The Rulers of Kangla and Ethnic Tribes of Manipur
- Part 3 -

Naoroibam Indramani *

View of Kangla - The sacred place of Manipur :: 02 May 2013
View of Kangla - The sacred place of Manipur in May 2013 :: Pix - Shankar Khangembam


In a major tribute, one Pol (basket) of Kumna, two hoes were given in a year. In two years three hoes, in three years four hoes, and in four years five hoes were collected by two men. One Pol of chilli as Thangbal tribute and a quantity of chilli seeds as Thangbal tribute were paid. The seeds were partaken of by the principal queen. For market tribute, a sword or knife, according to the size of the basket, was offered by placing in the basket.

A basket of Heimang (a kind of fruit) was also offered. A sword sheathed in black cloth was offered. A full-grown goat was offered. To clear the road for Sanduba (offering of mithun), one axe, one spade, one black shroud for back cover, one large utensil were offered. For construction of residential palace, one Pol of fruit, and Singkha (a medicinal plant) were offered.

At the time of construction of Kangla (coronation hall of the king), Seri (a kind of metal pot) was offered. On funeral occasions in the royal family, every two men would offer ten lengths of cloth. At the coronation ceremony of the king also every two men would offer ten lengths of cloth. When the principal queen would give birth, every two men would bring ten lengths of cloth.


For a major tribute, five Phirak of cloth and for the minor tribute two lengths of cloth were offered by each man. In one year, one Pol of sesame and one hen would be offered. But, in another year oars would be offered, each household offered mat. At the construction of royal house Seri Senjao (a large metal pot) was offered.

In the month of Mera, one black cloth and one Pol of fruits were offered. Sanchi Langmei was realised. At the parturition of the royal ladies, every two men would offer a length of cloth. Heiribop (a citrus fruit) was also offered.


One Leikai (locality) would offer two Kairenphi (a kind of cloth), two Phiten (short cloth) and six Phi Paodam. Besides, on the coronation of the king and at natal activity of the principal queen, every two men would offer one length of cloth.


One Leikai would offer two chang of sesame, two Shuk (long wooden pestle), one Pol of tobacco, six Lakha of Polkhum Sel (bell metal) and one full grown goat. At the time of death and at the coronation of the king, every two men would offer a length of cloth. The Anal Ningthou (chief) would offer a slave to the Kanglei king.


A Leikai would offer one Pol of cotton equivalent to five Khal, one Pol of sesame, one Pol of tobacco, one Pol of chilli and, in the month of Mera, Leichikpa.

3. Social Relation:

When there was monarchy in Manipur, the kings used to adopt hill-men. They were known as "Ayokpa". They were settled in the valley. They were given one Pari of paddy field each for cultivation per annum. Like the valley people, they also attended Lallup duty (free labour for the king and the state).

Besides these adopted hill-men, several tribes from the hills were engaged in tilling the king's land, being attached to Kei (granaries) in several places. One Kei would till two Paris of paddy field a year. Half the paddy produce gathered by the Kei would go to the royal granary and the remaining half set aside for use by the concerned Kei. In their spare time, the Keirois (retainers of Kei) would also make brooms and baskets, etc., for use in the king's cow-sheds.

In the early days, these were similarity in dress and food-habit between the valley people and the hill-men. Tribal dresses and costumes were also worn by the valley-people, and vice versa. During the reign of Loiyumba (1074- 1124) each and every family (Yumnak) was allotted a definite occupation or profession.. Certain Yumnaks (families) were ordained to weave particular tribal cloths, e.g., the Tongbram family would weave Purumphee, the Thoudam family the Taraophee, and the Sanchiram family Leirumphee etc.

Among the Tangkhul villages, only some particular villages had the convention of weaving cloths. Not only their tribal dresses, they would weave Pakiionphee, Leirumphee, Laiphee, Sukhanphee, etc. This shows that there was much similarity in dress and costume between different people inhabiting in the hills and the valley.

4. Cultural Relation:

Not only political, economic and sogial relations, there were cultural relations with different tribes of the hills. Mera Haochongba was a festival performed in the month of Mera annually. In this festival, the Kanglei king and all sections of people, plainsmen or tribals, participated. This helped to foster a close cultural relations between the king and the hill people, and among different sections of the people.

Dressed in traditional costumes, they performed entertainment programmes in dance and music, and martial arts exhibitions. There were also competitions in different game and sport events like stone throw, weight lifting, race, wrestling (Mukna), etc.

The holding of this festival not only cemented the bond of friendship between the king and the tribal chiefs and headmen hailing from hill villages of Manipur but also evolved a harmonious friendly contact between different sections of hill-men and plains people, which helped in bringing about the integration of Manipur.

This grand traditional festival continued to be held every year up to the time of king Bodhachandra (1941-1955). After Bochachandra's death, Mera Haochongba had no longer been held. However, since a few years back, Haochongba is being celebrated as Houchongba every year to revive the old bond of friendship and love between the hi Il¬men and plainsmen.

To be continued....

* Naoroibam Indramani wrote this article which was published at 'Manipur Today' on Republic Day Celebration on 26th January 2016
This article was posted on April 11, 2016.

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Pathetic Imphal-Jiri Road #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 05 Oct : Govt of Manipur
  • Amit Tonk wins Indian hair style icon
  • The International Day Of The Aged, 2022
  • Regulations for entry at Khuman Lampak
  • World Mental Health Day 2022
  • Sign language: Fundamental right of HI people
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Draft liquor policy testifies no rollback stand
  • Draft regulation for sale of liquor
  • MM Ahmed: Sahitya Akademi Translation
  • COVID-19 Status 04 Oct : Govt of Manipur
  • Frontier Nagaland- a path to justice, equality
  • SW Developer/Marketing @PiCaSoid, Imphal
  • Climate change & livestock #1
  • The different magnitude of footprints
  • Traditional textile globally recognised struggle
  • Need to look beyond the 'immediate'
  • Bor @Hiyangthang Lairembi #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 03 Oct : Govt of Manipur
  • Poets keep a mirror of the real world
  • World Animal Day: Wildlife Week Celebration
  • 'Who am I?'
  • NSU land claims undermining sportspersons
  • Poor reflection on society: Students on street
  • Mera Chaorel Houba @ Kangla #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 02 Oct : Govt of Manipur
  • Chingangbam Ranju: Gold in Skateboarding
  • Clean India Campaign 2022 at MU
  • Prof without a PhD
  • Bio-security to prevent diseases in livestock
  • Befitting response from 'unwanted' parents
  • Stand of STDCM & WMC : ST demand
  • Lamyanba Irawat Birth Anniv #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 01 Oct : Govt of Manipur
  • North East cheers for now
  • Loving Her :: Poem
  • Revoke Show Cause Notice to Dr Sanatomba
  • This Gujarat Model is worth replicating
  • The age-old art of Chola bronze statues
  • Laklaroi Amuk Hanna Yeningtha #2 : Gallery
  • October Calendar for Year 2022 : Tools
  • Old Lambulane, was a trend setting locality
  • Agniveer recruitment rally at Mizoram
  • Prevention of parasitism in livestock #3
  • The ground zero of gratitude
  • Eye makeup products every girl should have
  • Another statewide observance of Irabot Day
  • Saluting the Lamyanba : Respecting dissent
  • How does the full moon make waves...
  • COVID-19 Status 29 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Legalising production & sale of liquor
  • RKCS Children's Painting Competition
  • Online Essay Competition
  • Significance of World Heart Day 2022
  • A kind of feeling :: Poem
  • Free rice and plight of state's farmers
  • Lifting prohibition after 3 decades
  • Linthoi Chanambam : First Judo Gold Medalist
  • COVID-19 Status 28 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2022 #4: Gallery
  • Sore Admiration :: Poem
  • Accountant Assistant @ Amber & Arthur
  • World Heart Day 2022
  • Indo-Naga Talks (2012-) :: News Timeline
  • Plastic menace: Time over for warning
  • Promoting cycling in Imphal
  • Mera Chaorel Houba @ Kangla #1 :: Gallery
  • Tripura Fashion Week @ Agartala :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 27 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • ST status demands in India #2
  • Socio-cultural tourism in NE India
  • Investigation against CRPF Personal
  • Backache in diabetics: Never ignore it
  • 'Poison' liquor still favourite for commoners
  • What has happened to the ban on SUP ?
  • Maibi Jagoi @ Thangjing Haraoba :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 26 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Lamyanba Irabot Ningsing Tha : Plantation
  • World Pharmacists Day 2022
  • Workshop of Wildlife Crime Prevention
  • Genius is knowing when to stop !
  • Naga final pact as Nagaland polls near
  • Lifting prohibition : Talk of the day
  • Tarpon Chaklen Katpa @ Andro #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 25 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Lamyanba Irabot Ningsing Tha : Fingerlings
  • Tripura Fashion Week in Agartala
  • World River Day & our environment
  • Nubank : banking industry in Brazil
  • Opposition parties struggling to dent BJP
  • From High Court to Supreme Court ?
  • Lokchao Bridge @ NH 102 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 24 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • What were Phizo's last words to Khodao?
  • Priyadarshini, Priyanka: Everest Taekwondo
  • I swear :: Poem
  • Incomplete lifting of prohibition
  • Prevention of parasitism in livestock #2
  • Wakhal Eronba- Sumang Leela #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 23 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Arbin Tonjam: best designer - Miss Manipur
  • Lamyanba Irabot Ningsing Tha at Ithing
  • Ferry to Ganges :: Poem
  • Making public health messaging entertaining
  • Student schooling order exposes fault...
  • Discipline : The common thread
  • Camping @ Shirui Lily Fest #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Youth : An idea can change the world
  • Perceived class conflict triggers friction ...
  • The tale of a forgotten diary
  • Face Redness- How to get rid of it
  • CADA - Govt on collision course
  • Inching towards a final pact ?
  • Border Pillar Inspection @Kamjong :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 21 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Strange bed fellows attempting to cohabit
  • Training for entrepreneur in Food Processing
  • Recalling Alzheimer once again !
  • New Education Policy : The CUET rigmarole
  • Liquor for better health! Indigestible
  • Now focus on ST demand
  • Byron Aihara - A True Lover of Manipur
  • International Day of Peace 2022
  • Human Capital Formation, need of the hour
  • Prevention is better than cure !!
  • Prevention of parasitism in livestock #1
  • Security Conference at Tamenglong
  • Concrete action must follow 'CM Da Haisi'
  • Tag of a dry State for the last 30 years
  • Pungyam Yeiba Fest @Singjamei :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • National Bamboo Innovation Challenge
  • International Day of Peace & environment
  • Lamyanba Irabot Ningsing Tha: Social Service
  • World Bamboo Day celebrated
  • Domestic capitalists unwilling to trust & invest
  • Street food vogue boon for youth
  • Sit-ins demanding inclusion in ST list
  • Down Memory Lane: My Years with MSAD #3
  • COVID-19 Status 18 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Licypriya to attend UN General Assembly
  • Screenwriters invited to 6-month screenlab
  • An ideal civil servant
  • Tripura Fashion Week in Agartala
  • Opposition parties struggling to dent BJP
  • Taking the customer for granted
  • Miss Manipur 2022 #2 :: Gallery
  • Irabot Ningsing Tha : Jagoi Competition
  • Bringing drug users to mainstream society
  • Namo Birthday special: India matters globally
  • Criticizes village occupation in Ukhrul
  • Use of local agri wastes as substrate
  • Jiribam Keithel [15 June] #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 16 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Boeing University Innovation Leadership
  • ST status demands in India #1
  • Literacy enhancement as a career choice
  • Agniveer recruitment rally at Assam
  • Ignoring the perfect solution to everything
  • Eyeing to end insurgency in next 5 years
  • Laklaroi Amuk Hanna Yeningtha #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 15 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Manipuri Muslim (Pangal) Historical Society
  • 7th election: NE Student Org, Jalandhar
  • Macnivil releases new song: Price they'll pay
  • Youth advocating for sexual health & rights
  • Engineers : The backbone of any Nation
  • IBSD celebrated Hindi Diwas
  • Who is at fault for shrinking roads?
  • After 25 years of negotiations
  • Heikru Hidongba @Bijoy Govinda #2: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 14 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Joint Accordant by NSCN/GPRN & NNPGs
  • In search of Khubak Ishei
  • Lamyanba Irabot Ningsing Tha at Bishnupur
  • Beauty benefits of Amla
  • STDCM sets sight on bandh to draw Govt
  • The unplanned city of Imphal Concrete jungle
  • Down Memory Lane: My Years with MSAD #2
  • COVID-19 Status 13 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Constitution & flag still dogs settlement
  • Churachandpur - The chaos and mess !
  • Rice Afrika is using tech to increase rice
  • Voluntary Blood Donation: An act of solidarity
  • Nagaland desperate for solution to Naga issue
  • Final solution likely very soon: Note key word
  • Miss Manipur 2022 #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 12 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Is there a need for another Nupi Lan ?
  • Consultation: Development at Lairouching
  • Bullying : Losing of children's dignity
  • Social Entrepreneur, social currency they earn
  • AMSU in dire need of support of CSOs
  • Mum on the points of JCILPS, STDCM
  • 57th Hunger Marchers' Day #3 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 11 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • 1st Anniv: The Keithel Store Pune :: Gallery
  • Beyond Teachers' Day
  • On farm production of Mycorrhizae
  • Onam and the legend behind it
  • COVID-19 Status 10 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Fake voters testify official nepotism
  • From 1999 to 2022 : TSE is now 23
  • Yaoshang Thabal Competition #3 :: Gallery
  • Kholao Deben went with the Queen
  • Imaginary grudge severs human relations
  • A Phenomenally Him :: Poem
  • Bharat Jodo Yatra: Last ditch effort...
  • Special Lok Adalat for Imphal & Bishnupur
  • Pineapple Fest @Bunglon, CCpur :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 09 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Tarpon: Annual offerings to the dead by living
  • Book review: Aeromycology over Kachai lemon
  • On saying Hello
  • Himalayan Day celebrated at IBSD, Imphal
  • Get rid of strawberry legs at home
  • Manipuri driver primary source of 'Loyalty tax'
  • The 'tax-extortion' argument
  • Down Memory Lane: My Years with MSAD #1
  • COVID-19 Status 08 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • [Jobs] Biotechnology ignition grant for NE
  • 1st Anniversary of The Keithel Store Pune
  • International Literacy Day & our Environment
  • 1 Lakh Hand Sanitizer Bottles handed over
  • Pinning hope on Sangai fest to draw tourists
  • Points to study from Mizoram
  • Heikru Hidongba @Bijoy Govinda #1: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 07 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Schedule Tribe Demand, Recent cries
  • Intricacies of core issue in Naga insurgency
  • On Poiroukhongjin High School issue
  • Krishna Janma @ ISKCON :: Gallery
  • Meira Rally against Drug Traffic #2 :: Gallery
  • Reception of Linthoi Chanambam :: Gallery
  • Haipou Jadonang - Martyr Day :: Gallery
  • Mirabai Chanu: gold @ Commonwealth Game
  • Rules of English Pronunciation : Download
  • Sub-Syllables in English : Book Download