TODAY -

Religious activities of Haipou Jadonang in the first half of 20th Century
- Part 3 -

Budha Kamei *

82nd Death Anniversary of Haipou Jadonnang at Jadonnang Memorial Park , Imphal :: 29 August 2013
82nd Death Anniversary of Haipou Jadonnang at Jadonnang Memorial Park , Imphal on 29 August 2013 :: Pix by Deepak Oinam



"Haipou Jadonang was a martyr, religious leader, social reformer, a freedom fighter and symbol of Zeliangrong unity"

In each temple, there were two places of purification (bath rooms), one for male and other for female; the devotees had to purify by taking bath in these places before entering into the temple. Entering into the temple without being purified both physically and mentally was strictly prohibited. (Kamei 2009:32-33; Yunuo 1982:54) It says, water purification is a means of gaining for the "worshipper the protection of water deity" against the consequences of pollution. (Jevon 1988:83)

The proverb says, "Cleanliness is next to Godliness." He also introduced new prayer-hymns, songs and dances to be sung and performed during the worship of Tingkao Ragwang. (Mahadevan 1974-75:47) The hymns, devotional songs and dances are performed by the followers of TRC and Heraka. Of all the hymns, the most famous and popular one was the Jug Nei Mei Luh, the psalm of prayer of glory. Indeed, it was its religious and political content telling the true motives of Jadonang's mission. A new style of singing has now come to be known as the hymns of Jadonang Luh.

Jadonang had successfully introduced the worship of Tingkao Ragwang in the spiritual system. True, his philosophical reform was the "worship of Tingkao Ragwang/Tingwang through prayer." Rani Gaidinlu also with the initiation of her Guru built a Rah Kai in her village, Nungkao. The first temple was built in 1929 and the second one was six months before his arrest in the year 1931. In his second temple, images of God Bisnu and his wife wearing typical Rongmei dress were installed on the way of Hindu idolatry worship which indicates further development in the religious ideas of Jadonang.

But he did not worship Hindu deities. Indeed, it was a revitalized and simplified form of worship of God. Some scholars observe, the new religion of Jadonang is a synthesis of Christian Monotheism and Hindu idolatry and temple culture. (Fuchs 1965:151) But whatever he introduced reformation was the revelations of God. At his early age of 21, Jadonang constructed a Taraangkai in his village, Kambiron by sacrificing four mithuns to God for wellbeing and prosperity of the Zelangrong people. (Parratt 1995)

Here, it may be mentioned that the Pau Cin Hau movement in the Chin Hills (Present day Mizoram and Myanmar) in the early 1900s did take a same approach of: due to economic hardship, it had adopted a new God who required no sacrifices. It is believed that Pau Cin Hau first met this God in a dream who told him that he was the one who made "Heaven and Earth, Men and Animals, the Sun, the Moon and the Stars and who had power to cure all sickness." He does recount why he believed in this God: "I had faith in Him and in a moment was cured from my illness of fifteen years. During those years for the cure of that illness I had paid the sum of Rs. 400 in making sacrifices of various kinds of animals to the demons. The cure of God was complete and cost nothing." (Census of India 1933:217-218)

The abandonment of sacrifices due to its costliness and the incompetent response of the evils/demons became the initial impetus of this movement in the Chin Hills. Pau Cin Hau repeats the success of the movement. "One wholesome effect of my teaching is that where formerly many who had nothing went into debt to obtain sacrificial offerings and so could neither afford to buy food nor pay their taxes, my followers being free from such expenses are in much better circumstances." (Census of India 1933: Pp.217-218)

Following the footstep of Haipou Jadonang, the people of Heraka and Tingkao Ragwang ChapRiak constructed Kalum Kai/KalumKi, house of worship for the purpose of worship of Tingkao Ragwang/Tingwang, the Supreme God. The devotees of TRC and Heraka come and worship Tingkao Ragwag, the Almighty God at the Kalum Kai/KalumKi every full moon day and every Sunday regularly offering prayer, devotional song, libation of holy wine, traditional dance etc. for wellbeing and prosperity. They are consecrated by Ten Mhaimit, a kind of thatching grass and water before entering the Kalum Kai/Kalum Ki.

According to reliable source, so far, there are about twenty number of Kalum Kai of TRC in three states of Manipur, Assam and Nagaland in the same fashion of Haipou Jadonang. Tingkao Ragwang ChapRiak and Heraka, the two cults of Zeliangrong are the products of Haipou Jadonang and Haipei Rani Gaidinliu.

Heraka is a monotheistic cult, only the worship of Tingwang/Tingkao Ragwang abandoning the lesser god and deities while Tingkao Ragwang ChapRiak is polytheism which worships of multiple gods of different categories, though it gives emphasis to the worship of Tingkao Ragwang. The evil spirits (Rahsi-Rahrou) are not worshiped but they are propitiated not to give trouble to men.

After having achieved the status of a successful man, a prophet in the society, Jadonang as a part of purification of his religion had abolished the innumerable taboos and gennas such as birth of a child, a piglet, puppy or hatching of chicken, a kite or crow sitting over the roof, a dog climbing the low roofs, burning of house, earthquake, a still birth, death by drowning, hanging etc. in the name of Tingkao Ragwang with an iron hoe (a symbol of sanctity of God) in his hands as no longer taboo.(Dena 2008:101)

He also categorized some gennas namely, gennas for good paddy and crops, gennas for safety from rats and rodents, pests and birds, animals and beasts and gennas for rich harvest etc. to be observed by the people for prosperity. Neimei (genna) is the collective form of worship of Tingkao Ragwang by the whole community or individual families abstaining from physical work for a certain period of time on the occasion of the beginning of various agricultural operations.

Neihmeis (gennas) serve a dual purpose: to avert epidemics, natural calamities, or unforeseen circumstances on the one hand; and restoration of prosperity on the other. M. Horam writes, gennas, compulsory rest days, mass abstention of work at the height of the agricultural season, sacrifices and prayers, all have the same and single aim, that of plentiful harvest. (1980:59) Abolition of superstitious practices and liberalization of elaborate and expensive rites and rituals such as bride price and feasts had completely reduced the economic burden on the common people.

Here, it may be noted that the new cult of Jadonang did not have any kind of anti-Christian teachings. But, some writers and historians led by F. S. Downs condemned the Naga Raj movement of Haipou Jadonang and Rani Gaidinliu as an anti-Christian movement. It is an uncharitable and wrong criticism of Haipou Jadonang and Rani Gaidinliu.

Jadonang and Gaidinliu reached the apex of the religious and spiritual achievements in their last pilgrimage to Bhuban Hills in 1931. It was during their last pilgrimage, Tingkao Ragwang through God Bisnu revealed a new cult to Haipou Jadonang and Rani Gaidinlu. Jadonang did not live to see it culmination, on his return journey Jadonang was arrested on 19th February, 1931 at Lakhipur by Assam police for declaring a Naga Raj at Kambiron. Jadonang was hanged on 29th August 1931 in Imphal on the charge of murder which he never did. But the new cult was organized by Rani Gaidinlu and it came to be known as Heraka (Pure religion). (Yunuo 1982:49, 72)

In conclusion, one can say that Haipou Jadonang, a God sent prophet on this earth to save the indigenous religion of North East from the onslaughts of alien religion, Christianity. Jadonang is the philosopher of the Zelangrong greatness. We, the people of the state, pay our homage to the great leader Haipou Jadonang for his supreme sacrifice and holy deeds.

Prof. Lal Dena writes thus: "Really Jadonang was a gifted leader, a freedom fighter, a social reformer and religious leader who wielded Zeliangrong people into a strong and united community and taught them a philosophy to drive away the British from the soil of Manipur."

Concluded...


* Budha Kamei wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was posted on October 02 2013 .



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