TODAY -

In-Situ and Ex-Situ Transmissions of COVID-19

Paojakhup Guite *



Of late, rumours roared buzzingly across the State that COVID-19 had reached its climax of transmission: Community Transmission. In epidemiology, community spread happens to be the third stage. At this stage, sources of the disease are not known.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines Community Transmission as one which is “evidenced by the inability to relate confirmed cases through chains of transmission for a large number of cases, or by increasing positive tests through sentinel samples (routine systematic testing of respiratory samples from established laboratories)”.

In the US, a Community Transmission of the disease (COVID-19) has three specific source countries. Therefore, community spread in the US means those cases which are occurring in people who did not have any known contact with others from China, South Korea or Italy.

Similarly, in Manipur, the third stage of transmission of COVID-19 may be evidenced by inability to relate confirmed cases through chains of transmission for a large number of cases to those who have a “staying history” in quarantine centres i.e., occurring in people who did not have known contact with someone from Community Quarantine Centres (CQC) or Institutional QCs or Home Quarantines. Community Transmission as such is yet to take place in the state (if not prevented in the right direction).

As of I write this piece, Manipur has contracted 4-digit cases of COVID-19. These thousand cases have been clinically confirmed through sentinel samples thanks to the Government of Manipur. However, none of these cases can be traced or related to a community spread. Most of them had their transmissions happened among the inmates themselves inside the Quarantine centres.

I call this mode of transmission as In-Situ transmission. Apart from this transmission, we also have some confirmed cases on who had initially tested negative while in a quarantine centre, but later confirmed positive after a requisite 14-day or more quarantining. Still in this case, s/he is believed to have contracted from fellow inmates i.e., both having a staying history in Quarantine centres.

I call this mode as Ex-Situ transmission. Both the in-situ and ex-situ transmissions are non-local, non-community. They can be collectively called Managed Transmissions. The managed transmissions, namely in-situ and ex-situ transmissions are said to be the spill-over effects of mismanagement of transportation and quarantine facilities of returnees.

Air Transmission

One of the fastest modes of transport is airways. Ministry of Civil Aviation was quite prompt to consider the home sickness of its people living outside their home states. The Union Ministry works with State Governments of the country in unison to repatriate the expatriates.

As a result, while a stringent lockdown was strictly enforced on ground, traffic began to jam in the air from 25th May, 2020 after a brief ban on airways.

The passengers reached quarantine centres in 4 to five hours time. Asymptomatic persons carried with them the disease. Hence, the disease travelled in such a breakneck speed to reach the jewelled land (Manipur) through air. Thus, air is being polluted.

At the initial stage, due to lack of testing technology and of Personal Protective Equipments (PPE) kits, quarantining alone was not robust enough to contain the disease within its four walls. Worse, Quarantine centres were not able to provide basic amenities to the inmates. This raised questions of security concerns.

Lack of basic amenities poses an existential threat (basic necessities like toilet, washroom, diet, etc.) to humankind. This existential threat to the inmates was a viable route for the virus to spread easily to as many as people in a very short span of time.

In a nutshell, COVID-19 is a passenger-borne and not air-borne. Let’s give time to the World Health Organisation to refute its own earlier finding that the virus is not air-borne. Kudos to those experts who have, after a series of rigorous research, lettered the world health body to review its earlier guidelines on transmission of the Coronavirus.

If the air-borne transmission is proved, Lockdown 6.0 is likely to be imposed all the more harshly. Alas, our atmospheric aerosols have been adulterated by the airways!

Real Transmission

Maximum contractions in minimum time of the disease happened through railways. Numbers of passengers are comparatively larger and the time taken to reach a destination is over 19 times more than that of airways.

Defying Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), passengers turned the Shramik special trains as an Opera centre- enjoyed the whole journey with music, songs and instruments on the train. Not maintained social distancing guidelines. They thronged in groups . Therefore, Rails apparently have become the real breeding ground of COVID-19.

Behavioural Transmission

Only pointing at the infrastructural loopholes in the Quarantine centres might not do us good. Expecting a VIP treatment will be counterproductive- since late last year, we have had an unstable government in the state. In fact, hitherto, finance might not have been an issue.

Rather, the issue at hand is the moral failures of the inmates who could not bear the brunt of existential challenges. The Government, therefore, under the garb of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) have invested most of their times in lecturing.

Flouting the guidelines on the train continued till the Quarantine centres. Some inmates were seen in their worst discipline. They even felt like meeting in their rendezvous. Some were exposed to their erotic dancing moves by themselves. The news of this undesirable behaviour went viral and national.

While even religious gatherings were prohibited, some inmates were found in group in some Quarantine centres without maintaining social distance and performed their religious worships therein. For such zealot persons, humanity appears to be contradictory with religion.

Rather, the two are complimentary and go hand in hand. As long as humanity exists, so will also religion. Religion is something which is ingrained in us, and humanity needs to be inculcated. For atheists, humanity is their religion.

Prison Bluff

Government should not always play a face-saving tactic. Declaring that a violator of Quarantine SOPs be put into a prison is a gimmick. Nevertheless, the government calling for the bluff was the immediate and viable solution against the clamours of half-fed disgruntled inmates.

Battle against COVID-19 is not to be fought by government alone. It is a people’s war. From government to returnees to quarantinees to common people, we have to stand together on a war footing to emerge victorious against this disease. Doing this would reduce the burden of doctors, Para-medics and other frontline health workers.

Eventually, human beings will develop such a technology and immune system to edge the dreaded SARS-CoV-2 out of humanity not to come back forever.


(The write-up tones satirical, and yet the writer puts up his best to walk the tightrope).


* Paojakhup Guite wrote this article for Imphal Times
The writer can be reached at guitepaojakhup9(AT)gmail(DOT)com
This article was posted on July 11, 2020.


* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Addressing the Zeliangrong question
  • COVID-19 Status 10 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Ramkashing, Sinneihoi, Aton: eMing
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Women plug food supply gap during lockdown
  • NGO Studies (MAINS) program in South Korea
  • Initiate inquiry for Hospital refusal
  • Love in the Hard Times :: Poem
  • From cluster to local transmission
  • Negative remarks on positive activities
  • MK PB Singh, 1st CM & Mizo agitation
  • COVID-19 Status 9 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Azolla: An organic farmer's friend
  • Corona Came Calling... :: Poem
  • Manipur gi sakkhangbidraba yelhoumee
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Thousand questions to life but.. one answer
  • Time to take all into confidence
  • Yaoshang Thabal Chongba #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 8 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Impact of Covid-19 on mobile phone users
  • International Day of Indigenous Peoples
  • A call against systematic inequalities
  • August Diary :: Poem
  • A tale of Friendships Unlocked !
  • A Nuclear Free Future
  • Stay positive on Northeast plan
  • Is MSPDCL taking advantage of COVID-19
  • Folk Dance @Republic Day #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 7 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Written obituary :: Poem
  • Truth unearth by COVID-19 pandemic
  • Clarification from SKY Hospital
  • COVID-19: Orders - 7 Aug: Govt of Manipur
  • Children's psychology & lockdown intervention
  • No confidence & godfather
  • Death in childbirth in the 21st century !
  • Need for a suitable pandemic model
  • Phuba Khuman in Senapati dist #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 6 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Thoubalphobia- Malemnganbi's Child Delivery
  • Why not establish veterinary college, Manipur
  • India-Myanmar Convergence :: Webinar
  • National Education Policy : A New Horizon
  • Wanted : Total figure of local transmission
  • Lets appreciates the thousands heroes
  • Become an Amateur Astronomer
  • COVID-19 Status 5 August: Govt of Manipur
  • BIG 17th call : Biotech Ignition Grant
  • Maya Kuki- 3 titles at IAWA India 2020
  • 2020 :: Poem
  • What is Intellectual Property Right (IPR)?
  • Art of running a coalition Govt
  • Traditional Raas Dance #3 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 4 August: Govt of Manipur
  • 2 from Manipur clear Civil Services Exam
  • Education Policy: Prospects & Way Forward
  • Appeal to stop Chromite mining
  • Agri-enterprises for Atmanirbhar North-East
  • Changes to make-up during COVID-19
  • Time to act sensibly
  • Barricading or brainstorming?
  • Tarao Laimanai, Chandel #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 3 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Ravi's take on China factor in NE Insurgency
  • Opportunities in post COVID days
  • Shifting of drug supply trend in Manipur
  • Hope in COVID Era !! :: Poem
  • Press Communique from NPF [3 Aug]
  • Stand on ST demand
  • Culturals @ Sangai Fest 2019 #3 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 2 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Misinterpretation of Naga Political Settlement
  • Home returnees, unemployment & ILPS
  • NEP to adversely affect future of North-east
  • Conflicts of laws on Child Marriage & POSCO
  • His Stoic Endurance :: Poem
  • 'Declare relatives working in Naga movement'
  • Rise from July 1 to August 1
  • 'Zehara' - Manipuri Movie :: eRang Classic
  • COVID-19 Status 1 August: Govt of Manipur
  • CCC @ Khongnangkhong [Aug 1]: Gallery
  • Where are the men in family planning ?
  • Asymptomatic & Rapid Antigen Testing
  • Cosmic Lover :: Poem
  • Incremental benefit of cleaning Nambul River
  • Why only 5 Kg of rice to cardholders?
  • Imphal View from Nongmai Ching #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 31 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Id-Ul-Azha celebrated by Meitei Pangal
  • COVID-19 & its detection strategy
  • Physical Education & Sports @ MU
  • Naming the COVID vaccine
  • Withdraw MoUs signed for mining
  • More deaths, more concern
  • Ailing Nambul River recovering
  • Dr TS Gangte: Pioneer of higher education
  • COVID-19 Status 30 July : Govt of Manipur
  • August Calendar for Year 2020 : Tools
  • Hand sanitizer @Kakching [Jul 29]: Gallery
  • The Killing Fields 2013-20 : News Timeline
  • Orders / Memo on 30 July : Govt of Manipur
  • National Education Policy 2020
  • A Golden Jubilee Reunion :: Poem
  • Employment options in Insurance Industry
  • The Political life of the State
  • Recording death tally at four
  • Hentak :: An indigenous Manipuri food
  • COVID-19 Status 29 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Enforcement of COVID-19 Guidelines
  • My Love :: Poem
  • LPG management and supply
  • International Faculty Development Program
  • High-end Forensic Geology in crime scenes
  • Covid-19: Impact in Manipur :: Photos/News..
  • Manipur on the map of COVID death
  • Checking corruption: greatest joke of the year
  • Imphal during lockdown [26 July] #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 28 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Plantation is no less a serious business
  • COVID-19 : Impact on mobility of women
  • Appeal to stop Mining in Ukhrul, Kamjong..
  • Making sense of lockdown
  • Non-Discrimination in combating COVID-19
  • Zeiladjang @ Makuai, Tamenglong : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 27 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Chassad & the Question of Justice
  • Online Training program for Police Officer
  • Proposal of Online Education: Its impact
  • The walls of Roman Londinium
  • Reminiscence of coming :: Book Review
  • Seeking to set house in order
  • The dawn of a new-normalcy
  • Imphal during lockdown [26 July] #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 26 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Delimitation amasung yelhoumee Meetei..
  • Investigative Journalism training conducted
  • Gas Balloons :: Poem
  • Career in insurance: Jobs for millions
  • Meet model teacher helping students
  • Understanding total figure of 2212
  • Manipur Art Fest 2019 #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 25 July : Govt of Manipur
  • PM calls for Vocal for Local to Manipur
  • Makhol_ Discussing Arts E2 with Astad Deboo
  • Society :: Poem
  • IQs & EQs of politicians
  • Living with COVID 19
  • 'Blood donors should be welcome'
  • Bracing for the worst
  • Princess & Political Agent launch #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 24 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Virus Fabrics Spray by Kakchingtambam Kiran
  • Tales from a conflict zone :: Poem
  • Why Manipur senior IPS officer shot himself
  • Anti Defection Law: Big Debate
  • COVID-19 vaccine : So near and yet so far
  • Central observers here after trip to Delhi
  • The limitation on Free Speech
  • Impact of COVID-19 on transgender
  • COVID-19 Status 23 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Love Story of Tonu Laijing Lembi
  • 29th NAMA Virtual Convention 2020
  • Understanding disasters & disaster mgmt #2
  • Seeking NHRC to intervent in Akhil Gogoi case
  • Impacts of COVID-19 on agriculture : Paper
  • Lockdown & opening doors to outsiders
  • In search of the elusive leader
  • Anti-Repression Day #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Race Apart ? :: Poem
  • Of political instability, COVID & war on drug
  • Preventing skin damage due to face masks
  • Issues raised by NPF Legislature Wing
  • Webninar : How to develop skills in writings
  • Nonsensical rush for fuel
  • When the virus starts attacking
  • Manipur & the Lushai Expedition, 1871-72 #3
  • COVID-19 Status 21 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Negatives turning positive, catastrophe in wait?
  • Environmental change : Uttarakhand : Rvw
  • Empathy Campaign at Imphal Airport
  • Rejoinder by Dr. Liezietsu [21 Jul]
  • Responsible conduct- Jiribam to Thoubal
  • BJP may be in trouble..
  • The Princess & Political Agent launch : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 20 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Governor & Maharani launch Binodini's Book
  • Mount Koubru: Its dying glory, & way forward
  • Govt expenditures on education in Manipur
  • 2nd Online Career counseling in IT
  • The last of the oaks :: Poem
  • Rising cases of infection
  • Manipur today is living on mercy of Delhi
  • HSE Toppers - Commerce stream : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2020 #3: Gallery
  • Loktak Lake: A gem perishing front of our eye
  • Man behind 'Save Nambul'
  • X-rays and applications
  • COVID-19 pandemic & existential crisis
  • Training programme on mushroom cultivation
  • Best result in last three years
  • HSE Toppers - Science stream : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 18 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Understanding disasters & disaster mgmt #1
  • Salam Sangita : NE Women Success Stories
  • Subconscious Mind in COVID Era :: Poem
  • In quest of leadership
  • 4 BJP Ministers' visit to Delhi
  • HSE Toppers - Arts stream : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 17 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Between hospitals and hope
  • War on drugs: A losing battle in Manipur
  • Rays of the Setting Sun :: Poem
  • What actually LOP meant & intended : NPF
  • Rejoinder by Dr. Shurhozelie Liezietsu
  • Posers over Delhi trip
  • The face of justice
  • Class XII Result : Highest Marks
  • Class XII Result : Science Toppers
  • Class XII Result : Arts Toppers
  • Class XII Result : Commerce Toppers
  • Class XII Result : District PC
  • Class XII Result : Science
  • Class XII Result : Arts
  • Class XII Result : Commerce
  • COVID-19 Status 16 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Training programme on mushroom : Gallery
  • Diplomacy in Power & Leadership
  • PPE distributed to Community Health Centre
  • Think population studies as career
  • Intensify agitations as Govt fails to act
  • The Jiribam and Thoubal experience
  • Discovery of Thangjing hill range waterfall
  • Anti-Repression Day #1 : Gallery
  • Accelerating rights of women, post-COVID
  • Heritage Park @ Sangai Festival : Gallery
  • EEVFAM Foundation day : Gallery
  • Mining MoUs & Concerns in Manipur
  • Licypriya low-cost 'Face Shields' : Gallery
  • Airlifting of organic Pineapples : Gallery
  • 9th Manipuri Film Awards (MANIFA) Result
  • Yaoshang Halankar @BijoyGovinda #2: Gallery
  • Manipur & the Lushai Expedition, 1871-72 #2
  • Barak waterfall @ Tamenglong #2 : Gallery
  • Kanglen Aarti katpa #2 : Gallery
  • Eikhoigi Puwarini Nambul Turel #2 : Gallery
  • Manipur & the Lushai Expedition, 1871-72 #1
  • Takhelchangbam Kunjabihari : Wari Liba
  • I Rise :: Film Scenes : eRang
  • Class X (HSLC) Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Merit List
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Result Sheet
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Subject Toppers
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Statistics Abstract
  • Motsillaba Mingsel :: eRang Photos
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • SPONSORED ADS