh
  • Different forces pulling Manipur : Lim
  • Pakhangba Cheng Hongba #3 : Gallery
  • Some ideas for prevention of flood
  • Satisfaction :: Poem
  • Supreme Court hearing on EEVFAM - 2 July
  • Dark lips .. causes and care
  • Training on Handloom Weaver at Hojai
  • CME on 'Congenital Heart Diseases'
  • Nagaland CM should make his stand clear
  • 2019 LS polls : BJP on the offensive
  • Great June Uprising @Kekrupat #4 : Gallery
  • Naga American conference in California
  • Life of an army officer's daughter
  • The Winter Blues :: Poem
  • 16th Mega Miss North East
  • NDPP on Naga integration
  • Allegations against VC holds no ground
  • Rally to remove MU VC #1 : Gallery
  • July Calendar for Year 2018 :: Tools
  • A Washed-Out Summer Vacation in MU
  • Manipur State Constitution Act 1947 #2
  • My short interaction with Penna Donna
  • 9th Men Mega Mister North East
  • Memo submitted to Kiren Rijiju
  • India- no interest to protect its boundary
  • Idea of who is a citizen of the land
  • Poumai Purul Hiimai Paoki #3 : Gallery
  • Dr Thingnam Kishan Memorial : Gallery
  • Black sheep in movement for ILPS #3
  • Our Common Crisis: What are We to Do #2
  • Jackichand Singh signs for FC Goa
  • No co-operation to MU VC
  • Nagaland CM contradicting himself : NPF
  • Career Guidance Workshop at Ukhrul
  • The tales of a forgotten University
  • Pulling at idea of Manipur : Lim, ATC
  • Climbing Shirui Hills, Ukhrul #2 : Gallery
  • Moirangthem Arup: 90 Km Marathon, Africa
  • Pitfalls on land acquisition for Mapithel Dam
  • Chinese dominance in 21st century
  • Caring for the elderly
  • IIT-G's Technothlon prelims at UAE
  • Mass Rally from Manipur University
  • Nagaland CM releases book by teenager
  • Why trying to dictate media time & again
  • MU, border pillar, Citizenship Bill
  • Oinam Dilip's Painting Exhibition
  • Intl Day Against Drug Abuse : Gallery
  • The Manipur Merger Agreement 1949
  • A road to Mandalay
  • Keeping up: medical diagnostics tech
  • The mother of all preventive strategies
  • Relief camps for Flood affected families
  • The dark side of Indian democracy
  • From three time CM to Oppn leader
  • Khumang Pokpa Haraoba #1 : Gallery
  • Great June Uprising @Kekrupat #3 : Gallery
  • Mova Cave, Hungpung, Ukhrul #1 : Gallery
  • Tribal Cultural Festival #2 : Gallery
  • General Thangal Eco Park : Gallery
  • Dzuko valley #4 :: 360 Panorama View
  • Manglandasu Nang - OST :: e-pao Radio
  • HSLC 208 Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • Class XII Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • Temples of Manipur : Gallery
  • Recipients of Akademi Awards for 2014
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic
  • SPONSORED ADS