Peace first - Solution next
Towards resolving the present crisis in Manipur; Are Meiteis not Indians ?

North East Peoples' Organisation (NEPO) *

 NEPO addressing media persons at Manipur Press Club on May 28 2023
NEPO addressing media persons at Manipur Press Club on May 28 2023 : Pix - People's Chronicle

The North East Peoples' Organization (NEPO) appeal to all concerned to bring unconditional peace at first and solutions to all related issues and second to get rid of the aggravating ongoing unrest. It is orthodox and an act of feudalistic remnants to achieve an objective with violent means in this modern world. India which is the largest democratic country in the world will never give a desired objective on sectarian outlook as end result of conflict situation.

Protection of civilian populations from any possible genocidal activities, followed by talks as therapeutic treatment for ushering in lasting resolutions of all sorts of conflicting situation is the norm in a democratic country like India. We convey our gratitude to the Central Government for deploying the Central forces at a very crucial time. But as of now we do not see much in regard to the protection of the Meiteis as exemplified by the daily firings, deaths, attacks, burning of houses & properties.


1. Understanding Political History of Manipur: Manipur was formed in 33AD during the reign of King Nongada Lairen Pakhangba (33-154AD) by consolidating the then tribal major principalities; formulated the early State Constitution known as the Loyumba Shinyel during the period of King Loyumba (1074-1122 AD); experienced Burmese Occupation from 1819 to 1826 AD; administered under British Colonialism from 1891 to 1947 AD; regained independence during the period from 1947 to 1949 AD; adoption of the Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947 and then merged to the Union of India in 1949. Altogether 76 Kings successively ruled the State/kingdom of Manipur since 33 AD (as recorded by the Cheitharol Kumbaba, the Royal Chronicle of Manipur).

2. Historical Treaties entered with Manipur as a Party (to signifying Manipur's history of political and territorial status): (i). The Velarast Treaty, 14 September, 1762); (ii). The Treaty of Yandaboo, 28 February, 1826; (iii). The Anglo-Manipuri Treaty, 18 April, 1833); (iv). The Kabaw Valley Agreement, 24 January, 1834; and (v). The Barak Agreement of August, 1874.

3. Acts protecting the territorial boundary of Manipur: (i). The Manipur State Constitution Act, 1847(Article 2 & 3); (ii). The Manipur State Hill Regulations Act, 1947; (iii). The Manipur Chief Court Act, 1947; and (iv). The 1st Schedule of the Constitution of India in regard of Manipur as a Party to the Manipur Merger Agreement, 1949.

Some facts about the genesis of the present crisis are cited as such for clarity:

Demographic disparities with illegal influx; the root of present crisis in Manipur : The North East Region is a hotbed of cross border terrorism staged mostly by illegal influx of populations from neighboring countries by taking advantage of porous and unchecked international borders.

In the guise of friendly attitudes at first and then gradually deteriorating the region with demographic destabilization and causing anthropogeographic imbalances, they are creating grave tussles between the indigenous communities and the invasive immigrants. As their population increased, they cause demographic imbalances in the State thereby affecting the indigenous population. This has been shown by the Naga-Kuki clash (1992-1997).

As defensive measures, many Kuki Chin armed groups were formed on ethnic lines and they entered into Suspension of Operation (SOO) with the Central and the State Governments. Taking advantage of having SoO, they empower their arm-strengths, unlawfully carrying in more populations from Burma and helps them settle in parts of the reserved and protected forests. They employ these new immigrants in poppy plantations by destroying the areas of reserved forests.

Besides, indulging in many illegal activities such as poppy plantation, armed business, illicit drugs business and extortion etc. they accumulate huge wealth, weapon and finally they are waiting to fulfill their dream of forming a Kukiland by breaking away parts of Manipur as inspired by the history of Mizoram State formation. Foreigner's issues in Assam in late 1970s and the similar issues in Manipur in 1980s and their impact on other NE-States like the Tripuri syndrome which is ailing the indigenous communities, may suffice the reasons for the present influx-crisis in the State of Manipur.

Implication of the present crisis:

(i). Demolition of the centuries old territorial multi-ethnic civilization of Manipur by the unruly and uncivilized acts of immigrant militants for forming Zalengam or Greater Mizoram or Greater Kukiland by breaking the territory of Manipur.

(ii). Start of a Civil War with the Kuki-chin immigrant militants as perpetrators in the peace loving Manipur.

(iii). Harboring all sorts of terrorism & terrorist acts such as racism, ethnocentric State-formation, narco-terrorism and deforestation etc. with the immigrant Kuki militants as agencies.

(iv). Demolition of the identities of the age old small communities signified as Old Kukis earlier known as Khulmee or Khongjai.

(v). Creation of Opium War like situation across the entire Nation with intoxication of the youths with No. 4 Heroin and WY tablets etc. manufactured and sold out by the Kuki militant sponsored drug cartels;

Identification of foreigners' involvement in current crisis: The ringleaders of the present crisis, who are identified for having been foreigners and indulging into anti- social activities, may be proven by the facts;

Mr Thanglianpau Guite, the present President of the Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA), is an Ex-MP candidate in the Chin-State of Myanmar.
-Mr Khenchin, Vice-Presedent cum general secretary, Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA) is from Chin State of Myanmar.
Mr PS Haokip, the present Chairman of the Kuki National Army (KNA) is a Burmese origin sheltered at Nagaland.
Mr David Hangshing, the present President of Kuki Revolutionary Army (KRA) is of Burmese origin and husband of Mrs Kimneo Haokip Hangshing, the sitting MLA of Saikul Assembly Constituency.
Mr St Thangboi Kipgen, the Present Chairman of the Kuki National Front (KNF) & the United Peoples Front (UPF) is the husband of Mrs Nemcha Kipgen, the present Minister of Commerce and Industry & Cooperation, Manipur.


Q1: When Manipur has a recorded history of 76 Kings since 33AD with remnants of heritage sites of old palaces, temples, more than 20 internationally recognised boundary maps since Henry Yule map of 1500 AD, treaties and documents signed with internationally recognized entities up to the Manipur Merger Agreement signed with the then Dominion Govt. of India on the 21st September, 1949 and so on, can the so called groups who are demanding a separate Administration bring out any

(1). historical defined territorial map of Zalengam or Greater Kukiland recognized by any other country or international body ?,

(ii). Defined and permanent population ?,

(iii). Historical document of centralized Government and Constitutional order of Kukiland ?,

(iv). Historical treaties or agreement entered with the then Burma and the British on behalf of Zalengam or Kukiland?,

(v) Remnants of palaces, structures and heritage sites of lost Zalengam or Kuki Kingdom ?,

(vi). Names of few kings who ruled Zalengam being recorded by Burmese history or the British records to support their Claims?

Q2: The incidents of 3rd and 4th May 2023 were a riot. After that all sections wish for a peaceful solution. But the present scenario of the Government does not advocate any concrete steps towards bringing peace. So the question is: Is the present policy of the Government/attitude of the security forces & Government machinery point towards the planning for civil war ?

Indication: Chaos, Al Qaida model and mini Hitler model based on single ethnicity can never bring the desired goals in a democratic country. It shall be in the best interest of all to bring a peaceful atmosphere.

Suggestions for bringing normalcy

1. Immediate halt to the acts of armed militants specially those having Suspension of Operation (SoO) as their continued unlawful acts go against bringing peaceful solution.
2. Creation of a platform for resolving all conflicting issues but foreigners should not enjoy a seat around the negotiating table.
3. Abrogation of the Suspension of Operation (SOO) Agreement between the Govt. of India and the Armed militants.
4. Immediate intervention for rehabilitation, temporary settlement of displaced people, creation of temporary means of livelihood and resettlement of all indigenous populations to their original places irrespective of ethnicity.
5. Compensation for the lives lost and properties ruined during the recent riots.
6. Strict enforcement of the laws and Acts of the Nation and review of the land laws of the State.
7. Implementation of the NRC (National Register of Citizenship) in Manipur and institution of State Population Commission.
8. Protection of all ethnic minorities and justification of reservation distribution system for minority communities.
9. Immediate opening of the National Highways for vehicular movement.
10. Setting up of security barracks for guarding the abandoned/ dismantled villages/localities.

* North East Peoples' Organisation (NEPO) wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on May 30 2023 .

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