Religious movement of Haipou Jadonang in the 20th Century
- Part 2 -

Budha Kamei *

Haipou Jadonang Marangmei
Haipou Jadonang Marangmei

In spite of such religious practices, God had communicated with the Zeliangrong people through the dreams of Mhus. Unlike the simple medicine man, Mhu was not taught by anybody but chosen by some deities or Tingkao Ragwang himself. Among such Mhus Jadonang was one of them who happened to be an extraordinary holy young man chosen by Tingkao Ragwang to reform the superstitions and genna-ridden religion of his people. Jadonang was directed by God in his dreams to carry out His directives.

As a successful healer and dream interpreter, he could treat and cure the leper, malaria fever and even the removal of the after birth of a child delivery of a woman and asking for a birth of a son. Individual treatment to the affairs of the villages he dealt with. He had predicted that the villages would prosper in riches and money if they sacrificed mithuns (Goichang) to God. A large number of villages approached him for the same purpose and he did perform it; Kambiron soon became a place of pilgrimage for those in need and the centre of attraction was young Jadonang. (Parratt 1995; Kamei 2004:148-149)

In the late 1920's and early 1930's, the socio-economic and religious-cultural problems of the Zeliangrong people were aggravated by the world great depression. This made the Zeliangrong people not in a position to pay their house tax to their colonial masters. In addition, between 1925 and 1930 there were frequent crop failures in the Zeliangrong country, either due to attack of rats or strong winds or lack of rain. (Administrative reports of Manipur 1931-32) The prevailing economic and religious condition, therefore, imposed on the common people to abandon the costly sacrifices and they began to look alternative way, it was the Christianity; the missionaries took the advantage of it and converted the innocent people.

Medical work of the missionaries was one of the most effective means of destroying the traditional world-view and belief system which was essentially super naturalistic. The traditional view, for instance, had attributed illness or misfortune to evil spirits. The village priest was supposed to know which spirit was causing the trouble and what form of sacrifice would appease it. On the contrary, the missionaries were purveyors of a naturalistic world-view as opposed to this super naturalistic one.

Edwin Rowlands, in his annual reports, wrote, "The medicine dispensed in the village is eagerly taken, and they tell each other of the cures effected. This is supplanting the sacrificing demons. Once a village priest, having been stung by a poisonous centipede, though a few days previously he had been warning a village not to take our medicine came to us for treatment."(Report of Foreign Mission 1899: LVIII; Dena 1988:106) Once the effectiveness of a small tablet was experienced, it became a great factor in winning the hearts of the people. The choice was thus between their traditional form of remedy, that is sacrifice of animal and the missionary's remedy through administering of liquid medicine or tablet. Even though, the missionary's action was determined by naturalistic world-view, he would inevitably invoke "divine help by saying prayer which gave impression that God was acting through human agency and medicines." (Dena 1988: 107)

By 1920s, the Zeliangrong people were facing problem of religious crisis as result of the spread of Christianity which attacked the traditional religious beliefs and practices of the people. More and more people began to embrace Christianity and to effect more conversion the Christian missionaries introduced a number of welfare programs such as education, medical works, and even offered white collar job in the state government. (Downs 1971:177) The new converts began to condemn the forefather's beliefs, rites and rituals, ceremonies, feasts, festivals something connected with evil spirits.(Yunuo 1982:30-35) They owed their loyalty more to the missionary and the officials. In this way, many young people came forward and began to embrace the new religion. This was one kind of local response to the external influence.

In the process of proselytisation, the traditional religion was loosing its foothold day by day, and this was a serious issue for the people who wanted to preserve and promote the traditional belief and practices of the people. A scholar wrote that the Christians faced opposition from the believers of the traditional faith. The conflict between the pastors and the village priest was very serious in the 1920's. The clash was mainly due to the "attacks of the Christian missionaries on the traditional tribal belief and way of life. Naturally the traditionalists had to defend against this onslaught."(Irene 1989:16) It is a fact, there was also some kind of conflicts between the "new converts and the traditional elites" represented by the Pei (village council) members.

The Pei began to feel that their privileges and powers were being undermined by the new converts who had the solid backing of colonial officers and the missionary. F. S Down wrote that "as among the Angamis, the Zeliangrong villages strongly opposed Christianity…. Christians were invariably driven from their village."(1971:146) The traditional Zeliangrong religion reacted against the conversion, which was condemned by the Christians as persecution, though it was they, who had encroached and violated the traditional religious beliefs and practices. In this situation, Jadonang, who wanted to defend his traditional religion on the one hand, and uplift his people on the other, had to take a very careful path. Jadonang realized that if the traditional religion was to be revived, the morass of superstitions and irrational taboos that afflicted the religion be removed and new ideas and forms should be injected to suit the changing time and space.

After his journey to Bhuban cave, Jadonang constructed Rah Kai, House of God with the help of his followers as a place of worship and religious discourse. In the temple, there was a shrine and pulpits and aisles of bamboo. He built two different temples at Kambiron; such houses for religious purpose were not a feature of Zeliangrong culture except abodes or places of deities. A large number of people came to the Rah Kai of Jadonang and worshipped Tingkao Ragwang through prayer-hymns, songs and dance.

Jadonang said: "Worshipping consists of facing east, putting the hands together and saying Tingkao Ragwang, 'Do what is good for us." In short, the worship was in rational forms, with community and individual worship of God for welfare and prosperity through sacrifices, ritual hymns and dance. Jadonang erected his temple facing to the east. East is vital for two factors: it signifies the direction of Bhubon cave, as well as that of the sunrise. In view of Evans- Pritchard, "The west is the side of death, the east the side of life." (1977:153) Jadonang advocated adoption of Tingkao Ragwang as the only God (monotheistic cult), encouraging the abandonment of the minor, local gods.

In other words, he has shown that sacrifice of animals was not the only way to worship of Tingkao Ragwang/Tingwang. The introduction of this new cult was a great landmark in the religious history of the Zeliangrong people. With the help of this cult Jadonang was able to bring a social unification among the Zeliangrong people. Indeed, religion and religious movement greatly help in the reinforcement and conservation of social cohesion and discipline and it played a great role for promoting social integration and solidarity. Jadonang religious concept was highly influenced by revolutionary ideology and consciousness. His new religious cult gave two important features for the welfare of his people and their society; first, it was "an answer to the silent religious aggression of the Christian religion and secondly, it made a basis for the solidarity of the people." (Singh 1992:57)

In each temple, there were two places of purification (bath rooms), one for male and other for female; the devotees had to purify by taking bath in these places before entering into the temple. Entering into the temple without being purified both physically and mentally was strictly prohibited. (Kamei 2009:32-33; Yunuo 1982:54) According to Frank Byron Jevons, water purification is a means of gaining for the "worshipper the protection of water deity against the consequences of pollution." (1988:83) It is true, "Cleanliness is next to Godliness." He also introduced new prayer-hymns, songs and dances to be sung and performed during the worship of Tingkao Ragwang. (Mahadevan 1974-75:47)

The hymns, devotional songs and dances are performed by the followers of Tingkao Ragwang Chapriak and Heraka. Of all the hymns, the most famous and popular one was the Jug Nei Mei Luh, the psalm of prayer of glory. Indeed, it was its religious and political content telling the true motives of Jadonang's mission. A new style of singing has now come to be known as the hymns of Jadonang Luh. Jadonang had successfully introduced the worship of Tingkao Ragwang in the spiritual system. True, his philosophical reform was the "worship of Tingkao Ragwang/Tingwang through prayer." Rani Gaidinlu also with the initiation of her Guru built a Rah Kai in her village, Nungkao.

The first temple was built in 1929 and the second one was six months before his arrest in the year 1931. In his second temple, images of God Bisnu and his wife wearing typical Rongmei dress were installed on the way of Hindu idolatry worship which signifies further development in the religious ideas of Jadonang. But he did not worship Hindu deities. Indeed, it was a revitalized and simplified form of worship of God. Some scholars observe that the new religion of Jadonang is a synthesis of Christian Monotheism and Hindu idolatry and temple culture. (Fuchs 1965:151) But, whatever he introduced reformation was the revelations of God. At his early age of 21, Jadonang constructed a Taraangkai in his village, Kambiron for wellbeing and prosperity of the Zelangrong people. (Parratt 1995)

Following the footstep of Haipou Jadonang, the people of Heraka and Tingkao Ragwang ChapRiak constructed Kalum Kai/KalumKi, house of worship for the purpose of worship of Tingkao Ragwang/Tingwang, the Supreme God. The devotees of TRC and Heraka come and worship Tingkao Ragwag, the Almighty God at the Kalum Kai/KalumKi every full moon day and every Sunday regularly offering prayer, devotional song, libation of holy wine, traditional dance etc. for wellbeing and prosperity. They are consecrated by Ten Mhaimit, a kind of thatching grass and water before entering the Kalum Kai/Kalum Ki.

According to reliable source, so far, there are about twenty number of Kalum Kai of TRC in three states of Manipur, Assam and Nagaland constructed in the same fashion of Haipou Jadonang. Tingkao Ragwang ChapRiak and Heraka, the two cults of Zeliangrong are the products of Haipou Jadonang and Haipei Rani Gaidinliu. Heraka is a monotheistic cult, only the worship of Tingwang/Tingkao Ragwang abandoning the lesser god and deities while Tingkao Ragwang ChapRiak is polytheism which worships of multiple gods of different categories, though it gives great emphasis to the worship of Tingkao Ragwang. The evil spirits (Rahsi-Rahrou) are not worshiped but they are propitiated not to give trouble to men.

After having achieved the status of a successful man, a prophet in the society, Jadonang as a part of purification of his religion had abolished the innumerable taboos and gennas such as birth of a child, a piglet, puppy or hatching of chicken, a kite or crow sitting over the roof, a dog climbing the low roofs, burning of house, earthquake, a still birth, death by drowning, hanging etc. in the name of Tingkao Ragwang with an iron hoe (a symbol of sanctity of God) in his hands as no longer taboo.(Dena 2008:101)

He also categorized some gennas namely, gennas for good paddy and crops, gennas for safety from rats and rodents, pests and birds, animals and beasts and gennas for rich harvest etc. to be observed by the people for prosperity. Neimei (genna) is the collective form of worship of Tingkao Ragwang by the whole community or individual families abstaining from physical work for a certain period of time on the occasion of the beginning of various agricultural operations. Neihmeis (gennas) serve a dual purpose: to avert epidemics, natural calamities, or unforeseen circumstances on the one hand; and restoration of prosperity on the other. M. Horam writes, gennas, compulsory rest days, mass abstention of work at the height of the agricultural season, sacrifices and prayers, all have the same and single aim, that of plentiful harvest. (1980:59)

Abolition of superstitious practices and liberalization of elaborate and expensive rites and rituals such as bride price and feasts had completely reduced the economic burden on the common people. Here, it may be noted that the new cult of Jadonang did not have any kind of anti-Christian teachings. But, some writers and historians led by F. S. Downs condemned the Naga Raj movement of Haipou Jadonang and Rani Gaidinliu as an anti-Christian movement. It is an uncharitable and wrong criticism of Haipou Jadonang and Rani Gaidinliu.

Here, it may be mentioned that the Pau Cin Hau movement in the Chin Hills (Mizoram and Myanmar) in the early 1900s did take a same approach of: due to economic hardship, it had adopted a new God who did not demand sacrifices. It is believed that Pau Cin Hau first met this God in a dream who told him that he was the one who made "Heaven and Earth, Men and Animals, the Sun, the Moon and the Stars and who has power to cure all sickness." He does narrate why he put faith in this God: "I had faith in Him and in a moment was cured from my illness of fifteen years. During those years for the cure of that illness I had paid the sum of Rs. 400 in making sacrifices of various kinds of animals to the demons. The cure of God was complete and cost nothing." (Census of India 1931:166)

The negligence of sacrifices due to its costliness and the incompetent response of the evils did become the initial impetus of this movement in the Chin Hills. Pau Cin Hau does repeat the success of the movement. "One wholesome effect of my teaching is that where formerly many who had nothing went into debt to obtain sacrificial offerings and so could neither afford to buy food nor pay their taxes, my followers being free from such expenses are in much better circumstances." (Census of India 1931: 166) Jadonang and Gaidinliu reached the apex of the religious and spiritual achievements in their last pilgrimage to Bhuban Hills in 1931. It was during their last pilgrimage, Tingkao Ragwang through God Bisnu revealed a new cult to Haipou Jadonang and Rani Gaidinlu. Jadonang did not live to see its culmination, on his return journey Jadonang was arrested on 19th February, 1931 at Lakhipur by Assam police for declaring a Naga Raj at Kambiron. Jadonang was hanged on 29th August 1931 in Imphal on the charge of murder which he never did. But the new cult was organized by Rani Gaidinlu and it came to be known as Heraka, Pure religion. (Yunuo 1982:49, 72)

To conclude, Haipou Jadonang, is a God sent prophet on this earth to save the Zeliangrong indigenous religion. Jadonang is the philosopher of the Zelangrong greatness. We, the people of the state, pay our homage to the great leader Haipou Jadonang for his supreme sacrifice and holy deeds. Prof. Lal Dena writes thus: "Really Jadonang was a gifted leader, a freedom fighter, a social reformer and religious leader who wielded Zeliangrong people into a strong and united community and taught them a philosophy to drive away the British from the soil of Manipur."

Concluded ...

* Budha Kamei wrote this article for Hueiyen Lanpao and The Sangai Express
This article was posted on August 29, 2014.

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Imoinu @Yumnam Leikai :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 23 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Our Ailing Planet: My locality as a facet
  • Stop Oil Palm Plantation in Manipur
  • General election in hard times :: Poem
  • Being free from freedom
  • Roaring 40 in first list of Cong
  • Significance of Gaan-Ngai festival #2
  • COVID-19 Status 22 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Wake Up My People Wake up :: Poem
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • A tribute to Athokpam Indrakumar Singh
  • Stunted fingerling- Replacement of fish seed
  • Training Program at Dimapur
  • Gaan-Ngai @Kakhulong :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 21 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Classical Language Vs ST for Meetei
  • The Great Green Walls, conserving nature
  • Webinar: The Birds and Bees Talk
  • Covid Booster Campaign at Tamenglong
  • IVF Centre in Guwahati
  • Easing curbs as cases spiral
  • Third wave is on!
  • Ecotourism Complexes @ Ramrei :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 20 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • No excuse not to end acute pandemic stage
  • Palm-oil in Manipur: Bad to worse
  • For sons and daughters :: Poem
  • Effective methods for facial hair removal
  • Subdued dissent over Sunday as poll day
  • Embracing the party hoppers
  • Gaan-Ngai @Iboyaima Shanglen #2:: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Cultural Activists of Manipur honoured
  • Male infertility: What are the options ?
  • Is celebrating New Year Day really worth it
  • Third wave: State on record breaking spree
  • Compulsion of power politics
  • Imoinu Thouniba @Singjamei :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 18 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • O Jonga! O Jonga :: Poem
  • Grey market for election tickets
  • Some common weeds of Manipur #2
  • Lilong Haoreibi College awarded 'B' grade
  • State used as transport route of drugs
  • Possible post poll scenario
  • Significance of Gaan-Ngai festival #1
  • COVID-19 Status 17 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Lunghar path in springshed conservation
  • Lament of love :: Poem
  • Career options in Lift Technology
  • Brief tale of one year COVID vaccination
  • Bickering among allies in coalition politics
  • Low vaccination coverage
  • NH-2 : Remember Khongnem Thana
  • COVID-19 Status 16 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • O Kolhen! O Kolhen :: Poem
  • Program on POCSO Act at Thoubal
  • The Killing Fields (2013-22) :: News Timeline
  • A spate of 'defections' in UP elections...
  • High performing individuals work alone
  • Onus on ECI to avert crisis situation
  • Keeping people informed is key
  • Gaan-Ngai @Iboyaima Shanglen #1:: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 15 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • The church is & must remain apolitical
  • Tamenglong Battalion celebrated Army Day
  • How prosperous NE India became backward
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni @ Koubru #1:: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 14 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Read all about Gaan Ngai
  • Justice, Peace and Change :: Poem
  • Mass Surya Namaskar at Tamenglong
  • Padmanabha Swamy Temple
  • Overcoming vaccine hesitancy
  • Nothing grand about 'Grand Old Party'
  • Lainingthou Sanamahi Complex #1:: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 13 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • A Hymn for Goddess Emoinu
  • Some common weeds of Manipur #1
  • How to keep your hair healthy this winter
  • Third wave: Litmus test for NE states
  • High TPR, low vaccination
  • Maharaja Gambhir Singh
  • COVID-19 Status 12 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Rani Gaidinliu Open Air Lounge inaugurated
  • NAAC peer team visit for assessment
  • National Youth Day
  • Conservation Agriculture: intensified farming
  • Negligence galore as Covid cases rise
  • Back to the spike in three figures
  • How AFSPA undermines 'Act East' Policy
  • COVID-19 Status 11 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • P Achevei : Mega Mister North East 2021
  • Stop Violence related to Election
  • Civil / Project Engineer @ R-Square
  • Business Development @ R-Square
  • Customer Representative @ Property Geo
  • No matter what :: Poem
  • Stealthy extension of AFSPA
  • Confiscating 'suspected heroin'
  • 188 Death Anniv: Maharaj Gambhir:: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 10 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Biotechnology Ignition Grant (BIG) 20th Call
  • Kalum Kai (House of worship) #2
  • Account Assistant @ Amber & Arthur, Imphal
  • Business Dev @ Amber & Arthur, Imphal
  • The 5G Race :: Samarjit Kambam
  • Manipur elections not for the faint-hearted
  • Guns & violence in run up to polls
  • Climate Change in Ukhrul in last 50 years
  • COVID-19 Status 09 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Are we able to break chain of transmission
  • 100 new Sainik School- opportunities for girl
  • Joyjeet Waikhom / Ksh Maradona: Mr India
  • Money flying in or out ?
  • Will partial lockdown help curb transmission
  • Voting during Covid pandemic
  • Food items @ Singjamei, Pishum :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 08 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Curfew : Measures to combat COVID
  • IMFP - Indian Made Foreign People
  • Happy 2022 to you !
  • Manipur Press Foundation Day :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 07 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Politician must practice, preach on COVID
  • Makeup routine during pandemic
  • Third wave threat no more a mirage
  • Queuing up for BJP
  • Thangal Lambi & Ima Keithel :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 06 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Before I sleep... II
  • Election Brawl :: Poem
  • Impact of Covid on Employer Branding
  • Chasing peace in Manipur
  • COVID-19 Status 05 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Kalum Kai (House of worship) #1
  • The art of New Year's resolution
  • Cong struggling to keep its house in order
  • Manipur's place in the eyes of Delhi
  • Makru bridge, Oinamlong Waterfall : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 04 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Depression : A New Time Bomb
  • School & Student Championship Quiz
  • Concern over child labour
  • ECI on sluggish vaccination rate in state
  • Vaccination rate in hill districts
  • Fusion of contemporary dance & theatre
  • COVID-19 Status 03 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • COVID-19 Crackdown on violators
  • AMAND, Pune released 2022 calendar
  • Rising poverty in Manipur
  • Sunset, the most memorable!
  • Election time season of plentiful promises
  • Interesting role of NPP, NPF
  • Pineapple @ Ngariyan Hills #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 02 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • kLlQtre :: Seireng
  • National Day for our feathered friend
  • Value of purposeful life
  • Homemade face packs for winter beauty
  • Dreadful start to New Year as cases spike
  • Manipur steps into Year 2022
  • Tarpon Katpa @ Loktak #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 01 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • OneHealth: towards pandemic preparedness?
  • Before I sleep...
  • Meitei ST demand & the opposition
  • Bye Bye 2021 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 31 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2021 #6: Gallery
  • Manipur : National Futsal C'ship 2021
  • 'Unlocking Locks Under Lockdowns' released
  • Baby corn cultivation for livelihood
  • Extension of AFSPA to Nagaland
  • Hoping for a better New Year 2022
  • Appeal of AMCO to Chief Minister
  • NK Sanajaoba- Star in Dark Sky of Manipur
  • COVID-19 Status 30 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • Danube Kangjam : Miss North East 2021
  • In search of Christmas party
  • Demise of Film Producer: Guruaribam John
  • Disturbed Area Act in Nagaland extended
  • Thyroid cancer- The Good, Bad & Ugly
  • Same old order to tackle most potent threat
  • Putting tighter restrictions in place
  • Armed Forces Special Powers Act, 1958
  • COVID-19 Status 29 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • January Calendar for Year 2022 : Tools
  • Carol on Christmas :: Poem
  • Formation of 13 Farmer Producer Orgns
  • Indian Army Inquiry Team visits site in Oting
  • Review home isolation rule or punish violator
  • Lining up for saffron party
  • Red Ribbon Manipur Idol, 2021 #2: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 28 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • curaNTbdi nYte AE :: Seireng
  • Marriageable at 25 not 18 or 21
  • IMA Manipur wins 7 awards at NATCON-2021
  • Impact of climate change in agriculture
  • Dual threat to state in election season
  • Another panel to study AFSPA
  • Indigenous under-utilized fruit crop Manipur
  • COVID-19 Status 27 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • Can we deliver on #HealthForAll
  • Business Executive @ Property Geo, Imphal
  • 13th Seniors National Futsal C'ship
  • National Curling Championship
  • Centre benevolence crucial for development
  • Taking the elixir of life to all village
  • Omicron now in town
  • Job-Fair 2021 @ Imphal : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 26 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • Remembering great grandmothers :: Poem
  • Grand finale Mega Miss North East 2021
  • Kodo - A miracle food millet crop in Manipur
  • Preparing HCWs for long battle against Covid
  • Bid to arm twist the media
  • Christmas Eve @ Imphal : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 25 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • My idea of justice- For the old aged folks
  • Amit Shah holds conclave with Naga leaders
  • Horses - some tidbits
  • The best skincare routine for teenagers
  • Christmas Eve @ Churachandpur : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 24 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • My Christmas
  • Mary : The Unwed Mother
  • O Come, let us adore Him
  • Violence in election: Will it sustain?
  • Hymn on autumn :: Poem
  • Crackdown on liquor sale in election
  • Another Christmas comes
  • Red Ribbon Manipur Idol, 2021 #1: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 23 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • Secy raises CCpur ambush with Myanmar
  • Gossiping with flowers, bees & butterflies
  • Careers with Migrants
  • Climate literacy to tackle climate crisis
  • Violence in AC with 2 fmr education minister
  • Heirok AC: Shooting to kill : Abhorrent
  • Of AFSPA, Manipur and NE States
  • The Price of Justice!
  • Seminar on 'Bioeconomy from Bioresources'
  • Shija: 1st Pvt medical college in NE
  • Water saving techniques in hill agriculture #2
  • Plight of women in land of brave-hearts
  • Not a question of If but
  • Heisnam Savitri (Legendary actress) #2
  • Painting: Tribal Freedom Fighter #1: Gallery
  • New Barak Bridge @Jiri highway : Gallery
  • Heisnam Savitri (Legendary actress) #1
  • RK Meghen tribute @ Nupi Lal : Gallery
  • Protest: massacre of Naga Brethen: Gallery