TODAY -

Kangla is like Ayodhya for Meiteis, Keep It Sacred

Madhu Chandra *



(Our Mothers sacrificed their modesty to ransom Kangla from the clutches of Indian Army)

Kangla is a small area, less than one sq. km, in the heart of Imphal city, the capital of Manipur in North East India. Kangla is an important historical place that includes everything that took place in the history of Manipur. The history includes the establishment of Kangla existed from 33AD, the religious infiltration of Hinduism at the arrival of Shantidas Gosai in 1717 and before him, the burning of the Meitei Sacred Writings known as Puya Meithaba in 1729. Kangla was conquered and captured by the British in 1891 and then under the dominion of Assam Rifles until it was removed in 2004 by the United Progressive Alliance government under the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh.

The establishment of Kangla in the early part of the first century, down through the religious infiltration of Hinduism, then the conquered by the British and the military control of Kangla is very much related to the social-religion and political identity crisis of Meiteis faced by the people of Manipur today. The control over Kangla was the factor of controlling social-religious, political and ethnic of Manipur.

The establishment of Kangla from early 33 AD gave the social-religious and political identity of Manipur that included all the communities in the state. The religious infiltration of Hinduism and control over the Kangla, first the mass conversion to Hinduism and then, and the burning of Puya have caused the socio-religious identity crisis of Meiteis and widened the gap between the hill and the valley. Ever since then, the Meiteis, in particular, have suffered the distorted identity crisis.

The British ruled over Kangla brought the social-religious and political changes in Manipur. The hills chose to embrace Christianity and the valley continued with the Hinduism. The education began in both the valley and hill after the British conquered. The first primarily school at Yaiskhul and the Pettigrew College at Ukhrul and the first English – Manipur Dictionary are the symbols of the education system brought by the British.

Then followed the Independence and the Indian Army occupation of Kangla until 2004. The military dominion in the state added to the Armed Forces Special Power Act 1958, which has been termed as a draconian law, under which the state has suffered at great extent. Seeking justice to the people killed is at the door of the Supreme Court of India.

The consciousness of people why Kangla should be kept sacred and holy place has begun with a few ongoing issues. The protest in the Manipur University demanded the removable of AP Pandey, the Vice Chancellor by Manipur University Students Union, Manipur University Teachers Union, and Manipur University Staff Association. Then the construction of Rash Leela Mandop inside Kangla.

The people of Manipur across the political line and the diaspora have demanded the state government to stop the construction of the Mandop immediately. The construction of religious structure like Rash Leela inside the holy Kangla has alleged a case of hurting religious sentiments and defiling the sacred religious place belonging to Sanamahism. There are valid reasons why Kangla should be kept sacred and holy:

Kangla is Jerusalem for Sanamahism

Kangla is like Jerusalem for Jews and Christians, Mecca for Muslims, Ayodhya for Hindus, Bodh Gaya in Bihar for Buddhists, the Golden Temple for Sikhs. Every religion has its historical establishment place. These places are very important for their religious propaganda and proclamation. Kangla is the center for Sanamahism. Without Kangla, Sanamahism, the religion of Meiteis, will not succeed like any other religion in the world. In order to make Kangla a center for Sanamahism, it must be kept sanctity, sacred and holy without adulteration with Hinduism or any other religion.

Mothers Paid the Price

The world shook when the mothers of Manipur stripped naked at the gate of Kangla with a banner, “Indian Army Rape Us”. That was the price paid by the mothers to rescue Kangla from the clutches of the Indian army. The mothers of Manipur sacrificed their modesty to ransom Kangla back after it was taken away from the people of Manipur 1891 until 20 November 2004. Kangla is the identity which was sanctified by the mothers. Manipur can not afford to make Kangla enslave and defiled once again in any form.

Kangla Has over 360 Sacred Khubhams

It is believed that there are about 360 khubhams, the sacred places inside Kangla. Some of them are [1] Nungjeng Eekon and other ponds: This is a sacred pond believed to be the abode of Lord Pakhangba. It is located to the north-west of the "Uttra". Religious rituals are performed here. Besides this, there are other holy ponds like "Chingkhei Nungjeng", "Manung Nungjeng" and "Lai Pukhri" etc.

Nunggoibi: A site is a sacred place of worship of the Goddess of War. The "Huyein Lalu Chanba" ritual was performed here, whenever a King of Manipur emerged victorious in battle.Manglen: It is the cremation site of the Kings of Manipur. The "Manglen" is believed to have been developed by Maharaj Garibaniwaz in 1738. According to the royal chronicle, the Cheitharol Kumbaba, Nara Singh Maharaj (1844–50) was cremated here at the "Manglen".

Kangla Men Surung: This is a sacred place where the kings of Manipur performed their coronation ceremony/erat-thouni. It is believed that the king will be able to rule the state or not according to the results of the ceremony/erat-thouni. The site of Lord Wangbaren: This is located in the southeastern corner of 'Kangla' where ceremony/erat-thouni were performed in connection with flood and natural calamities. The site for Lord Koubru: It is located in the northwestern corner of 'Kangla' and is worshipped mainly forgood rainfall etc.

Besides these holy/sacred places, there are "Paotak Pung", "Pakhangba Pung", "Pakhangba Khuda", "Nata Pung", "Yaorei Khukal Tetnou Yotli Chingba Ching", "Yaoreibi" "Yaichampat", "Lukhrapat", the site of "Mangang Guru", "Shumshang", "Yumjaolairenbi", "Lai-Nongshaba", etc.

Rash Leela Mandop at Kangla

Manipur in general and specifically the Meiteis have been facing an ethnicidentity crisis ever since the emergence of Hinduism before and following Puya Meithaba. The ethnic identity of the Meiteis in the valley is a mixture in the social and religious spectrum. The quest for self identity is the need of the day.

Setting up any other religious structure that hurts the sentiments of the people is termed defiling the religious sanctity. Such act is a punishable offense under the section of 295A of Indian Penal Code. The current crisis of Rash Leela Mandap, whether it was done by the previous government or the present, must see the sentiments of the people and refrain from hurting the religious sentiment. Rash Leela or any art and cultural structure must be set up else where.


* Madhu Chandra this article for e-pao.net
The Writer is Hyderabad based freelancer and former spokesperson of North East Helpline and can be contacted at madhuchandra66(AT)gmail(DOT)com
This article was webcasted on October 30, 2018.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Mera Kongchat Mass Rally #3: Gallery
  • Rock Show at X-Jam 2018 : Gallery
  • Bloody Phanek wins at Signs Festival
  • Gender Equality & Development :: Book
  • I am friend of India for life- Japanese PM
  • 2019 Commonwealth Scholarship in UK
  • 55th Nagas' Meet at New Delhi
  • Black money and the dream-merchants
  • What steps to address traffic chaos ?
  • Govt extends ban on seven Meitei groups
  • It won't be easy for Mary Kom - Nieva
  • Ningol Chakouba @ Mysore #1 : Gallery
  • Ningol Chakouba @ Dubai #1 : Gallery
  • Cry of a Dying River - 54 :: Poem
  • Religious education- Part of our life
  • Free Heart Camp at Kakching Bazar
  • Jobs at Gyan Jyoti Foundation
  • Nothing seems change; everything remains
  • Predatory instinct of man: Targeting 'Manipur'
  • Lihaaz- Classical Music at IIT Guwahati
  • Mera Wayungba #1 : Gallery
  • L Modhuchandra : Young Scientist Award
  • Chavang Kut celebrated in Delhi
  • Temple runs for a pilgrim's journey
  • First day of All India Young Writers' Festival
  • Ningol Chakkouba in era of materials
  • Constitutional breakdown in governance
  • Attacked on Environment Defenders
  • Kut festival @ Chandel : Gallery
  • Mega Marathon Manipur #2 : Gallery
  • Karen people's pursuit for survival..
  • Glamorous Maniac & their new single
  • City bus for high end of society- Why not?
  • Youth Leadership Camp at Yairipok
  • Course in Political Science at NEHU
  • Of Indian Constitution
  • Ningol Chakouba @ MBC #1 : Gallery
  • Ningol Chakouba Nga Mela #1 : Gallery
  • NH7 Weekender @Meghalaya #2 : Gallery
  • Gaudiya Vaishnavism in Meitei Nation #1
  • Old Man in the Winter :: Poem
  • Drawing inspiration from Dave Mustaine
  • Condemns attack on Agnes Kharshiing
  • NEUFC Fan Park celebrates
  • Achievement lists of PDA is 'Boring'
  • MPP : Down but not out
  • Ningol - mapam lamdam : Gallery
  • Kwatha Festival #1 : Gallery
  • Ningol Chakkouba: Biggest fest of Manipuri
  • Mizoram Under the British Rule :: Book
  • Dr. Udit Raj: a Crusader
  • Undisclosed #MeToo campaign in Manipur?
  • Drought :: Poem
  • When Money matters, sincerity is out..
  • Detaining two more at Jiribam
  • Ningol Chakkouba : Flash Presentation
  • Ningol Chakkouba Shopping #1: Gallery
  • Chingjaroi, Atengba, Ahongbi :: eMing
  • The Killing Fields 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • Those Sparks and Sounds
  • Manipur from Independence to Merger #2
  • Understanding RSS :: Book Review
  • Cry of a Dying River - 53 :: Poem
  • A take on Freedom of Media
  • Pay of private school teachers
  • Mera Kongchat Mass Rally #2: Gallery
  • Art Festival @ Imphal : Gallery
  • 26 month left to meet AIDS 90-90-90 target
  • Tengnoumanbi- Essential food item ..
  • Dr Abdul Kalam vision of transforming India
  • A Wintry Landscape :: Poem
  • 'Say no to Lead Paints'
  • Completing bigger task
  • Biomedical wastes: Health, ecology at stake
  • NIA files chargesheet against 5 NSCN (K)
  • Ningol Chakouba @ Kolkata : Gallery
  • Mera Houchongba @Konung #3: Gallery
  • Irony of idea of communal harmony
  • Blood Donation at RGU, Arunachal Pradesh
  • Career opportunities in Ecology #2
  • Down the Country Road :: Poem
  • Change of season: Prepare for winter
  • Govt forgotten promises to improve traffic
  • ATC demand: Setback to pluralistic Manipur
  • Mega Marathon Manipur #1 : Gallery
  • Descent & inheritance among Zeliangrong
  • Constituent Assembly Of India & NEFA #3
  • Seminar : Reforming Teaching-Learning
  • Attitude :: Poem
  • Tourism: A key sector in the world
  • NH7 Weekender Meghalaya : Day 2 Report
  • Early solution in Manipur difficult : Army
  • Fabrics of Bangladeshi Manipuri: Download
  • NH7 Weekender @Meghalaya #1 : Gallery
  • Pukning Pothasang: Suicide prevention
  • Where have all the flowers gone? Khurkhul
  • Engaging Failed State :: Book Review
  • eNorth East Award 2018
  • Song of a Tree :: Poem
  • NH7 Weekender 2018 Kicks Off
  • Unsolved case of Pravish Chanam
  • Imphal Jamboree : Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Manipur from Independence to Merger #1
  • A beacon of hope
  • Mishing tribe of Assam
  • Ransomware that made the world cry
  • State Level Painting Competition
  • A suggestion for a strong democracy
  • Issues before Parliamentary polls
  • Kut Festival @ Kangpokpi : Gallery
  • HIV : Gap between research & impact
  • My Tryst With Manipur : A Memoir :: Review
  • Cultural heritage (Kut fete)
  • Bleeding inside Brain treated at SKY
  • Indo-Myanmar Regional Border Meet
  • In Her Arms Of Death :: Poem
  • Pravish Chanam : No Action by CBI
  • Assam Don Bosco : University of the Year
  • NH7 Weekender 2018 in Meghalaya
  • Media that criticize are not your enemy, CM
  • MU limping back to normalcy
  • Mera Kongchat Mass Rally #1: Gallery
  • Happy Kut Wishes :: Flash Presentation
  • November Calendar for Year 2018 :: Tools
  • Weavers training for Mamit , Mizoram
  • Diwali Lagao : Mapugidi Munda
  • Career opportunities in Ecology
  • Jobs at Trueblue, Taxi Service, Imphal
  • CM should not let this opportunity out..
  • Where will Oct 31, 2018 stand ?
  • Mera Houchongba @Konung #2: Gallery
  • Kut Festival :: Series of Articles
  • Comedian Huirem Manglem passed away
  • Constituent Assembly Of India & NEFA #2
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Overview of Buddha's teachings on Karmma
  • Technological Globalisation and Manipur
  • Initiate disciplinary action against Police
  • 13th Indo-Myanmar Border Committee Meet
  • .....but traffic is still in mess
  • Obstinately silly or immense clout
  • 'Ethnic Conflicts in Manipur: Issues'
  • Mapithel Dam Irrigation Canals #2
  • Kangla is like Ayodhya for Meiteis..Sacred
  • Health Care & Status in North East :: Book
  • Speaker List: Imphal Jamboree- Youth Fest
  • Roars of #MeToo to douse the flame of lust
  • A Welcome Change :: Poem
  • Liangmai community performed at NE fest
  • Immature press statement from NDPP: NPF
  • Our expectation from the government
  • October 31 : Rally and bandh
  • Chalwa Village in Kangpokpi #3 : Gallery
  • NEROCA Vs East Bengal : Gallery
  • Lullaby by This Chord :: Critical Analysis
  • Imphal Jamboree - Youth festival
  • Getting ready for Act East Policy
  • Hey! You're a role model :: Poem
  • Training on Cultivation of Mushroom
  • Yitachu is propagating misguiding facts
  • Naga Talk: Wary yet committed & hopeful
  • Fashion Show: Lamklai Kummoi: Gallery
  • Pukning Pothasang : Bereavement
  • Khong: significance in Zeliangrong culture-2
  • RIST Talk -37 : The Physics of Lunar Dust
  • Cry of a Dying River #51 :: Poem
  • WhatsApp cheating : Unexplained loss
  • Cat :: Poem
  • TSA cautions EMRS School
  • Non-issue turns issue
  • Cong gunning for Governor
  • Mera Houchongba @Konung #1: Gallery
  • Sanjenbam Bhanumati Devi : Kavyabhusan
  • Church and climate change
  • Environmental human rights: Its evolution
  • Developing a database on bio-resource #2
  • Incomplete Love :: Poem
  • Beauty benefits of potato
  • The toddler calls
  • UNC : Acceptable to the Zeliangrongs?
  • Trekking to Dzukou Valley #2: Gallery
  • Constituent Assembly Of India & NEFA #1
  • Can we end tobacco pandemic ?
  • Experiencing Senapati town
  • City Bazaar :: Poem
  • Share market frauds : Investors at risk
  • When arrogance meets ignorance
  • Let Imphal go with town planning
  • Eepan Thaba #1: Gallery
  • Mapithel Dam Irrigation Canals #1
  • Chumthang Crafts at European Congress
  • A Road Trip to Myanmar #3
  • Regional Rural Banks in NE :: Book Review
  • JRF at Department of Biotechnology, MU
  • The call of the wood :: Poem
  • Free Training for Minorities at JCRE
  • Mechanism for industrialisation
  • Noting efforts to reach out to people
  • Lamklai Kummoi Maring Fest #1: Gallery
  • Narmada Sougaijam - Natl Konkan Award
  • Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947 #2
  • Calling for Interns in Imphal
  • Bizandoo, why they put me at 3 ?
  • 6th North East Festival 2018 at Delhi
  • Senior Project Engineer @R-Square Design
  • Research Support Officer at R-Square
  • Career in Rural Management
  • The unmistakable reflections
  • Politics of Lim divide : Pitching rally & bandh
  • Bor khoiramba @Hiyangthang #2 : Gallery
  • Mera Houchongba : Unity - hill & valley
  • Khong: significance in Zeliangrong culture-1
  • Woes of farmers & measures to mitigate
  • A Scarecrow :: Poem
  • New Executive Body of DAMMS
  • National Integration Tour flagged in
  • Benevolence behind the iron fortress
  • Parties to watch in LS polls : Cong Vs BJP
  • Manipuri Calendar for 2018 : Download
  • Lamyanba Irabot- Floral Tribute #2: Gallery
  • Police Day Marathon #2: Gallery
  • Mera Chaorel Houba #2 : Gallery
  • Anglo-Kuki War 1917-19 : Gallery
  • Pari Imom (Film Scenes) #1 :: eRang
  • MU: Teachers/students released : Gallery
  • Death Anniv - Bhagyachandra #3 : Gallery
  • Jarnail Singh @ MU : Gallery
  • Heikru Hidongba #3 : Gallery
  • AMAND Pune: Cultural evening : Gallery
  • Sizo Festival @Saikot : Gallery
  • Tarpon Sonba : Gallery
  • mtM :: Seireng
  • Lamyanba Irabot- March Past #2: Gallery
  • Front Page Photo 2018 #4: Gallery
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Manglandasu Nang - OST :: e-pao Radio
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic
  • SPONSORED ADS