TODAY -

The practice of Shri Krishna devotion in Sankirtan
Book : 'Nata Sankritana' by Sanakhya Ibotombi Haorokcham
- Part 2 -

Yumnam Suren Wangkhei *

  Jhulon  at Khuyathong and Yaiskul in Imphal, Manipur  :: 15th August 2019
Jhulon at Khuyathong and Yaiskul in Imphal, Manipur in August 2019 :: Pix - Shankar Khangembam



In his book 'Ujwalanilmani' Shriroop Goswami Pada wrote sixty four erotic poems about Shri Krishna's love-plays with the blonde ladies of VrajaVrindavana and Krishna's bestowal of undiminished love to the faithful Vraja ladies, the kind of love known as 'Madhuri Prem Bhakti Ras' which is the peak of Krishna Bhakti Sadhana. When Vaisnav devouts listen to the kirtans (paean) about Nita Leela (daily love affairs of Radha Krishna) repeatedly they are enabled to go into Raganuga Bhakti Sadhan.

It is regarded that Shringar –Ras (erotic sentiment) is emanated from the Sthayibhav (permanent emotion) called Natya Vedana Rati (love of Shri Krishna) ensure shri Krishna Shringaer Ras (erotic sentiment about Shri Krishna) and it is divided into five type, such as Shanta (tranquility), Preya/Dasa (servant), Pril/Sakhya (friend),Vatsalya (affection of child and parent etc.) and Madhur sweet and pleasant and that Madhur-ras lying in the minds of the ladies of Vraja that drove them into thinking Bhagawan Shri Krishna as the beloved husband of each of them is superior to all the others as pointed out by Shri Roopa Goswami in his book Bhaktirasamrita Sindhu.

The method and norm which Sri Roopa Goswami Prabhu Pada devised to enable Vaisnav devouts to remember and to listen to on sing and relish Madhur-Rasa which is the highest stage of Prem Bhakti, in the form of various Vraja Leelas is commonly known as 'Ujwala-Rasa' (Brilliant taste).

This, at first, is roughly divided into Vipralambhan (disappointment, separation, disagreement) and Sambhog (enjoyment, copulation); and this vipralumbhan is sub-divided into four type as Purvaraga (courtship), Maan (Pique, resentment, feigned resentment out of love) and Prabas (staying abroad or away from home, sojourn), and again, Sambhog is sub-divided into four types as Sankshipta (brief, shortened), Sankirna (small, limited, mixed), Sampurna (full, complete, finished) and Smriddhiman (splendid prosperous) after dividing Vipralambha and Sambhaog into eight types, each of them is further divided into eight types and there come sixty four types in all of ' Vjwala Rasa', and this is shown in the book 'UJWALANILMANI' of Shri Roop Goswami Prabhu Pada.

Over and above the use of the norms and rules of Ujwala-Rasa in performances of Nitilila Kritan, the rules and customs relating to the nayika (actress) are strictly followed. While adopting the classification of Nayika into eight in Bharat Natya Shastra as Abhisarika (a woman on her journey of love or to a tryst), Vasak Sajja (a woman in her best fineries to receive her lover), Utkanthita (a woman in anxious mood, eagerly awaited her lover), vipralavdha (deceived or disappointed woman), Khandita (a woman offended with her husband for infidelity), Kalahantarika (heroine repenting after having dismissed her lover), Proshit Bhartrika (a woman whose husband is gone abroad) and Swadhin Bhartrika (independent of her lover/husband), the scholars of Gouriya Vaisnavism classified each of the eight nayikas above mentioned into eight compatibly with the sixty rasas (tastes) in Ujwala Rasa, and thus the total type of nayika (actress) become sixty four regarding Niti Leela Kirtan .

The sixty four nayikas thus defined were formed into eight groups/ teams and each of them was put under the charge of the eight Sakhi superiors i.e. Lalita, Vishakha and the others to execute the works and responsibilities assigned to them as described in the book Shri Radha Krishnagonoddesh Dipika. All minute details the nayikas, such as, their names, a addresses, vacation and habits, their parent and husbands' names, their ages, complexions, dresses and bowers (Kunjavans) allotted to them were clearly indicated there in.

The roles to be played by the Sakhi-Superiors were defined as– Lalita Sakhi as Khandita Nayika Vishakha as Swadhin Bhartrika Nayika, Chitra Devi a Abhisarika Nayika, Indurekha as Proshit Bhartrika Nayika, Champakalata as Vasak Saja Nayika, Ranga Devi as Utkanthita Nayika Tungavidya as Vipralavdha Nayika and Sudevi as Kalahantarika Nayika.

In Nata Sankirtana tradition, the sixtyfour nayikas are being used as instruments of expressing Shri Radharani's love moods and sentiments in Kirtan singings of Vraja Leela Rasa. The moods and situations Shri Radha in the course of her love with Shri Krishna are expressed by the eight principal sakhis (nayikas) as

1. Abhisarika expresses Shri Chandravadami (Radha)'s situation in her journey to meet Shri Krishna at the appointed place and time unfailingly.

2. Vasak Sajja expresses the adorning of the bower (kunja), arranging of seats and the anxious waiting of Shri Krishnapriya (Radha) in her best fineries for her lover Shri Krishna.

3. Utkanthita shows the lovelorn sorrowful condition of Shri Rasvasini (Radha) when her lover was deplorably unpunctual of the appointed time of meeting and her great anxiety.

4. Vipralavdha shows Shri Vinadini (Radha)'s utter disappointed condition when she definitely and reliably knew from her friends that Shri Krishna would never turn up for the tryst.

5. Khandita expresses Shri Chandravati (Radha's) mood and attitude when her lover Shri Krishna came to her very late after having love play with Chandravali and other Sakhis, and her (Radha) maan (resenting ) at detecting the love marks on his body.

6. Kalahantarita shows Shri Krishna Pranadhika (Radha)'s repentance when Shri Krishna left her place after she had shown her resentment to him.

7. Proshit Bhartika shows Shri Krishna vama (Radha)'s agony when the lord of her heart Shri Krishna had left for Mathura and Dwarika etc, the remote places.

8. Swadhim Bhartrika shows Shri Raseswari (Radha)'s utmost pleasure and happiness at the playing freely with her beloved shri Krishna.

Shri Vraja Vrindavan, the venue of playing Niti Leela was surrounded by bower in the eight directions, one in each direction. The devotees of Gouriya Vaisnavism regarded the eight principal Sakhis i.e. Lalita and the seven others, forming their own teams eight Sakhis with some Vraja Gopis i.e. eight different teams of Sakhis lived in the Lalita Sakhi with her group lived at the north, Visakha and and company lived at the north-east, Chitra Devi and co. at the east, Indurekha and party at the south-east, Champakalata and group at the south, Tungadevi and team at the south west, Ranga Devi and friends at the north- west.


To be continued.....


* Yumnam Suren Wangkhei wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on October 19 2021.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Ningol Chakkouba @Thanga #1: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 03 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Intl Day of Persons with Disabilities
  • Seminar : Bioeconomy from Bioresources
  • COVID-19 and antibiotic resistance
  • A passion for teaching science
  • Ticket allotment toughest challenge for BJP
  • UAPA arrests, AFSPA & improved law & order
  • Strategies to improve piggery sector
  • COVID-19 Status 02 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • Beauty lies within you :: Poem
  • Panti Neimei : Prayer for longevity
  • Manager @ KIIT TBI Bhubaneswar
  • Careers in IoT (Internet of Things)
  • Omicron the new avatar of coronavirus
  • Omicron variant scare amid aura of normalcy
  • Book fair @ Manipur Univ #1: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 01 Dec : Govt of Manipur
  • Why 680,000 AIDS deaths in 2020?
  • 'forward Ethnographic report on Meeitei'
  • Gust of wind :: Poem
  • Political leaders & their credibilities
  • World Heritage Sites in India
  • CM's barb on Imphal centric tribal MLAs
  • Inclusive Manipur: A cure for myriad maladies
  • Cosmos Festival @Maram #3: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 30 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • DM University: Place of Hopes or Nothing
  • Protest for ST list at Guwahati
  • Choosing the right candidates
  • Drone warfare
  • MU in limelight for wrong reason
  • Time to review development initiatives
  • Let's Make a Difference: Girl Up Khonjel
  • COVID-19 Status 29 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • December Calendar for Year 2021 : Tools
  • Demands extension of Ishan Uday deadline
  • 'Name of Bailey Bridge at Tipaimukh wrong'
  • My lovely mother :: Poem
  • Election in March first week ?
  • Lesson to learn from JCILPS' drive
  • ILP System needs dedicated staff
  • Traditional Fishing Equipment : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 28 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Protest for ST list at Delhi
  • Pendraba Khunnaigi Meiri :: Play review
  • The days of yore :: Poem
  • Farmers suitable technique of composting
  • Threat from new variant
  • Landlocked NE needs better connectivity
  • Meetei Leikai @ Silchar #2: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 27 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Antimicrobial resistance is threatening health
  • The Unified Nation :: Poem
  • Manipur Polls 2022: All roads lead to BJP
  • Economic governance; need for Manipur
  • Celebrate festival with Covid protocol
  • COVID-19 Status 26 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2021 #5: Gallery
  • Constitution Day at Lilong
  • Constitution Day at Lamphel Court
  • Applicants : Manipur Entrepreneurs Society
  • Executive Committee posts for YMC
  • Transgenders : Struggling for identity
  • Anthelmintic resistance: Havoc to veterinary
  • Signing pacts hallmark policy to delay stir
  • Paddy land conservation
  • Jiribam Keithel [Sept 2021] #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 25 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Time heals
  • Manipur women : Champions Sepak Takraw
  • TEDxYouth@RonaldsayRoad at Agartala
  • Tips to make nail paint last longer
  • Health Min data exposes Govt inefficiency
  • Leaving out Manipur from the loop?
  • RIMS, Lamphel, Imphal #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 24 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • COVID-19 Status 23 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Activism Against Gender based Violence
  • National Lok Adalat at Lamphel
  • MPSC cleaning by LAC
  • Hope - the essence of life
  • Students Induction Programme at Lilong
  • Ending cash-for-vote trend a pipedream
  • Pluralistic Manipur & divergent forces
  • Remembering Guru Gourkishwor Sharma
  • Training on mushroom cultivation : Gallery
  • What if TB, HIV medicines stop working?
  • NPF Women Wing Co-ordination meeting
  • World Children's Day
  • Pure passion :: Poem
  • Emergence of NPP in region's politics
  • Taking NE on board
  • Trekking @ Mount Koubru #2 : Gallery
  • Healthcare not handcuffs
  • Asymmetrical Federalism in North-East
  • Dr Konica Khuraijam- Best Educator-2021
  • Webinar : Relations betn India &SE Asia
  • Career as a Product Manager
  • Starting & ending with economic blockade!
  • ST : Renewed campaign & Govt's silence
  • Exposure visit to Kwatha by MTU
  • COVID-19 Status 21 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Sustainable Development at Noney
  • Nine Hills One Valley : World premier
  • Rs 3,30,000/- as assistance to journalists
  • Taj by night!
  • Boost for local handloom & handicraft
  • Drug smuggling from/through Manipur
  • Ningol Chakouba Shopping #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 20 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • 'AirOThon' for Manipur & Sikkim
  • Environment & antimicrobial resistance
  • A lone night traveller :: Poem
  • Central Govt finally bows to kisans
  • Mera Houchongba @ Kangla #3 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Improving public transport will reduce pollution
  • Nutrition- Tool for resilience in COVID
  • Take a relook at NEET
  • Glorifying toothless ILP system in state
  • Lapses in ILPS: Complete let-down
  • Cultural Fest @Changangei #2: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 18 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Child Development Manager @ MaolKeki
  • Irujdn hEbi tEbi lMdM :: Seireng
  • The Killing Fields (2013-21) :: News Timeline
  • Is "to be like a girl" an insult?
  • Aloe vera for acne
  • Elections: Plentiful issues, solution minimal
  • Flawed education system & private tuition
  • National Press Day @DIPR : Gallery
  • Book review of Ikigai
  • Free Filmmaking Workshop at Guwahati
  • World Piles Day Colorectal Cancer
  • Diwali with a void
  • Heartache for loyal BJP ticket seekers
  • MPSC: Time for complete overhaul
  • Ningol Chakouba @ Delhi : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 16 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Erol Meerol Eigi Choirol
  • Ningol Chakouba organized at Delhi
  • The bare truth-the only truth :: Poem
  • Scientific freshwater prawn culture in NE
  • Equal footing for tribal population
  • Violence and conflict situation
  • Did Tribes Fight for Freedom of our Nation
  • COVID-19 Status 15 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Consultation: Protection of Rivers, Leimatak
  • Dr Naorem Bidyasagar- Bal Sahitya Puraskar
  • World Diabetes Day 2021
  • Padma awards now are more peoples' award
  • Bloodshed amid peace in state narrative
  • NE & Delhi: Bridging policy disconnect
  • Ningol Chakouba @ Thanga : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 14 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Nupana Khutlingba Samajda 'Nupa'
  • Through Her Eyes : Peace Festival of NE
  • Webinar on US Medical Licensing Exam
  • GMOs, is it a Yes or No?
  • Sobbing in solitude
  • Lesson learnt from ABP News-Cvoter survey
  • Glasgow Climate Pact, a step forward?
  • Ningol Chakkouba: origin & significance
  • COVID-19 Status 13 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Exhibition on Judicial Establishments
  • My namesake
  • Kidney patient must take fistula seriously
  • What to see & what to do at Kangla Fort
  • COVID-19 Status 12 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Meetei tribe bears more tribal characters..
  • Scholarship payment for OBC & SC students
  • Do you know ? :: Poem
  • COVAXIN data published in The Lancet
  • Disturbing vaccine hesitancy trend
  • Chinese village in Arunachal Pradesh
  • Online Teaching in a Pandemic World
  • COVID-19 Status 11 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • State Level Moot-Court Competition
  • Ecological task force in Manipur #2
  • Makeup Competition - Lumiere 2021
  • Essential winter skin care tips
  • Inadequacy of women in decision making
  • Election under the shadow of Covid
  • Ningol Chakouba Shopping #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 10 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Legal Services / Commendation Ceremony
  • Handloom & Handicraft of NE in Kolkata
  • Upcoming election: View on social auditing
  • Organic Farming
  • Task cut out for school, college
  • Rise of drug mafias: An impending challenge
  • Ningol Chakouba @ Itanagar : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 09 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Ningol Chakouba organized at Arunachal
  • Resolution: Climate Change in Manipur
  • Consultation on Climate Change in Manipur
  • Firecracker hub of Sivakasi in TN
  • Season of turncoats
  • Of defection and Assembly election
  • Ningol Chakouba @ Pune : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 08 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Quarantine Center Tamnalai : e-premiered
  • Discussion :: Youth & Electoral Politics -II
  • Ningol Chakouba organized at Pune
  • A new jurisprudence for political prisoners
  • Private sector shaping healthcare landscape
  • Preparation to tackle Covid spread during poll
  • Ching-Tam Ningol Chakouba : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 07 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • The worth of my sweat :: Poem
  • Career in science for development
  • Despite India-China disputes, trade persist
  • Chronic shortage in fish production
  • The other parties too matter : NPP & NPF
  • Ningol Chakouba Fish Fair : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 06 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • The Mindless Race for Marks
  • Ecological task force in Manipur #1
  • Plastic is a blessing in disguise
  • Ningols on way to her mapam: Gallery
  • Essence of Ningol Chakkouba
  • Kang Tournament @Pishum #2 : Gallery
  • Kwak Tanba @Sana Konung #3 : Gallery
  • Unity Ride @ Khoupum, Noney : Gallery
  • Loktak & Imphal Valley Landscape: Gallery
  • Mera Houchongba @ Kangla #2 : Gallery
  • ZMlgdr AEKoIn :: Seireng
  • Bor khoiramnaba @Hiyangthang #3 : Gallery
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Mera Houchongba @ Kangla #1 : Gallery
  • Abonmai: Shutdown- 4 Oct #3: Gallery
  • Bishwamitra Chongtham - Boxing: Gallery
  • Saikhom Mirabai: Olympics #2: Gallery
  • Manipur Olympians reception : Gallery
  • Mary Kom reception- Aug 20: Gallery
  • Hijam Gourashyam : Manipur Sahitya
  • Sushila Likmabam reception- Aug 18: Gallery
  • S Nilakanta / P Sushila [Aug 11] #2 : Gallery
  • S Nilakanta / P Sushila [Aug 11] #1 : Gallery
  • Mirabai felicitated truck drivers: Gallery
  • Saikhom Mirabai @Imphal #3: Gallery
  • Saikhom Mirabai @Imphal #2: Gallery
  • Saikhom Mirabai @ Kakching: Gallery
  • Shanglakpam Nilakanta: Olympics #2: Gallery
  • Sushila Pukhrambam :: Olympics : Gallery
  • Saikhom Mirabai : Tokyo Olympics 2020
  • Pukhrambam Sushila : Tokyo Olympics Dream
  • Sushila Likmabam: Olympics Dream: Gallery