TODAY -

Suspension Of Operation With Chikimz Outfits In Manipur
- Part I -

Aheibam Koireng Singh *



"I am totally blind in this matter and more so on the conditions maintained between the concerned underground group and the army. [CM unaware of another Ceasefire with UG group, Imphal Free Press (IFP), Popular English Daily, Imphal, 15 July 2006.]

The above citations was from the statement by Shri Okram Ibobi, the Manipur Chief Minister (CM) on 15 July 2006 while clarifying that the state government was unaware and yet to receive any formal intimation from the Central government as regards the ceasefire was concerned. It mirrors the murky manner with which Suspension of Operation (SoO) began as the state government was being sidelined and not taken into confidence though law and order is a state subject. It was the army which initiated the move of suspending the operation against the 'Chin Kuki Mizo or otherwise Zomi (CHIKIMZ)' armed outfits.

Previously Ceasefire under SoO was between the Indian army and central paramilitary forces and some armed groups belonging to CHIKIM communities. The Ministry of Defense in a press release dated October 7, 2005, disclosed that eight 'Kuki' and one 'Zomi' militant group in Manipur had entered into an informal 'ceasefire' with the Union Government. 'Cessation of operations' agreements was concluded with these groups with effect from 01 August, 2005.[ Insurgency & Peace Efforts in Manipur, G:/CDPS, Manipur Insurgency.htm, assessed on 21 June 2010.]

In connection with it, the Manipur CM stated that the ceasefire maintained between the "Indian security forces and some Non-Naga insurgents" was not acceptable as it lacks the consent of the state government. Further he stated that the state government would form modalities and concrete ground rules for holding dialogues with insurgents groups operating in the state.[ Indian Army-UG Ceasefire without State Govt's consent, IFP, 25 February 2006.] The Intelligence Bureau (IB) is also understood to have been upset with the army's ceasefire agreement with the Kuki groups. By signing the agreement, the IB felt, the army had given marginal Kuki groups a more exalted status.[ Datta, Saikat, Manipur CM Gave Rs 1.5 Crore To Separatists The Outlook, 12 December 2005.]

Zomi Council (ZC) in the early part of March 2006 called on the CM and reiterated the demand to initiate talk with non-Naga tribal underground groups operating in the' state. It issued a statement that CM showed his willingness to hold talk with non-Naga tribal underground groups operating in the state.[ ZC, The IFP, Imphal, 4 March 2006.] Ahead of the Ninth Manipur Assembly Election, 2007, a meeting of the Strategy and Operational Group (SOG) presided by the Chief Secretary, attended by Director General of Police (DGP) and top ranking officials from the Home Department, state police, Army, Assam Rifles (AR), Central Reserved Police Force (CRPF) and intelligence agencies was held on 19 September to discuss the overall security scenario. The officials present at the meeting while expressing strong apprehension of the CHIKIMZ armed outfits which have struck a truce pact with the central security force might try to intervene in the election, asked the army to see what best could be done.[ SOG reviews security ahead of polls, The Sangai Express (TSE), Popular English Daily, Imphal, 20 September 2006.]

In this connection a faction of the Kuki National Front (KNF) had issued a threat that "if the ruling state government did not apply the SoO (Ceasefire) pact in the state between Kuki revolutionaries with Center there shall be no room for Congress (I) in the forthcoming state election in the Kuki dominated hills in the state". The outfit spelled out that it would ban any Congress (I) workers, candidate and campaign in the Kuki dominated areas.[ KNF to ban Congress, IFP, Imphal, 12 August 2006.]

It can also be cited that the Kuki Liberation Army (KLA) /Kuki Liberation Organization (KLO) in its press release on 7 January 2007 had stated that despite entering into SoO with the Indian army and the central security forces, the congress led state government refused to recognize and endorse the SoO agreement even after repeated approaches from the organization. KLO also alleged the state government for not taking any initiative of approaching the centre to start a peace talk.

On these grounds, the KLO had imposed ban on the candidates of the ruling alliances who were contesting the elections.[ KLA na Congress ta athingba thamkhre, tr., KLA bans Congress, Poknafam, Vernacular Manipuri Daily, 8 January 2007. KLO again reiterated its reasons for the banning at a press conference on 6 February 2007 held in connection with the pulling up of a Vaiphei community leader, President of the Vaiphei People's Council, Eastern Block (VPC, EB) for issuing a statement to the media declaring support of (VPC, EB) to sitting Saikul Assembly Constituency MLA.]

The outfit also carried out bomb attacks at the residence of Minister, Ph. Parijat and the President of Manipur Pradesh Congress Committee (MPCC), Mr Gaikhangam. The CHIKIMZ armed outfits which entered into the said informal ceasefire include Kuki National Organization (KNO)/Kuki National Army (KNA), Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA) / Zomi Reunification Organization (ZRO), KLA/ KLO, Kuki Revolutionary Army (KRA), Kuki National Front Zogam (KNF-Z), Kuki National Front- Military Council (KNF-MC), etc.

The SoO between the conglomerate groups of CHIKIMZ outfits namely, the United Peoples' Front (UPF), and the KNO, State Government and the Central Government was signed at Delhi on 22 August 2008. The state Cabinet presided over by the Chief Minister gave its approval to the said SoO agreement signed within the framework of Indian Constitution after the State Government rejected demand of the Kuki outfits for Kuki homeland or Zalengam to ensure the territorial integrity of Manipur.[ Cabinet nod to SoO deal, The Sangai Express, Popular English Daily, 24 August 2008.]

While the KNO represents 11 groups, the UPF represents eight outfits. After a series of turns and negotiations and brain storming sessions, the ground rules for the suspension of operations between the Government and Kuki armed groups were signed on 22 August 2008. In it, Joint Secretary in the Union Government in charge of Northeast, Mr. Navin Verma appended his signature on behalf of the Government of India (GoI) while the state government of Manipur was represented by Principal Secretary (Home). v Eight members each from the UPF and the KNO also signed the SoO. The signatories from the KNO are its vice President Mr. Lanminthang Vaiphei, Defence Secretary, Mr. T.S. Haokip, Cabinet member, T.S. German Kuki, and another member, Mr. Joshua Kuki signed on behalf of the KNO. While its General Secretary, Mr. S T Thangboi Kipgen, members Mr. Calvin H, Mr. TL Jacob Thadou and TL Hangshing signed on behalf of the UPF.

KNO comprises of 11 different CHIKIMZ armed ethnic outfit. They are Kuki National Army (KNA), Kuki National Front-Military Council (KNF-MC), Kuki National Front-Zogam (KNF-Z), United Socialist Revolutionary Army (USRA), Zou Defence Volunteer-KNO (ZDV-KNO), United Komrem Revolutionary Army (UKRA), Zomi Revolutionary Force (ZRF), Hmar National Army (HNA), Kuki Revolutionary Army (Unification), Kuki Liberation Army (KLA-KNO) and United All Kuki Liberation Army.[State Govt authorizes Principal Secy to sign SoO agreement with Kuki militants, IFP, Imphal, 4 Aug , 2008.] While the UPF represents eight outfits which include Kuki Revolutionary Army (KRA), Kuki National Front-P (KNF-P), United Kuki Liberation Front (UKLF), Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA), Hmar Peoples' Conference/ Democratic (HPC-D), Kuki Liberation Army (KLA/KLO), Kuki National Front-S (KNF-S),etc.[ SoO with Kuki groups, IFP, Imphal, 6 September 2008.]

The main objectives of the KNO/KNA is to bring together all the Kuki-inhabited areas separated by 'artificial boundary' created in 1935, specifically in the Kabaw valley of Myanmar and the Kuki inhabited areas in the hill districts of Manipur under one administrative unit called 'Zalengam' (Land of freedom). In case of the eventuality of such integration not materializing, the KNA aims at the creation of two Kuki states: one within Burma i.e. 'Eastern Zalengam' and the other within India, 'Western Zalengam'.

The KNA has an estimated strength of 600 cadres armed with an array of weapons like AK-Series, G-series, M-series and 60mm mortar.[ Kuki National Army, www.satp.org, assessed on 26 June 2010.] Zou Defence Volunteer (ZDV) was said to be formed in 1997 however its existence came to be known in 2003. ZDV strives for maintaining their intermediary "Zou" identity without aligning to either the "Zomi" or the "Kuki". KNF was founded on 18 May 1988 with the objective of the demand for Kukiland which consisted of the districts of Churachandpur, Chandel, parts of Tamenglong and parts of Senapati.[ Aide-Memoir to the Prime Minister of India Shree Atal Behari Vajpayee for Immediate Creation of Kukiland, submitted by Kuki National Front on 8 April 1998.]

Another objective of the KNF was to defend the Kukis from the atrocities and brutalities of the "anti-national Naga activists". KNF split in 1995, with one unit identifying itself as the "presidential faction" and the other as the "military council". The former again split into Samuel faction (KNF-S) and Zougam faction (KNF-Z). The total cadre strength of the outfit (inclusive of all factions) is estimated to be between 400 and 500.[ Kuki National Front, www.satp.org, assessed on 26 June 2010.] United Komrem Revolutionary Army (UKRA) was formed on 23 October 2004 to protect the interests of the Komrem community. 'Manipur Outfit rears head', The Telegraph, National English Daily, Calcutta, 26 october 2006.

KRA was formed in December 2000 by a group of disgruntled cadres of the KNF-MC faction with purported objective of securing a "separate State" for the Kuki tribe within the Indian union. In Assam, where the outfit operates in the Karbi Anglong district, KRA aims at the establishment of a "Kuki National Council", an autonomous administrative council for the Kuki tribes. It has approximate cadre strength of 250. National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM) was instrumental in training and arming the KRA cadres. [file:///G:/CDPS,%20Manipur%20Insurgency.htm, assessed on 20 June 2010.]

KLA was formally re-established in 1993 with the sole objective of safeguarding the political interest of the Kukis and their inhabited areas which purportedly claimed to have inherited from the Kuki ancestors. ['KLA celebrates anniversary', IFP, 18 December 2007.] Hmar People's Convention-Democratic (HPC-D) is an offshoot of the HPC, which came into existence in 1986, as a political party spearheading a movement for self-government in the north and northeast of Mizoram. The Mizo Peace Accord of 1986, failed to address their demand of a 'Greater Mizoram' integrating all areas inhabited by Hmars in Mizoram, Assam and Manipur under a single administrative unit. Since April 1987, the HPC waged an armed struggle for autonomy.

However in 1992, HPC representatives and the Government of Mizoram mutually agreed signed a Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) at the Mizoram capital Aizawl on July 27, 1994, for establishing the 'Sinlung Development Council' and subsequently, 308 HPC militants surrendered along with their arms. HPC-D was formed by a section of the HPC cadres who were dissatisfied with the implementation process MoS. The purported objective of the outfit over the years has changed from an autonomous district covering the north and northeast Mizoram to an independent Hmar State (Hmar Ram) consisting of the Hmar inhabited areas of Mizoram, Manipur and Assam. The cadre strength of the outfit is estimated to be between 100 and 150. [www.satp.org.]

ZRA was formed in 1997 as an armed wing of ZRO which was formed in 1993. The purported objective of the ZRO/ZRA is to protect the interests of the Paite community from the 'onslaught of any community or group'. It further attempts "to bring all the Zomi people, divided by artificial State boundaries in various countries, specifically in Myanmar (Chin State), India (Manipur and Mizoram) and Bangladesh (Chittagong Hills Tracts), together under one administrative unit, a 'Zogam', which means 'land of the Zomi' under the Indian Union".[ ZRA, www.satp.org, assessed on 26 June 2010.]

ZRF was formed by a group of Paites defected from ZRA. USRA was formed by Vaiphei cadres who defected from ZRA to uphold the dignity and identity of the Vaipheis. United Kuki Liberation Front (UKLF) was formed on March 29, 2000 with the purported objective of upholding the interests of the Kuki community and forming a separate Kuki state called 'Kukiland'.

In the later part of December 2008, after the completion of four rounds of meetings on the SoO between the CHIKIMZ ethnic outfits led by UPF and the KNO, the JMG of the government finalized the process for issue of Identity Cards to around 1745 cadres out of a total of 2519. At a meeting held on 19 December 2008 a list of 500 cadres of KRA, 377 cadres of KNF-P, 419 cadres of UKLF, 111 cadres of KLA, 717 cadres of ZRA, 250 cadres of KNF-S, 110 cadres of HPC and 45 cadres of ZDV have been proposed by the Kuki groups for official recognition. 23 numbers of designated camps operating under different Kuki militant groups have also been proposed for official identification.

The said meeting between the JMG and the KNO and UPF was attended by the State Principal Secretary Home; Binoyranjan Jha, Deputy Director of Subsidiary Intelligence Bureau (SIB); Colonel Sanjay Gupta of GS (HQ) Inspector General Assam Rifles (IGAR)-South; Mr. Rakesh Dhakarwal, Commandant, Central Reserved Police Force; Lieutenant colonel D Mishra, GSD (Int), 57 Mountain Divison; KMS Rao, Assistant Director, SIB; Major S Jung, HQIGAR (S) and seven other representatives from the KNO and UPF. [1745 Kuki undergrounds to be given I-cards, 23 camps proposed for official recognition, IFP, 22 December 2008.]

To be continued,.....


* Aheibam Koireng Singh wrote this article for e-pao.net
The writer can be reached at akoireng(AT)gmail(DOT)com
This article was posted on November 17, 2016.


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