TODAY -

Nupi Lan day obseravation 2012 at New Delhi by MSAD

New Delhi, Decemeber 13:

Nupi Lan day obseravation 2012 at New Delhi by MSAD
Nupi Lan day obseravation 2012 at New Delhi by MSAD



A leaflet from MSAD

Nupi Lan-Women's War of Manipur


The Nupi Lan of 1939 and the Meira Paibi movement against state terrorism since 1980, in which women have played a leading role, are crucial components of an overall anti-colonial struggle says Malem Ningthouja.

The anti-colonial struggle in Manipur that began with the British invasion in 1881 and continues till today has passed through several historical phases and has varied expressions. Before I go deeper into describing the Nupi Lan, I would like to point out however painfully that the Nupi Lan of 1939 and the Meira Paibee movement (against state terrorism) since 1980, in which women have played or continue to play leading role, are crucial components of an overall anti-colonial struggle. Both the events constitute different moments of a continuous trend of anti-colonial struggle under the objective conditions of national subjugation that began with the British rule and was continued by the Government of India. Celebrating the victory of Nupi Lan, therefore, must not overshadow the ongoing movement for democratic revolution.

The outbreak

Historically the Nupi Lan had its immediate cause in the artificial famine of 1939 caused by the profiteering activities of the Mayang (Indian) traders who exported rice to colonial garrisons outside Manipur. When the ban on the export of rice was lifted in 1939 to the great advantage of the Mayangs, the price of paddy soared up, thus seriously affecting the local petty traders, mostly women, and the poor consumers as well. The atmosphere of agitation was looming with the women traders ready to take a course of action against the inflation and the starving stomachs.

On 12 December 1939 hundreds of women who were demanding an end to the free trade on rice besieged the president of the Manipur Durbar and the officials who came to the rescue of the president. In the scuffle that broke out between the women and the Assam Rifles, twenty-one women and one Indian officer and seven other ranks of the Assam Rifles were injured. In the following months, women targeted the rice-mills owned by the Mayangs, which, "with a daily turn over of 11,200 mounds of rice, absorb the entire paddy available in the state (and)… threw out of employment the bulk of the people who lived by husking". Women boycotted the main bazaar, i.e., the hub of hoarding and profiteering that was under colonial protection, and protest meetings were held in the Police Bazar. They formed vanguards, intercepted rice carters carrying paddy for sale to the Mayang and at times threw cartloads of rice into the gutter. In January 1940 alone they held up about 150 rice-loaded carts.

In the course of the struggle, lasting several months, women besieged state thana and fought several pitched battles with the security personnel. In one of the pitched battles fought on 14 January, forty women agitators and some men were injured. Women organized against tax gathering, and the leaders advised the agitators to arm themselves with tem (a long wooden appliance used for weaving cloth) and wear two phaneks (sarong type of cloth worn by the women of Manipur) while confronting tax-collectors. In short, there was a qualitative shift of the movement towards popular struggle for a responsible government. The movement, however, subsided as a result of the approach of the Second World War in Manipur in the early 1940s.

The target

The primary targets of Nupi Lan were the agents of exploitation and the visual manifestations that have symbolized the colonial sovereignty, e.g., the Mayangs and the Mayang owned mills. In fact, the Mayangs infiltrated into Manipur under colonial protection and by 1939 they enjoyed absolute monopoly rights in: cotton, tea-seed, bees-wax and agar, elephant tusk, deer horn and orchid trades; silk manufacturing, mulberry plantation or silk farming, timber felling and vehicular traffic; plantation in rubber, jade and chalmugra seed, orchid mahals (reserved area) and so on. On the eve of the Nupi Lan they were carrying out unrestrained trading to the great disadvantage of the local consumers.

Economic oppression under Indian traders had been resented as early as the Bazar Boycott (1920). An application that was addressed to the Manipur State Durbar, dated 28 September 1920 reads, "…that your humble petitioners are extremely aggrieved at the hard lot of the cart owners who owe money to the Marwari (businessmen). They are compelled to carry the goods of (Mayang businessmen) at a lower rate of annas /8/ or /12/ or even Rs 1 per maund than the ordinary market rate of hire, as they are not allowed to look to any means for their gains. Over and above this, they owe to (Mayang businessmen) according to the system of compound interest and to carry a few maunds in excess in every cart gratis. Moreover, there are the occasional insertions of fake and real accounts against their name (in the registration book) for taking some necessaries of the cart.

They even take interest on the value of the articles after turning them into capital. Thus after the end of the year when all accounts are settled and the interests are charged into capital, in spite of their hard labour throughout the year to clear the debt by occasional payment of the little savings of the wages they find to their great astonishment that about the same or even greater capital than that of the last year. Then they are compelled to write another bond (in the registration book) for the coming year. This gradually increases year by year till it is beyond their power of clearing it…"

While the administration and the economy were in the grip of the Mayang agents and traders, Manipur was garrisoned from time to time by hordes of Mayang armies such as the Assam Rifles, Gurkha Rifles, Bombay Pioneers, and Burma Military Police. Under the prevailing circumstances, the Mayangs were being looked upon with contempt as the agents of colonialism, the cause of administrative manipulation, cultural exploitation, economic drainage and underdevelopment. They, obviously, became the prime targets of attack during the Nupi Lan.

Conclusion

Nupi Lan was a crucial part of a series of organized anti-colonial struggles such as the First Women War (1904), Anti-Pothang Movement and Anti-Water Tax Agitation (1910s), the Thadou- Kuki Resistance (1917), Bazar Boycott (1920), and the Zeliarong Movement under the leadership of Jadonang (1920s). However, it took the movement to a qualitatively new level, as it not only targeted the colonial free trade on rice and the Mayang control of the economy but also paved the way to the movement for establishing a responsible government in Manipur.

The valiant role that women played in it has left a historical legacy while inspiring thousands of women to play an active role in the ongoing Meira Paibi movement. On 15 July 2004 a dozen Manipuri mothers stripped in front of the Assam Rifles headquarters at Kangla demanding an end to state terrorism in Manipur. In other words, the Nupi Lan of 1939 is an event of the past, yet the objective conditions under which women waged the struggle remain more or less unchanged till today. If neo-colonialism has to be continuously superimposed upon Manipur, history will be an eyewitness to a series of Nupi Lans in the years to come.


* This info was sent by Manipur Students' Association Delhi (MSAD) who can be reached at msad(dot)manipur(at)gmail(dot)com
This Press Release was posted on December 13, 2012.


* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Miss Manipur 2016 #1 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 9: Arambai Exhibition: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 6: Kabui Dance: Gallery
  • Blockade Culture
  • Black scented rice (chahaomubi) #1
  • Paradigm shift in India's development #2
  • Mercedez makes NE debut
  • Bridge adds to Manipur woes
  • Indo-Naga Talks 2016 :: News Timeline
  • Sadar Hills Demand 2011-2016 : Timeline
  • Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown
  • Why worry ?
  • Mukna @Indigenous Game Fest : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 10: Closing #3 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 6: Hmar Dance: Gallery
  • The morning after Amma's death
  • Christmas season (Peace or pieces time)
  • Call to Enact an Anti Racial Law
  • NPF starts screening election candidates
  • Bravo Career to create 1000 workforce in NE
  • Training: Inner Engineering & Mind Balance
  • Jobs at Doordarshan Kendra, Itanagar
  • UCM's deadline drawing near
  • "Bhramastra" of Congress
  • Diana Khumanthem (IAS candidate)
  • Sangai Day 9: Food Stalls: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 5: Dhol Chollom : Gallery
  • Be faithful in small things... #1
  • Career in Public Administration
  • All can become Buddhas
  • Procession by Naga Civil Societies, Delhi
  • Global Sustainable Development Summit
  • Issues which will impact on polls
  • Appeal to the better sense
  • Jadonang Football Final #1 : Gallery
  • Donneihching, Khanghiamngam :: eMing
  • 10th Manipur International Polo #2 : Gallery
  • Day 4: Dance from NE #7 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Thougal Jagoi : Gallery
  • Imposing economic blockade: act of crime
  • Benefits & disadvantages of meat
  • Homestays to change Manipur tourism
  • Manipuri Nagas feel left out in Hornbill
  • Sadar Hills District Demand :: Articles
  • Global Sustainable Development Summit
  • UNC has delivered its point
  • Shakuhachi meet Pena #1 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 10: Closing #2 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 7: Thai Dance : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 5 : Aimol Dance : Gallery
  • Not promise..we must act to #endAIDS
  • Birds in the Spring :: Poem
  • Wanton Illegal Excavation at Nongmaiching
  • UNC decries escort of trucks to Imphal
  • For a little civility
  • Ningol Chakkouba @Thanga #2: Gallery
  • Xth Jadonang memorial football: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 7: WWII Car Rally #2: Gallery
  • Day 6: Culturals from Andhra : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Thang Ta : Gallery
  • Implementing the inevitable
  • CJCSD Protest on arrest of UNC leaders
  • Piling the heat on Congress
  • Thinly veiled vandalism
  • Sangai Day 10: Closing #1 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 9: Stalls : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 9: Imphal War Museum : Gallery
  • Shumang Leela Festival : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 9: Culturals from Kom : Gallery
  • Does Modi listen to Dylan?
  • Robin Hibu: In service of people from NE
  • Sangai Youth Art Challenge Prize Distribution
  • Kaushal / Job Mela at Hotel Imphal
  • World AIDS Day observed at Kumbi
  • Ensure Women in Decision Making
  • Getting more and more ugly
  • New hope in fight against HIV/AIDS
  • 10th Manipur International Polo #1 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 9: Nongju Tanthaa : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 6: from Thailand #2: Gallery
  • Day 4: Dance from NE #6 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Kabui Dance : Gallery
  • Consolidate efforts to #endAIDS by 2030
  • Thangjing : A potential aquatic cash crop
  • "Myanmar Political History" released in Delhi
  • 294 lakh granted to Centre for NE Studies
  • Blockade and counter blockade
  • Crumbling unity
  • 5th Mr Manipur Khamba : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 5: Culturals from Ukhrul: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Phungarel Jagoi : Gallery
  • Day 4: Dance from NE #5 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Thang Yannaba #2: Gallery
  • Featured Front Page Photo for 2016 #5
  • A dialogue on Proscenium Theatre
  • Religious function of pei in Zeliangrong #2
  • Challenges of migrants from NE
  • Manipur Sangai festival to conclude
  • Treat for disabled at Sangai fest
  • Voice of sanity from the Church
  • Clearing the way
  • Sangai Day 7: WWII Car Rally #1: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 7: Crowd/Visitors : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 6: Paragliding : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Hiyang Tanaba #2: Gallery
  • New fish species discovered in Manipur
  • Ningol Chakaoba photo from Russia
  • Demonetisation & what next?
  • Career @ Gerontology/ Geriatric Care #2
  • Holiday from drugs? NO for asthma control!
  • Earth Sciences and Geography at NEHU
  • Sangai Youth Art Challenge results
  • PM for coordination among police forces
  • Pact with WB for NE power growth
  • Interesting observation from Sen
  • Anathema to progress
  • Sangai Day 6: from Thailand #1: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 5: Culturals from Tamei: Gallery
  • Day 4: Dance from NE #4 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Pung Chollom #2: Gallery
  • Importance of backyard poultry farming in NE
  • Good bye to mother Manipur :: Poem
  • Thailand companies explore start-ups
  • Time to look for a 2nd lifeline
  • Sangai Day 3: Khullang eshei : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 5: Mizo Dance : Gallery
  • Day 4: Dance from NE #3 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Thang Ta Leiteng: Gallery
  • Descent of Sorarel on Earth :: Review
  • NaMonetisation- Will it really benefit
  • Lajong: Meghalaya Football Champions
  • Foundation provide financial assistance
  • Concealing the bitter truth
  • Day 5 : Maibi Laiching Jagoi: Gallery
  • Schedule for Sangai Festival [Upd]
  • Day 4: Dance from NE #2 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Pung Chollom #1: Gallery
  • Sangai Festival: Day 1 #6: Gallery
  • Queues, queues everywhere
  • Passing on our heritage to GenNext
  • Bangladesh Manipuri ChatraSamity anniv
  • Day 3: Gangte/Vaiphei Dance: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Dasa Avataar : Gallery
  • Sangai Festival: Day 1 #5: Gallery
  • Religious function of pei in Zeliangrong #1
  • To buy or not to buy jobs
  • RIST-23: Contemporary Social Expectations
  • Solar Lamps distributed at Chandel district
  • Making the common people suffer: Blockade
  • The non-existent plan
  • ILP System Demand- Photos from 2012
  • Sangai Day 3: Hiyang Tanaba #1: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Kartal Chollom : Gallery
  • Polo does not discriminate: Rowena
  • Alarming rates of lung diseases
  • Southeast Asia Research Group (SEARG)
  • Sadar Hills District Demand :: Articles
  • Viewing blockade through the lens of EVMs
  • Violating Govt rules by Govt Machineries
  • Sangai Day 2: Thoibi Jagoi: Gallery
  • Sangai Festival: Day 1 #3: Gallery
  • Sangai Festival: Day 1 #2: Gallery
  • Manipur Sangai Festival : Photos from 2012
  • Lenglong for Serow village
  • Of each seal of people's priceless votes
  • Conference: UN Development Goals
  • Issues which can impact on voting pattern
  • An anticipated move anyway
  • Sangai Fest, 2016: Day 1 #1: Gallery
  • Khunung Eeshei/ Ema Emoinu #1 : Radio
  • Miss Manipur 2016- Audition : Gallery
  • SoO With CHIKIMZ Outfits #2
  • Hijan Hirao: Text, Context & Translation
  • Environmental and developmental reporting
  • Adorylene crowned Miss Cherry Blossom
  • Houses handed to Tamenglong residents
  • Jobs @ TJS Solutions, Imphal
  • The Killing Fields 2013-16 : News Timeline
  • Failing to capitalise on 2012 mandate
  • Toast to a mirage
  • Priyanka Rajkumari : eRang Gallery
  • NE Fashion Design Awards #2: Gallery
  • Chakkouba Chatpa @Thanga #4: Gallery
  • My 500 notes
  • An open letter to UNC
  • Indira Gandhi
  • Job Openings at Prism D Solutions
  • Suspending publication for three days
  • Rally against Economic Blockade: Gallery
  • Ningol Chakkouba in Thailand
  • ILP: Clearing JACATB Apprehensions #4
  • Demonetization: Honest versus dishonest
  • Environment is unpublicized victim of war
  • Positive attitude and personality #2
  • Shantikumar: Mr Natural Olympia : Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Demonetisation - Sit-in-Protest: Gallery
  • All India Cooperative Week: Gallery
  • Of people and people's Government
  • Ascending oneself via introspection
  • 63rd All India Co-op Week at MSCB
  • Binalakshmi met Mizoram CM Thanhawla
  • Khwairamband Lairembi #1 : Gallery
  • Chavang Kut @ Bengaluru: Gallery
  • Armed Political Movement Of Nagas #5
  • Ningol Chak-Kouba @Pune: Gallery
  • Phuba Khuman @Senapati: Gallery
  • Landscape of Manipur #2: Wallpaper
  • Ningol Chakkouba @Jalandhar: Gallery
  • Theba-theng-gu Lamjel Taanaba : Funga
  • Lamlong Keithel #4 : Gallery
  • Ningol Chakkouba @Mysore #2: Gallery
  • ABC Zero #2 (Scene) :: eRang
  • Lamlai Fest - Maring tribe #2: Gallery
  • Miss Kut at Imphal : Gallery
  • Ningols @Ningol Chakkouba : Gallery
  • Manipuri Calendar for 2017 : Download
  • Dzuko valley #2 :: 360ø Panorama
  • Non-Local Peoples Bill : Draft [Sep 27]
  • Manipur Phone Directory :: e-pao Tools
  • SPONSORED ADS