TODAY -

Gaudiya Vaishnavism : An Integrating force in the Amalgamation of Meitei Nation
- Part 2 -

Manindra Konsam *



As such, an initiation of an evolution of a common bonding of cultural tradition for the integrated Meitei power can be seen since the beginning of the amalgamation of the Meitei Nation. However, in the process of the common cultural evolution for the amalgamated Meitei power, there are historical evidences that shows: the Meitei also developed their own distictive culture different from the other groups they subdued and amalgamated to their own power.

For such insertion, the followings may be considered:-I. Meidingu Ningthoukhomba (1432-1467 A.D.) wanted to attack and subdue the Moiraang but hasitated as both the powerful Khuman and Kabo were allies of Moirang. Whereas the Kabo was friendly with the Meitei but the Khuman remaind a great adversary. So, the Meitei king planned a conspiracy with the Chief of Andro to make alleis with the Kabo to attack Moirang.

The Chief of Andro was sent to Kabo for requesting help for Meitei to attack Moirang. Meanwhile a night, Meitei secretly attacked Kabo and beheaded Kabo queen and placed the head atop the palace gate of the Kabo. The Meitei attackers on their return left scattering meal leftovers wrapped in lotus leaves to mislead them as Moirang as it was a customary tradition of the Moirang of wrapping their meal packages (Chayom) -4-in lotus leaves, whereas the Meitei wrapped their's in Leihouraa (plantain leaves of edible banana) and the Khuman in Changbi Laa (leaves of wild plantain).

II. Meidingu Nongyin Phaaba (1523-1524 A.D.) ascended at the tender age of 10 yr. after his father Meidingu Lamkyamba (1512-1523 A.D.). Taking advantage of the Meitei king's young age, Angom King Angoupaamba Kyamba forcibly married the young king's queen mother Chaningphaabi. One day the Angom king came to the royal court adoring Urekshek Chaashangba (painted feather of white Heron) on his head which was a customary to the Meitei but not of the Angom. So the Meitei queen mother protested the nature of the Angom king and consequently got killed along with her young king son.

On the other hand, it is also a well known fact that all the different groups of people (regardless of smaller groups that merged to one or another bigger group) amalgamated to the Meitei power and integrated through common cultural bondings in many ways, still continued to enjoyed their own distinctive ways of folk culture and traditions.

Each group had their own distinctive paterns and colours of costumes and ornaments that could show the identity of the group they belongs. They had day to day habits and ritualistic practices different from one another.

For example:-I. Meidingu Yaanglou Keiphaaba (969-984 A.D.) introduced the pattern of embroidering Khoi (a curve design) in the border of the Meetei womens' Phanek Mayek Naibi (stripe-sarong) which was adopted by all the groups amalgamated to the Meitei power. However that was done in different colours of distinctive stripe-sarong to identify the women wearer of the respective group she belongs. Such as :

a. Ningthoujaa (Meitei) : Thambal machu phanek (indigo and red stripe).
b. Khaaba-Ngaanba : Chigonglei phanek (golden and black stripe).
c. Angom : Langhou phanek (black and white stripe).
d. Chenglei (sharaang Leishaang and Haorok Konthou) : Loirang phanek (reddish and white stripe).
e. Luwang : Higok phanek (sky-blue and black strip).
f. Khuman : Kumjingbi phanek (dark blue and whitish stripe).
g. Moirang : Hangampal phanek (yellow and reddish stripe).

(Those trend of wearing distinctive colours stripe-sarong by the Meitei women conforming to their respective groups continued till the Great World War II. But after the War, Meetei women started trendsetting to wear any kind of stripe-sarong as they like and continues to be still in vogue.

II. The Chakpas of Manipur is a strong group of people who came and settled in this land since early days.Their main settlement areas with their religious practices which had affinity to the Tantric culture of Mahayana Buddhist were in and around the present day Bishnupur (Lamaangdong). They were defeated and -5-brought within the Meitei power during the reign of Meidingu Kongyaamba (1324-1335 A.D.).

But they continued to remain with their customary practices and distinctive dialect. As such, The Chairen, subdued and brought within the Meitei power during the reign of Meidingu Telheiba (1335-1355 A.D) also remained retaining their customary practices; whereas the Heirem Khunjaan, subdued at the same time with the Chairen got completely merged to the Meitei fold.

In addition to the above circumstances, alien groups with their distinctive cultural traditions started settling within the amalgamated Meitei power either by means of forced exlusive settlements as war captives or by migration from both the east and west. So, by the turns of the early 18th c. A.D., it may easily be concieved the the hard earned amalgamated Meitei Power and Nation might surely had faced a chaotic social order.

By the turn of the 18th c. A.D., the small valley of Manipur, though it housed the seat of power of the amalgamated Meitei Nation, had numbers of different cultural colours which were not rightly befitted for a nation. Other than the amalgamated groups of the Meitei Power and Nation, the valley had housed- Takhel (Tripuri) Vaishnav Hindu village (later to be mingled with Chinese), Mayaang (Cachari) Vaishnav Hindu village, Mayaang Kaalishaa (later Bishnupriya) Shaakta Hindu villages, Khraamran (Burmese) Buddhist village, Kameng (Burmese Karen) Buddhist village, Muslim villages and in between Brahmans from different parts of India with their different Hindu school of thoughts.

In such chaotic combinations of different cultures in a small land like Manipur valley where the seat of power for the amalgamated Meitei power and Nation leis, why a Meitei king would not like to adopt a state religion to bring common cultural traditions for his amalgamated subjects for integration as one?

Therefore, during the reign of King Pamheiba @ Garibaniwaz (1709-1748), there came a real time for the Meitei nation to have one common religion to shape one complete entity for the amalgamated Meitei power and its nation. So the king had to choose one from the three emerging religion of the world: -
1. Buddhism, a flourished religion of the south-east Asia including neighboring Burma, the then greatest enemy of the Meitei;
2. Islam, an alien but worldwide religion but then emerging forcefully in the eastern part of India;
3. Vaishnava Hinduism of India, the religion of the then friendly neighbouring kingdom of Ahom and Cachar.

The king rightly decided for Vaishnava Hinduism the religion, his father Meidingu Charairongba (1697-1709 A.D.) fondly embraced and patronised. But, adoptation of Vaishnava Hinduism by Meidingu Garibaniwaz for his amalgamated Meitei power brought more chaotic altercations than to bring common bonding among his amalgamated subjects as Hinduism in the valley of Manipur started reaching in varied forms with different colour and outlooks.

-7-PS: The English in the above article is subject to correction and improvement as the writer is not habitual of writing in English. - The writer.

To be continued...


* Manindra Konsam, Editor, Sanathong Monthly, wrote this article for Imphal Times
This article was webcasted on November 15, 2018.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Nupi Lan : Women Agitation, 1939-40 #2
  • The day after tomorrow
  • Kudos to rights defenders
  • Sangai Fest: Maibi Jagoi : Gallery
  • NEROCA FC Vs Indian Arrows : Gallery
  • Nupi Lan : Women Agitation, 1939-40 #1
  • Promoting Human Rights: A Perspective
  • Khongji :: Poem
  • Surveying tigers: A big challenge in Manipur
  • Terrorism & Technology - II
  • Silencing significance of Human Right Day
  • Trun up to Parliamentary polls: Issues
  • Deteriorating Tumukhong Village road
  • Sangai Fest: Chareng Len : Gallery
  • International Mountain Day, 2018
  • Loudness not ok please
  • A wounded Pine Tree :: Poem
  • Natural remedies for hair growth
  • BEHS office inaugurated at Motbung
  • Tattooed With Taboos :: Review
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Stone Forest @Yunnan, China : Gallery
  • Eerie, Eerier, Eeriest :: Review
  • Sangai Fest: Muay Thai : Gallery
  • ..that made me fall in love with Naga
  • Research Support Officer wanted
  • Condemns arrest of Journalist Wangkhem
  • The Killing Fields 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • Programs at Public Health Foundation
  • Fixing the broken window
  • Head count of dogs !!
  • Pari Imom (Film) #2 :: eRang
  • Matheous Thingbaijam Cycling NE: Gallery
  • Chumthang Nganbi, Ulen :: eMing
  • Chengni Khujai: Insurgency Chronicle #1
  • Gwangju Prize for Human Rights 2019
  • Tests for allergies
  • Cycling across NE: Matheous Thingbaijam
  • Site Officer/ Manager @R-Square Design
  • Armed Forces Flag Day celebrated
  • A lasting legacy
  • 'Stray dogs' as predators
  • Sangai Day 3: Pung Chollom #2: Gallery
  • Thai Princess @Imphal Airport: Gallery
  • Fashion Show @Sangai Fest #1: Gallery
  • Mysterious Animal Attack of Manipur
  • Khelen Thokchom Media Fellowships
  • Career option in Purchase Management
  • Terrorism & Technology - I
  • Intimidation to media person
  • Ban on hunting migratory birds
  • Manipuri Diaspora in Myanmar #3
  • Sangai Day 3: Pena: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 1: Inauguration #3 : Gallery
  • I am a beautiful HIV Virus :: Poem
  • Teacher & Student: Stop eroding education
  • Diaspora unites at Thadou Nampi, USA
  • Deciding Mary's title :: WJ
  • A good man perspective
  • Now people need to extend co-operation
  • Day 3: Kabi Burnan : Gallery
  • Art meets Fashion : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 5: @ BOAT #3: Gallery
  • NAF announces Annual Scholarship
  • Preventing methods to save livestock
  • How Do You Do ? :: Poem
  • Competitiveness of Manipur
  • Shattered dream - "The Smart city"
  • Arrest, release & re-arrest of young man
  • Ningol Chakouba @ MBC #3 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Thang Ta #3: Gallery
  • Stalls at Hapta Kangjeibung #1: Gallery
  • How do you see 'disability' today ?
  • I don't exist without polo: Rafael Secco
  • The Road :: Poem
  • Students needed for cultural revolution?
  • Hard stand, hard decision
  • Cong rolling up sleeves ahead of LS polls
  • Day 8 : Arambai Langba : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Evening Program #3: Gallery
  • The Midnight Hunter : Analysis
  • Art exhibition "Art meets Fashion"
  • The Haipi Lho-lhun Kut
  • Gaudiya Vaishnavism in Meitei Nation #3
  • Sangai Day 9: Thadou Dance: Gallery
  • Sangai Chef: Cooking Final : Gallery
  • Han Kang's The White Book
  • Sangai Day 4: Yubi Lakpi : Gallery
  • Sangai Chef: Season 1 Cooking Final
  • Disaster Management Course at NEHU
  • Training on Online Fact Checking
  • Clarify : Impact of Act East Policy
  • On the series of Killing of Livestock..
  • Today is World AIDS Day
  • From entrails to body now
  • NESO : abolish Citizenship Bill
  • NEC building cultural centre at Delhi
  • 12th Manipur Polo Intl #1 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 9: Kabui Dance : Gallery
  • Day 5: Stalls @Keibul Lamjao: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Holi Pala #1: Gallery
  • Importance of TESOL in Government School
  • Farewell to Lt Gen LN Singh, VSM**
  • Waphong Inthan - A failed village
  • On the arrest of Kishorchand
  • Blank Editorial
  • Predator or predators on the prowl
  • Thai Princess visit Kangla #1: Gallery
  • December Calendar for Year 2018 :: Tools
  • Sangai Day 8: Mukna Kangjei #1: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Evening Program #2: Gallery
  • Polo grows on you: Col Tarsem
  • Rediscovery of Gangmumei Kamei: Review
  • For whom does she cry ? :: Poem
  • DG Assam Rifles visits Manipur
  • Detention of TV journalist not fair
  • Arrest of 8 mountaineers from Manipur
  • Sangai Day 4: Lai Haraoba #1: Gallery
  • Bangladesh Manipuri Students : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Pung Chollom #1: Gallery
  • We have a balanced team: George Shelton
  • Cry of a Dying River - 56 :: Poem
  • Sangai with Sumo & Samba ?
  • Morphing : An innocent loses her life
  • Bangladesh Manipuri students at Sylhet
  • Thai princess visits Kangla Fort
  • Olympics gold my dream : Mary Kom
  • Exploring the beaten path
  • Opening up Manipur: Visa office assurance
  • Thai Princess Sirindhorn @Sangai : Gallery
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2018 #5: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 6: Pherzawl Dance : Gallery
  • Manipuri Maichou 7 :: Book Review
  • Chandon :: Poem
  • Conservation of biodiversity
  • Defers proposed indefinite highway bandh
  • 19th Hornbill Festival at Kisama
  • Sangai stops dancing
  • Mary Kom: Epitome of sporting excellence
  • Sangai Day 5: Evening Prog #1 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 5: Thailand Dance : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Imphal Art Camp : Gallery
  • Edward Armstrong - USA Polo Team
  • An abrupt journey to an oasis of blue bull
  • Winter Blues :: Poem
  • Technical Internship Training for Japan
  • NPF on Nagaland Deputy Chief Minister
  • A ditch to Technology
  • Border row: India Myanmar, sacrificial lamb
  • Sangai Day 4: Pena Esei :Gallery
  • Day 5: Sangai Chef: Season 1 : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Evening Program #1: Gallery
  • Sangai Festival 2018: Turning into a Mela?
  • Sumo Wrestling: popular event in Sangai
  • Sangai Chef: Season 1: Cooking : Day 5
  • Truths in rumours & humours
  • PANE Conference organized at AUDC
  • Sangai Day 2: Dance from Kamjong: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Thang Ta #1: Gallery
  • Can we have the Sangai festival daily?
  • Platonic love :: Poem
  • IGAR(s) congratulates Mary Kom
  • WPW Syndrome operated and cured
  • NSUD clarification on Nagas' Meet
  • National Highway bandh from Nov 27
  • Prospective candidates of Cong, BJP
  • Sangai Day 2: Sumo Wrestling #1: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Myanmar : Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Geet Govinda: Gallery
  • 2017- a watershed year for Manipur Polo
  • Faculties (PG) at Gauhati University
  • Biodiversity for economic development #2
  • Mera Kongchat Mass Rally #4: Gallery
  • Sangai Chef: Season 1 : Day 1
  • GC Tongbra's 'Chengni Khujai'
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Thy name :: Poem
  • Bartending as a career option #2
  • Legal Awareness Programme
  • Tribute to Bhupen Hazarika at London
  • Blessing for Manipur
  • Cherry Blossom & Sangai: beyond Imphal
  • Sangai Fest: Inauguration #2 : Gallery
  • Sangai Fest: Inauguration #1 : Gallery
  • Natural Resources Management in Manipur
  • Leishemba Takhellambam : Polo Player
  • Robert Naorem at Eco Friendly Australia
  • Cry of a Dying River - 55 :: Poem
  • Jobs at ICERT, MeitY
  • NHPC Raising Day at Loktak Power Station
  • Where have all the city buses gone ?
  • Back to politics: Man from Langthabal AC
  • Mera Wayungba #2 : Gallery
  • Ningol Chakouba @Pune : Gallery
  • State Level Basketball : Gallery
  • Combating drug abuse in Manipur
  • Ningol Chakkouba celebrated at Pune
  • Glamour at 55th Naga's Meet 2018, Delhi
  • Myanmarese greeted at Khudengthabi
  • Rejoinder to PRO IGAR(s) statement
  • Quami Ekta Divas
  • Subsuming a smaller tribe
  • Kwatha Festival #2 : Gallery
  • ChingTam Ningol Chakouba @Goa: Gallery
  • Thoudam Kaoba :: Profile of Polo Player
  • The festival of the Inpui Nagas
  • Hazari/Tombi Polo Tournament : Gallery
  • Ashok Veilou (Purul) award in Kolkata fest
  • Ningol Chakouba @ Mysore #2 : Gallery
  • Scaramouche, Fandango, Galileo, Figaro..
  • Laija (Film Scenes) #1 :: eRang
  • Ningol Chakouba @ Dubai #2 : Gallery
  • Lamklai Kummoi Maring Fest #2: Gallery
  • Ningol Chakouba Nga Mela #2 : Gallery
  • Rajkumar Jhaljit : Sahityaratna 2017
  • Ningol Chakouba :: Poem
  • Kut festival @ Chandel : Gallery
  • Ningol - mapam lamdam : Gallery
  • Mera Houchongba @Konung #3: Gallery
  • Fabrics of Bangladeshi Manipuri: Download
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Mera Houchongba @Konung #1: Gallery
  • Eepan Thaba #1: Gallery
  • Manipuri Calendar for 2018 : Download
  • mtM :: Seireng
  • Front Page Photo 2018 #4: Gallery
  • Manglandasu Nang - OST :: e-pao Radio
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic
  • SPONSORED ADS