TODAY -

Intricacies of core issue in Naga insurgency

Sunil Thongam *



Ten policemen escorting the Speaker of the Nagaland State Assembly were killed by NSCN cadres on August 14, 1991. Thirteen members of the NNC (NFG) were killed by NSCN rebels on August 13, 1992. It was reported the killing was in retaliation for the alleged cooperation of the NNC with the Indian army in a crackdown on an NSCN camp.

The Naga outfit used guerilla warfare in targeting the Government's armed forces, police and their support units before signing a ceasefire agreement with the Government of India in 1997. The physical environment has remained conducive to guerilla operations in Nagaland, Manipur and other North Eastern States. The region has large areas with heavy jungle or mountains and poor roads.

The NSCN (IM) had been fighting in their own homeland. They used their familiarity with the local landscape and terrain to their advantage. History says that use of guerrilla warfare was first suggested in the 6th century BC by Chinese general and strategist Sun Tzu, in his classic book, The Art of War.

Mao Zedong in China and Ho Chi Minh in North Vietnam also used guerrilla warfare. In India, the Marathas used guerilla warfare successfully against the Mughals in the 17th century.

The Naga imbroglio is yet to end. The NSCN (IM) has said Nagas will co-exist with India but will not merge with it. The outfit has firmed up on the demand for shared sovereignty between Indian and Nagalim. NSCN (IM) has insisted on co-existing together under shared sovereignty.

Sovereignty does not mean independence. Sovereignty means the right to self-rule, while independence means the right to sole rule. Shared sovereignty implies the co-existence and interdependence of two entities.

Thuingaleng Muivah (87) hails from Somdal in Manipur's Ukhrul district which is the home of the Tangkhul tribes. Muivah is the General Secretary of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland-IM, or NSCN (IM). He left his native village about 50 years ago to wage an armed struggle.

He joined the Naga National Council (NNC), an armed group campaigning for secession of Nagaland from India. Muivah subsequently became the General Secretary of NNC. A group of NNC leaders signed the Shillong Accord of 1975 with the Government of India. Muivah and some others denounced this group as traitors. The Shillong Accord accepted the Indian Constitution which was the main reason for Muivah and his team to part ways.

A faction led by Isak Chishi Swu, SS Khaplang and Muivah quit NNC to form the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN) in 1980. The NSCN continued secessionist activities abandoned by the NNC. But the NSCN later split into NSCN (IM) led by Isak Chishi Swu and Muivah, and NSCN (K) led by Khaplang due to major disagreements.

The NSCN now has four factions—the Isak-Muivah faction, the NSCN-K splinter headed by Khole Konyak, the NSCN-K headed by Khaplang, and NSCN-Unification. NSCN (IM) under the leadership of Muivah and Swu signed a ceasefire agreement with the Government of India in August 1997. The major breakthrough of the Naga peace talk took place on August 3, 2015 with the signing of a peace accord with the Centre.

Naga National Flag was hoisted in different areas of Nagaland and Manipur on August 14 this year to mark the Naga independence day. Thuingaleng Muivah on the occasion had said that the Naga Flag and Constitution were indivisible parts of the recognized sovereignty and unique history.

In his speech to mark the 76th Naga Independence Day, the Naga separatist politician said, "Sovereignty is our birthright, which should be defended at all costs."

"The Naga Flag and Constitution are indivisible parts of the recognized sovereignty and unique history," Muivah had said. NSCN (IM) has been demanding a separate Flag and Constitution which the Centre had rejected.

It is quite clear to the Naga Nationalist separatist group now that the demand for sovereignty and a 'Greater Nagaland' is neither feasible nor attainable. The solution to the Naga problem has remained stalled even after 25 years of political talks due to the NSCN (IM)'s demand for a separate Naga Flag and Constitution.

The NSCN (IM) has repeatedly said it would not accept the 'Naga National Flag' as a cultural flag as indicated by New Delhi. It has vowed that it will not allow itself to be succumbed to 'political blackmail.'

On one hand, the Naga outfit is unlikely to sign the final deal unless the demand for a separate Flag and Constitution was met, but on the other hand the Government of India in light of abrogation of Article 370 in Kashmir, is unlikely to think about the Naga outfit's demand.

It is very clear to the Government of India that a final solution to the protracted Naga problem will be the way to peace. The Centre needs a systematic approach and an open mind to end the decades-old insurgency. Prolonging the final political settlement wil continue to pose a challenge for the Government. The Centre has to create the conditions.

According to Shri EN Rammohan, IPS (Retd), it is in Manipur that the NSCN (IM) has played its biggest games. The Meitei from the valley and the Naga from the hills have not been well disposed to each other ever since the Naga insurgency started in 1955.

The Meiteis uneasily watched as the Nagas got a State in 1963, while they still remained a Union Territory. Later as the NSCN (IM) gained strength the Meiteis who had ruled over Manipur and a major part of Nagaland for hundreds of years, began to feel threatened. The Manipur valley and particularly Imphal was a rich ground for extortion.

Recently, Nagaland Deputy Chief Minister Yanthungo Patton, who is also the BJP legislature party leader, allegedly said some "big leaders" of the Naga Nationalist groups do not want a solution to the Naga issue but continue reaping the fruits of tax collection and extortion. Patton's statement indicated intricacies of the core issue in Naga insurgency. He gave nuances to the core issue.

The Nagaland Tribes Council (NTC) in a recent statement said that the general public in Nagaland has been the ultimate victim of the unabated and multiple illegal taxations, all kinds of suppressive and anti-people activities of the selfish authorities and the armed elements alike under the signed ceasefires during the last 25 years that has virtually destroyed everything both in public and private sectors.

However, in May this year, the NSCN (IM) blamed New Delhi for increasing the burden of taxes on the people in Nagaland through several extremist factions. The Naga rebel outfit made this accusation a day after the Nagaland Government ordered all "police check gates", except those at the inter-State boundaries, to shut down to "curb illegal collection of money from the vehicles on roads".

In a statement the publicity 'ministry' of the NSCN (I-M) had said taxations "can see the end" once the Naga solution materialises. "We understand the pressing situation where people are overburdened with multiple factions and taxations... Ironically, these factions are not created by Nagas themselves," the outfit said.

The NSCN (IM) had said the Government of India created these factions to "burden the Naga public with the sinister design to pull down the Naga Nationalism". The factions referred to are at least seven constituents of the rival Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs) that signed the Agreed Position with the Centre in 2017.

If there is no complete and unresolved support of the people, insurgency just cannot have the chance of success. At the same time, the uprising of the Mizo National Front (MNF) finally collasped when they themselves came to power. The uprising was a revolt against the Government of India aimed at establishing a sovereign Nation State for the Mizo people. Coming to power resulted in the MNF collapse.

The historic Mizoram Accord was signed between MNF and Government of India in 1986 ending two decades of insurgency in Mizoram. It also opened the way for the former insurgents headed by Laldenga to form the Government in Mizoram.


* Sunil Thongam wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on September 08 2022 .



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Sangai Day 6: Elowe: Dzuko Valley :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 5: Khunung Eshei :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 27 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Alligator weed: Indigenous fodder resource
  • Two lives :: Poem
  • People don't actually care !!
  • The beauty in tea
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Healthy response to Sangai Fest
  • Lessons from Japanese fans at WC
  • Sangai Day 5: Fashion parade :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Thangal Dance :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 26 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Masterclasses add value to 53rd IFFI at Goa
  • 7th Charuangc 2022 : Rongmei of Delhi-NCR
  • Miss India from Manipur
  • Startup Innovation Conclave 1.0
  • National Constitution Day at Lilong
  • Sangai Day 4: 3 Types Of Drums :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Chothe Dance :: Gallery
  • Involuntary Displacement in Manipur
  • Forgotten feature Film comes alive at IFFI
  • Will we protect medicines that protect us
  • God gives us our daily bread...
  • NPF consultative meeting at Zunheboto
  • Lapses in education laid bare by student
  • Adding a new flavour to War on Drugs
  • Sangai Day 3: Polo International :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Tangkhul Dance :: Gallery
  • 1st L. Keivom Memorial Day
  • Eina Khankhiba Natte : Movie Review
  • COVID-19 Status 24 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Eight Meet of Astronomers concluded at MU
  • 'Manipuri films projecting Manipuri culture'
  • Condemn govts of Assam & Meghalaya
  • Corruption-free Manipur resolve under scrutiny
  • Asia at the World Cup
  • Sangai Day 2: Khutpak Chatkoi #1 :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Tarao Dance :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 23 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Screening of Manipuri films at IFFI
  • Nagaland Govt has no economic policy: NPF
  • Organic seed production- Issue & strategy #2
  • Reinvent Northeast - Dimapur launched
  • Uneasy calm in northeast as border rows rage
  • FIFAWC and Sangai Festival : Splendid recipe
  • Ningol Chakkouba @ Pune :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Ningol Chakouba organized at Pune
  • Free mega health camp at Nagamapal
  • Outlaw glyphosate and its derivatives
  • Creators Meet of Tripura at Agartala
  • No respite from drug and tobacco threats
  • Manipur: Fountainhead of drugs ?
  • Sangai Day 1: Laihui Folk Music #1 :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 1: Opening ceremony :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 21 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Copa Manipur at Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • South Asia's film market features Manipur
  • ST Demand: Decided by merits; not by poll
  • Ecotoxicology- needed to save living beings
  • 'Look East policy into Act East Policy'
  • Tourism promotional fest litmus test for state
  • Sangai & Pony, the twin face of Manipur
  • Tarpon Chaklen Katpa #2 :: Gallery
  • Sangai Festival 2022 :: Activities List
  • The Dream Kangleipak :: Book Review
  • COVID-19 Status 20 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • 53rd IFFI featuring Manipuri Cinema kicks off
  • World Toilet Day 2022
  • Pulicat Lagoon, Flamingos' haven
  • Amid substance abuse, thrust on open gym
  • FIFA World Cup 2022
  • 1st CM's Sagol Kangjei C'ship :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Sangai Fest as a way to Look East Policy
  • 1st Chief Minister's Sagol Kangjei C'ship
  • Organic seed production- Issue & strategy #1
  • For PM Modi, G20 has come at the right time
  • Rock band Arogya releases latest single
  • Community Ningol Chakouba #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 18 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Out of the heart comes the issues of life
  • NE Startup Showcase @ Manipur Tech Hub
  • Immortal Gallows :: Poem
  • Workshop on Amrita Meditation at RGU ArP
  • Skin Pigmentation in Winter
  • Influx issue headache for all indigenes
  • Wanted: Visionary leaders :: Follies of past
  • The changing idioms of Manipuri theatre
  • COVID-19 Status 17 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • DFC Shillong launched with Model workshop
  • Antimicrobial resistance... to reverse progress
  • 2nd North East Olympic Games closes
  • Unending quota system & National excellence
  • Solar energy can help India achieve net-zero
  • Sangai Festival as launch pad for tourism
  • All eyes on Qatar
  • Manipur Journalist Awards #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 16 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Delegates for IFFI, Goa
  • Intellectual Class- First Line of Defense
  • Who are ST in true spirit of Constitution
  • Journalism is a public good ...
  • Vaccine transported through Drones in ArP
  • Mass tree felling depreciates existence...
  • ST demand : Let Delhi have the say
  • 5th Kwatha Festival #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 15 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • This Eleventh Edition of Sangai Festival
  • The garden of Kew #2
  • NE International Fashion Week 2022
  • Housing system for sow & piglets
  • Doctors grieving relentlessly, Govt silent
  • Law catching up after 21 years
  • Leima Jagoi @ Nongshaba #1 :: Gallery
  • Manipur Technology innovation Hub
  • North East BJP Karyakartas Sammelan
  • Supreme Court call for revisit of reservation
  • Rural Immersion Camp at West Kameng
  • World Diabetes Day 2022
  • Undeserving PDS rice beneficiaries
  • Leaving the doors wide open
  • On author, research & publication #3
  • COVID-19 Status 13 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • MSAD : newly elected executives for 2022-23
  • 'Trust deficit' in Naga talks
  • Professor Bimola : A Life Fully Lived
  • Love's Twist :: Poem
  • Rani Gaidinliu Training Camp concluded
  • Job for all promise as unemployed rises
  • Presenting Manipur to the world
  • Manipur Fashion Extravaganza #3 :: Gallery
  • Seminar on Role of Women in Sports : Report
  • The great Asian Highway : Tokyo to Istanbul
  • Seminar : Reconstruction of Education
  • 4th National Lok Adalat for the year, 2022
  • Rishi Sunak .. is a pucca English Burra sahib
  • Ningol Chakkouba : Gift presents :: Gallery
  • Conference on Metallomics @ Manipur Univ
  • An awakening sprout in darkness :: Poem
  • Narration from a man who chase mountains
  • Jobs @ JCRE skill solutions, Thangmeiband
  • Masterclass on Social Photography kicks off
  • Training on mushroom cultivation
  • Probe into PMGSY project blot on graft-free
  • Opinion poll & quest for ST status
  • MANITEX @ Nilakuthi #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 10 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Consultation: Indigenous Rights in Manipur
  • Aphababu Oiragadi, Shokloidaba Oiragadi
  • Office Assistant @Horizon Studio, Gurgaon
  • Howrah Bridge- A bridge without nuts & bolts!
  • Pollution affects beauty
  • EV boost plan after failure of diesel-auto
  • Raining drugs and drug peddlers
  • Downloadable Manipuri Calendar for 2023
  • COVID-19 Status 09 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Golden Jubilee Manipuri Cinema at IFFI Goa
  • Legal Services Day Ceremony
  • Art of stopping bandhs & blockades
  • Seminar on Role of Women in Sports
  • No time for debate, but action
  • Taking ST campaign to Ministers' doors
  • Camping @Shirui Lily Fest #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 08 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Aku Zeliang : Young Talent of the Year Award
  • 'Soul search' a must for media
  • Safe and sustainable tourism
  • Preserving environment as a Career Choice
  • Manipur in UN's drug cartel map...
  • Manipur on the tourism map ?
  • Hiyang Tannaba @ Loktak #3 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 07 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Application: AgriEntrepreneur across Manipur
  • Sangai Festival 2022 :: Program & Venues
  • Ningol Chakouba at Bengaluru
  • Nightingale Award: 3 nurses from Manipur
  • Uneasy over ambiguous inter-district boundary
  • Prescription from Dr Sapam Ranjan
  • Linthoi Chanambam- Judo Player :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 06 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Will global family planning meet galvanise govt
  • Prohibition law vis-a-vis Manipur
  • Soil: Earth's skin is the environment cleaner
  • The future of students
  • Low conviction diluting object of POCSO
  • Shortage of teachers dating back to 2012
  • Indo-Naga Talks (2012-) :: News Timeline
  • Hari-Uthang Kang Chingba :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 05 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • The garden of Kew
  • Objectionable content have to be answered
  • Rising Sun Water Festival at Umiam Lake
  • Busting fake news a big challenge
  • Ningol on way to her mapam #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 04 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • 3rd Rongmei Freshers' meet in Delhi
  • Consultation on Climate Change in Manipur
  • Soil conservation measures for hill agriculture
  • Pulicat, trading centre since 1st century
  • Quixotically blaming media for blockade call
  • Mature handling of ST campaign
  • Kut Festival @ Churachandpur : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 03 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • 'Lack of Sports Infrastructure in Pherzawl'
  • Delegates wanted for participation at IFFI
  • Legal Awareness through Mobile Van
  • President Murmu's visit to Nagaland ...
  • Winter fruits for glowing skin
  • Protest imminent as Govt eyes Loktak drive
  • Pushes for an 'honourable solution'
  • Kut has become a global craze now
  • AMAND Pune: Cultural Program #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 02 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Requital :: Poem
  • Being Vegan- a big step to protect the Earth
  • Save Meetei and other indigenous people
  • Agniveer Recruitment Rally
  • Social media here to stay
  • Has AFSPA helped in bettering situation ?
  • Kangpat Khullen Primary School :: Gallery
  • On author, research and publication #2
  • Ningol Chakkouba Shopping #2 :: Gallery
  • November Calendar for Year 2022 : Tools
  • Lukanand Ksh : 1st runner up @Mister Intl
  • Chaga Ngee : Festival of the Liangmai
  • Lamyanba Irawat Birth Anniv #4 : Gallery
  • Ningol on way to her mapam #1 :: Gallery
  • Okram Kumar : Archaeological researcher
  • Mera Houchongba @ Kangla #2 :: Gallery
  • Olympians & National awardees of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2022 #4: Gallery
  • Rules of English Pronunciation : Download
  • Sub-Syllables in English : Book Download