Manipuri Pony : A Cavalry Horse Par Excellence
- Part 1 -

Moirangthem Shantikumar Singh *

Arambai exhibition with Manipuri Pony  on April 26th 2008 at Mapal Kangjeibung
Arambai exhibition with Manipuri Pony in April 2008 at Mapal Kangjeibung :: Pix - Jinendra Maibam

The white warhorse charged through the throngs of sword wielding enemies. Throwing his head high in the air and neighing loudly, well equipped with quiverful of Arambai darts on both sides of the horn of the high saddle, the king's mount understood his master's decision to charge by instinct. Galloping across the sprawling space of Kyangkhampat, he had tested the spirit of man and horse against an unforgiving environment and merciless enemy.

"Riding a white horse across Kyang land, the king fought his way with sword outstretched through the battle of Samjok" (Cheitharol Kumbaba, the Royal Chronicle). It was King Khagemba who crossed the mountain fastness of the low lying western ranges of Burma and extended the sway of Manipur up to Chindwin River, across Kyangkhampat in 1607 which later substantiated Manipur's claim over the Kabaw Valley after the end of Anglo-Burmese War in 1824-26.

Along with grit and determination, the king showed an incredible certainly and faith leading the wave of Manipuri horsemen. The Manipuri cavalry horses, having trained in the melee of the polo field and game, were primed to follow the king at a gallop towards the enemy lines. The white charger which he rode in the campaign was given a divine attribute and perhaps it was since then that white steeds acquired divine spirituality in the state. In Manipur, only white ponies are used for special occasions like Lai Loukhatpa (calling up the Gods) as mount for deities.

The hilly kingdom of Manipur owes much to the prowess and vitality of its legendary pony for its survival as a nation amidst the turbulent upheavals of nation building which churned the fringes of South Asia up to the last part of the 19th Century. A collateral event was the massive centrifugal human migration in Asia originating from the steppe region of East Asia which was further facilitated by a systemic evolution of primitive transport systems based on the domestication of animal.

Although the prey animals like donkey, old world camels and horses were hunted for food, they were also brought into the human niche as means of transport. They were first employed as draught animal to pull carts and as well as ploughs. As people began to domesticate horses they learnt to control them for riding both in war and peace. The moment people could ride on horseback comfortably, they started using them for satisfaction of another basic instinct-to fight. Thus cavalry was born.

Over the ages the steppe regions of Mongolia became the cradle of horse culture. They raised horses for food as well for hunting. The Mongol military machine founded by Genghis Khan based their invincible power on the strategic use of cavalry potentials. In the 13th century, the Mongols who were primarily horse-archers used the hit-and-run tactics with devastating effect combined with masterly use of the element of surprise.

Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan Dynasty while continuing the empire building exploits of the earlier Mongol emperors, added a new theatre of war to his campaigns and launched a series of targeted campaigns and launched a series of targeted campaigns into southern Asia which affected the history of Indo-Burma region including Manipur.

In Burma, the Mongols were victorious, but eventually abandoned the campaign. In 1277-78 Kublai Khan invaded Burma and installed a puppet government. The Mongols being an army of entirely cavalry, inspired the local potentates on its ability to easily dictate the positional, flow of the battle, particularly feigned retreats, which could easily fool an enemy into a foolish charge and become a victim of a barrage of Mongols' arrow shower the Mongol parting-shots.

The same technique was used by the galloping Manipuri raiders who feigned a retreat, threw metal tipped Arambai backward and then encircled the arrowed enemies from the flanks-a nightmare for the demoralised Burmans whose fidgety skyward looks scanning for the dreaded arrows were lampooned in the Manipuri folk take as the Nongthak Yengba Awa (ever sky looking Burmese).

Later, inspired by the dazzling success of the Mongol and Manipuri cavalry, the Imperial Court of Burma decided to maintain a similar force in the form of Cassay (Manipuri) Cavalry permanently in the Burmese military setup. Of the 3000 cavalry strength of Myanmar, 2000 were Manipuri "Cassay Horse" who were press-ganged into the Myanmarese Army after the Burmese conquest of Manipur in 1758 (Alungpaya defeated Manipur). In the Burmese-Siamese War of 1759, Alaungpaya used 2000 strong Manipuri Cassay Horse which almost led the Burmese to a victory but for the untimely death of Emperor Alaungpaya himself, shortly after the start of the campaign.

In 1764 again, the full strength of the Manipuri Cassay Horse were deployed on the Siamese border when a rebellion broke out in Manipur and threatened the loyalty of Manipuri Cavarly. Hsinbyushin, the commander of the Mynmarese army, instead of risking the depletion of the fighting potential by withdrawing the powerful Manipuri Cavalry, decided to lead an expedition to Manipuri himself and put down the rebellion. However, the simmering conflict within the ruling clan of Manipur became full-blown and the warring princes fled to Cachar en block abandoning the fate of Manipur to the Burmese for a period from 1819 to 1826 notorious in Manipur history as Chahi Taret Khuntakpa (Seven Years' Devastation).

During this period thousands of people including artisans, weavers, craftsmen of all sorts were deported to Burma, and the valley was left nearly empty for years. They also formed the new Cassay Horse with the captive soldiers, an elite cavalry regiment that supplied some of Ava's best polo players.

Michael Symes in his book, An Account of an Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava writes in 1800, "All the troopers in the kings' service are natives of Cassay, who are much better horsemen than the Birmans...They ride, like all orientals, with short stirrups and a loose rein; their saddle is hard and high and two large circular flaps of strong leather hang down on each side, painted or gilded according to the quality of the rider." The king emperors of Burma gainfully used the Cassay Cavalry in most of their crucial exploits making it well known as an Asiatic player.

With the advent of firearms, the cavalry regarded as the elite of the oriental force gradually looked out of place, a throwback from the bygone era. The waves of galloping horse ridden by men lunging swords were cut down at a distance by the relentless fire of British muskets. Though the Burmese cannons fired balls only, the British fired exploding shells which could hit the ground and the splits slice through the body of the pony easily. The horses made easy targets and carnage was all that could be achieved. The changing technologies of the war made the old cavalry formation redundant.

However, during the first Burmese war when British strategists sponsored a Manipur Levy of 500 soldiers for their ally, the Manipuri Princes, they had the hostile tropical jungle in their mind. They further sanctioned two squadrons of Manipuri cavalry as a support group. The British on their own had failed twice to reach the Burmese location in Manipur, leave alone driving them out of Manipur. Their advance was impeded by thick forests and jungle.

Horse and ponies were developed throughout the world to carry out a specific purpose. The Manipur Pony was primed to be a partner in the survival game with their masters in the hostile Asiatic jungle. They were trained for speed and stamina. The average height of between 11 to 13 hands with sturdy, strong and sure footed legs made them conveniently suitable for jungle warfare. The Manipur Pony is one of over 300 breeds of horses and ponies of the world.

The Government of India recognises it as one of the five indigenous breeds of horses and ponies of India. Most of the ponies in South Asia like Manipur Pony, Shan Pony, the Java Pony, Batak and Sumba of Indonesia have similar external appearance. They seem to have similar mixed ancestry and not a part of the original fauna of their respective areas but a collective descendant from the Mongolian Horses and ancient Chinese stock, carrying different traits depending on the environment where they are bred and reared.

After being a protagonist for myths, fables and legends for thousands of projected years, the Manipuri Pony finally emerged in the history on the pages of Cheitharol Kumbaba as a celebrated war horse a white charger mounted by the king Khagemba in his exploits in the western frontierof Burma in 1614 B.C.

The galloping groups of ponies, crisscrossing the mountain fastness from the Chindwin River of Burma in the East to the Surma Valley of Cachar in the West, became a nation's pride and a neighbour's envy. For the ponies Hemmed-in mountain belt became their own territory frequented by themselves as per the whims and potential of reigning kings both in offensive and defensive move which averaged to a minimum of once every five years from 1647 to 1749.

Burmese history mention that the border area of Manipur had been their territory and the kingdom was tributary to Burma under Bayinnaung in 1551-81. But from the moment Manipur cavalry emerged in its history, Manipur became the sorrow of Burma. From the time of Khagemba, the Manipur cavalry continuously raided the territory of the great empire of Burma. The resourceful plain of Kabaw Valley fed by the perennial water of the Chindwin became a source of easy plunder for Meitei kings for years till Alaungpaya made a final call in 1819.

A Burmese historian writes, "..for decades fierce Manipuri horsemen had been raiding up and down the valley of the nearby Mu River, torching villages all around, ransacking pagodas and stealing away captives. Led by their rajas Jai Singh and Gharib Newaz and riding the stylish little ponies for which they would later be renowned, the Manipuris defeated again and again the soldiers dispatched to stop them."

It was the Mongol whirlwind conquest from the time of Genghis Khan to Kublai Khan that churned Asia and beyond and spread the dominant gene of the Mongolian wild horse in the nooks and crannies of Asia. The latter's infamous sack of Pagan Empire, supplanting it with numerous kingdoms of different racial groups including eastern Shan kingdom of Pong as the next door neighbour of Manipur changed the face of Burma and its neighbourhood.

He was young and only 27 years old when King Kyamba of Manipur sacrificed a Sandang (wild bovine) at the foothill of Khari Hill seeking blessing for a victory over the Kyangs in the Kabo Valley. The year was 1470 and his ally was Choufa Khekhomba, the Shan ruler of the Pong kingdom on the western bank of the Chindwin River. The Pong king was forty-seven. Kyamba and his ally vanquished Kyangkhampat and divided the area between themselves.

To be continued.....

* Moirangthem Shantikumar Singh wrote this article for Imphal Times
This article was posted on May 29, 2018.

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Tribal Cultural Festival #2 : Gallery
  • Let's talk about our children today
  • A blow to image boosting
  • Fear and Superstition
  • Latrine :: Poem
  • Letter to JS-MHRD from MUTA
  • JS-MHRD did not meet with MUTA
  • Drawing on Energy Efficiency
  • MU impasse: Attention Mr. Prime Minister
  • Admission time : Sky high cut off
  • Great June Uprising @Kekrupat #2 : Gallery
  • Yoga Day: Celebrating Your Health
  • Chak-hao - black gold of Manipur
  • In response to the culture of shaming
  • 3rd Documentor Imphal
  • 4th International Day of Yoga by AR
  • Appeals for Resolution of MU Crisis
  • Recommendation to control Flood damages
  • International Yoga Day at Loktak PS
  • After Flood : Introspection about the future
  • MUSU & JAC : Hot issues before the Govt
  • Zeliangrong orphaned by Nationalism #2
  • General Thangal Eco Park : Gallery
  • Letter to President on Crisis at MU
  • Precision medicine & life sciences
  • Black topping-can ground leveling be behind
  • Condemns security force intrusion in MU
  • Developer wanted at LMP, Konjeng Leikai
  • AR gears up for International Yoga Day
  • NPF rejoinder to NDPP : 20 June
  • Rejoinder by Dr. Shurhozelie : 20 June
  • For a little bit more
  • Deadline of 5 days time set : MU crisis
  • Garlic Festival @Ukhrul #4 :: Gallery
  • Flood in Imphal [14 June] #3 : Gallery
  • Inungshi, Gaichanglungliu :: eMing
  • Taking 'Hau' Music to Rest of World
  • Kakching bags cleanest city in NE Award
  • JRF (Junior Research Fellow) at IBSD
  • Oxfam India launches emergency response
  • VC, MU - Resign immediately :: MUTA
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Translation of ancient Manipur texts begin
  • Pre Yoga Capsule organized
  • NDPP Rejoinder on 19 June
  • NPF Youth Wing Rejoinder on 19 June
  • Favouring digital govt : still a Virtual dream
  • June 18 Anniv : Consult all stakeholders
  • Great June Uprising @Kekrupat #1 : Gallery
  • Binota Thokchom at BRICS Young Scientist
  • The Merger of Manipur
  • Improving school management in Manipur
  • Pros & cons of screening tests
  • NPF Rejoinder on 18th June
  • Nagaland CM statement on Aboi ambush
  • June 18 significance: Still living on prayer
  • Need to identify one's strength
  • 18 Immortal Souls Remembered : Flash
  • The Great June Uprising : Read all about it
  • The Pitfalls of Identity Politics
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • All his sons :: Poem
  • Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016
  • Eid bring cheer in flood hit areas
  • Willong Khullen, Maram #1 : Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Defending the environmental defenders
  • Delusion in self - cause of worry
  • Road to Russia: FIFA World Cup
  • It must be love :: Poem
  • 'Future of Naga people is bleak'
  • Give a miss call to Amnesty
  • 'Naga area' bandh on June 18
  • Dzuko valley #4 :: 360 Panorama View
  • Flood in Imphal [14 June] #2 : Gallery
  • Id-Ul-Fitr Festival
  • Letter to PM Modi on Naga Talks
  • Greetings on Eid-Ul-Fitr
  • Rejoinder to NPF statement
  • Rejoinder to Nagaland Chief Minister
  • Flood relief continue on 3rd day
  • India-Vietnam Youth Dialogue 2018
  • MU debacle: Why would it be left unnoticed
  • Spirit of World Cup : Brazil to Russia
  • NEC to come under Home Ministry
  • Manipur NGO hosts summit on LGBTQ
  • Flood in Imphal [14 June] #1 : Gallery
  • Women Struggle in Self-Determination
  • 14 June- World Blood Donor Day
  • Naga Integration not possible- NPF react
  • Naga Integration is not possible- CM Rio
  • Relief work in flood affected areas
  • A day which keeps our spirit alive
  • Ranked 320 in the country : MU
  • Flood in Imphal [13 June] #2 : Gallery
  • Sovereignty Struggles in Northeast #5
  • Be alert: It's admission time
  • Yin and Yang
  • Watermelon beauty benefits
  • Temp accommodation for Aligarh students
  • Wrath of Mother Nature: Why challenge..
  • 60 pc is no longer first class : 95 pc
  • Flood in Imphal [13 June] #1 : Gallery
  • Sanamahi Laihui & Sanamahi Laining
  • Kuhi- Essential plant for Nungbi pottery
  • Climate justice is integral to development
  • The bridge :: Poem
  • Lt S Vijaya Devi felicitated
  • Then : Indifferent :: Now : Hyper sensitive
  • Phumdigi Tantha : Dance Drama : Gallery
  • Grief at Xavier Rutsa's demise
  • Modi's India: A descend into Ochlocracy
  • The Philippine Experience
  • Cry of a Dying River #33 :: Poem
  • Community Iftar at Moijing, Cachar
  • Candle Light at DU over Assam lynching
  • Demand replacement of Manipur Univ VC
  • The Tragedy of Higher education
  • Unacceptable points spelt out
  • Teinem Luira Phanit @Ukhrul #3: Gallery
  • RPL-PMKVY trainees @Hojai : Gallery
  • Manipur Sports University in UP ?
  • Coloniality of the Postcolonial
  • Yellow leaves in the autumn :: Poem
  • Prof N Irabanta-distinguished academician
  • Leadership matters
  • Artificial turf for budding talents
  • 2 municipal bodies in NE awarded
  • Who is Arambam Somorendra ?
  • Manglandasu Nang - OST :: e-pao Radio
  • Shirock 2018 - Shirui Lily Fest #3 : Gallery
  • Linthoi's "The Tales of Kanglei Throne" #2
  • Grass root challenge- Education in hills
  • Earth does not belong to us...
  • Sita Mata as test-tube baby
  • What happen to VIP Culture Mr. CM
  • Merchants of education
  • Laitonjam Rajnikanta : Profile
  • A blessing to see :: Poem
  • Sovereignty Struggles in Northeast #4
  • Difference between Hinduism & Hindutva
  • How to choose the perfect fragrance
  • Iftaar party at Lilong
  • Bitter truth of Manipuri society
  • MU, NSU, IGNTU : Students at the centre
  • Amuktang-Ga Haikho #1 : eRang
  • Sangai Veterans' Football #2 : Gallery
  • Pony : A Cavalry Horse Par Excellence #2
  • Issues that keep Manipur burning
  • Cry of a Dying River - 32 :: Poem
  • CM & AR interaction with villagers
  • Certification of PMKVY trainees of Hojai
  • Christian appeals for Peace in Shillong
  • How safe are our women?
  • Riders put up by JAC for talk
  • Khangkhui Cave in Ukhrul #3 : Gallery
  • Pluralism, Democracy & Ethnic Relation #2
  • Irom Sharmila meets with Mehbooba Mufti
  • JRF @ Mizoram University (Biotechnology)
  • Tobacco and heart disease
  • Understanding SOWA - RIGPA #2
  • Campaign "to End Child Sexual Abuse"
  • Implementation of 7th Pay
  • Indigenous street vendor sing gi wafam
  • The crumbling Manipur University
  • Kang Tournament @ Yaiskul : Gallery
  • Zeliangrong orphaned by Nationalism #1
  • A rainy night :: Poem
  • HSLC Exam is the start! What next?
  • 1528 cases of fake encounter
  • Linthoi's "The Tales of Kanglei Throne" #1
  • Handloom Weaver @Bishnupur : Gallery
  • Shirock 2018 - Shirui Lily Fest #2 : Gallery
  • Hinduism in Manipur : Political Perspective
  • All the World and his Wife :: Poem
  • Tribal Cultural Festival #1 : Gallery
  • Women in CCpur turn to self-help groups
  • Purul Paoki Wrestling : Gallery
  • Sangai Veterans' Football #1 : Gallery
  • Khangminashi IV (Lecture) : Report
  • Seminar at MU - Hinduism in Manipur'
  • Evolution of The Meetei State
  • Heartbreak at Ukhrul: Unfolding Shirock
  • State Level Khurpui-Lam Festival: Gallery
  • June Calendar for Year 2018 :: Tools
  • School Girls Basketball #2 : Gallery
  • Where is Manipur....???
  • 'Manipur' in Google maps : Gallery
  • The Killing Fields - 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • Mama Poktabi :: Funga Wari
  • Veterans Football Tournament #2 : Gallery
  • Shirock 2018 - Shirui Lily Fest #1 : Gallery
  • Sougrakpam Vijaya makes history sailing...
  • Arunachali unfurled Salai Taret at Mt Everest
  • Panthoiba: 2nd Rank- class XII, Uttarkhand
  • Ras Leela @JNMDA Day : Gallery
  • HSLC 208 Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • HSLC 2018 :: Toppers Listing
  • HSLC 2018 :: Check Result
  • HSLC :: Statistical/Subject Topper
  • HSLC 2018 :: External
  • Poumai Purul Hiimai Paoki #2 : Gallery
  • Kakching Garden :: 360 Panorama View
  • Folk Dance Festival #5 : Gallery
  • Aerial view from Chingmeirong : Gallery
  • Curtain Raising- Sangai Fest 2017: Gallery
  • Lainingthou Lai Lam thopka #2 : Gallery
  • Re-visiting Khangkhui caves in Ukhrul
  • Gardening @Ema Keithel #2: Gallery
  • Front Page Photo 2018 #2: Gallery
  • Pakhangba Cheng Hongba #2 : Gallery
  • Steelheart @ Shirock , Ukhrul #3 : Gallery
  • A. Halim Chowdhury: A Profile
  • Class XII Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • Class XII Result : Science Toppers
  • Class XII Result : Arts Toppers
  • Class XII Result : Commerce Toppers
  • HSE Result 2018 : District Wise
  • HSE Result 2018 : Highest Marks
  • HSE Result 2018 : Science Stream
  • HSE Result 2018 : Arts Stream
  • HSE Result 2018 : Commerce Stream
  • Temples of Manipur : Gallery
  • Recipients of Akademi Awards for 2014
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic