TODAY -

The Rulers of Kangla and Ethnic Tribes of Manipur
- Part 1 -

Naoroibam Indramani *

View of Kangla - The sacred place of Manipur :: 02 May 2013
View of Kangla - The sacred place of Manipur in May 2013 :: Pix - Deepak Oinam



The erstwhile kingdom of Manipur is a small state where settled several ethnic groups of people different from one another in language, costume and dress, way of life, religious belief and custom, standard of living, culture and tradition, etc. Geographically, it is divided into two regions, i.e., hills and valley. In the hills, settle different ethnic tribes whereas in the valley, different groups of people inhabit. These different ethnic tribes and groups of people of the hills and the valley were brought under a single administrative set¬up by successive rulers of Kangla, generation after generation.

Kangla, as symbol of power, is still existing, surrounded by a stretch of moat, in the heart of Imphal city. Kangla which was the capital of successive generations of kings, has a unique place in the long history of Manipur. Moreover, as many esoteric sanctums were preserved here, Kangla has been regarded as holy of holies. Since it was the capital of Manipur for centuries on end, it occupied a special place in the history oi Manipur politically, economically, socially and religiously.

Foundation of Monarchy at Kangla:

The foundation of a monarchy with Kangla as the capital is a landmark in the history of Manipur. The history of Manipur is assumed to have begun from 33 A.D. when Nongda Lairel Pakhangba ascended the throne at Kangla as the king of the Meiteis. Before Nongda Lairel Pakhangba, his father Sentreng Pakhangba was ruling at Kangla. Khaba rose against him and defeated. Kangla, then occupied by the Khaba.

Sentreng Pakhangba took shelter in hiding to the Moirang and then to the Nongmaijing hill near Angom clan. While he was hiding he was called Lolang Pakhangba. While he was hiding he was also known as "Leinung Lonja Ariba". While in hiding, Lolang Pakhangba was contemplating to revenge against Khaba and overthrow the Khaba clan, once and for all. But, unable to put his plan into action, he clandestinely came up passing several hill villages of northward direction of Kangla one after another incognito, and at last he arrived at Fatlou Laimakon, the source of Iril river, and dwelt there in concealment with his young son, Nongda Lairel Pakhangba.

Around this time, Pureiromba of the Angom clan dwelling on the other side of the Imphal river killed Khaba in the battle in consequence of a quarrel over river. On hearing the news of quarrel between Khaba and Angom, Khamchingkon Haiheiba who was closely related with Khaba clan ethnically, came in the scene to support Khaba. So, Pureiromba also pursued to kill Khamchingkon Haiheiba. Due to unable to counteract the Angom king, Pureiromba, Nganba Khamchingkon Haiheiba fled to Khamnung and asked his son-in-law Thongaren, king of Khamnung, to wage war against Pureiromba.

Leinung Thongaren despatched his younger brother Poireiton to wage war on Pureiromba. On hearing Poireiton's invasion, Pureiromba, being no match for Poireiton, proceeded to Fatlou Laimakon to seek Nongda Lairel Pakhangba. He brought Pakhangba to engage in war against Poireiton. When Pakhangba vanquished Poireiton, Thongaren brought his younger sister Laisna and offered her to Nongda Lairel Pakhangba and thus saved his younger brother Poireiton.

Nongda Lairel Pakhangba again returned to Fatlou Laimakon whereupon hisfatherLolang Pakhangba appointed him king there and then he proceeded back to Kangla en-route Hanjing Chingmei, arrived at Nonghumshang of Kangla and ascended the throne of Kangla. Thus, from the time of Nongda Lairel Pakhangba through successive generations of kings up to the time of king Kulachandra during whose reign Manipur fought its last war of independence with the British in consequence of having killed five Britishers and the British occupied Kangla on 27th April, 1891, Kangla had been the capital of Independent Manipur.

Ethnic Tribes of Manipur:

From bygone days, different tribes have settled in the hills surrounding the valley of Manipur. In the east and the north-east are scattered villages of Tangkhul tribe. In the hills of the north are lying diverse villages of Mao, Maram, and Kolya @ Khoirao @ Mayangkhang tribes. In the west and north-west Kabui tribes inhabit in villages spread across the hills.

The Khongjai (Kuki) tribes dwell extensively in the hills of the south, but they also settle in scattered villages in all the hill areas except the Mao area of the north. And in the hills adjoining the valley of Manipur settle the Chiru, Koireng, Chothe, Anal, Maring, Khoibu, Kom, Namphou, Purum, Mantak tribes, etc.

Relation between the Kanglei King and the Hill Tribes:

Though, in the early days, there were numerous ethnic tribes and groups in the hills and the valley, independent of and separate from one another, they were brought step by step under a single administrative set-up by the military and political manoeuvre of the Kanglei kings in succession. During the reign of Nongda Lairel Pakhangba (33 A.D.-154 A.D.), Khaba rose against Nongda. Driven out of Kangla, Nongda Lairel Pakhangba lived in exile in Loirel Khunbirok of Moirang.

After a few years, Nongda Lairel Pakhangba with the help of Moirang, invaded against Khaba at Kangla and killed Khwai Nongjengba, the leader of the Khaba by an arrow of the Moirang Chaoba Melleiba Sangton Sanouba, a warrior of Moirang near Nongjeng Pat of Kangla. The Khaba clan consequently perished. A section of Khaba took refuge under Angom Pureiromba. A section of Khaba ran away towards east and became Tangkhul Machiba tribe. A section of Khaba ran away towards south and became Mahou Lontai tribe.

A section of Khaba ran away towards west direction and became Kabui Nungnang tribe. A section of Khaba ran away towards north and bacame Khaba Ullen at Koubru Laikha. One Khaba Nonganba took reguge to Pakhangba and Pakhangba forgave him. Thus, the Khaba clan was survived and continued the Nongjengbam and Khuraijam families.

Hence, Nongda Lairel Pakhangba started reigning again. After subduing the Khaba clan, the other kings who reigned after Nongda Lairel Pakhangba, other clans viz., the Chenglei, Angom, Mangang, Thangga- Kambong, Luwang, Heirem Khunjan, Khuman, Moirang, and Chakpas were subdued by the kings, viz., Naokhamba (411- 428), Sameirang (518-568), Naothingkhong (663-763), Chenglei Ipan Lanthaba (944-961), Thawanthaba (1195-1231), Kongyamba (1324- 1335), Ningthoukhomba (1432-1467), and Paikhomba (1666-1697) respectively. Thus the formation of a unified state was completed around the time of king Paikhomba in the valley of Manipur.

Along with the process of state formation in the valley, there had also been the gradual absorption and integration of tribal villages of the hills adjoining the valley into Kanglei monarchy. After that, by the time of king in war against Poireiton. When Pakhangba vanquished Poireiton, Thongaren brought his younger sister Laisna and offered her to Nongda Lairel Pakhangba and thus saved his younger brother Poireiton.

Nongda Lairel Pakhangba again returned to Fatlou Laimakon whereupon his father Lolang Pakhangba appointed him king there and then he proceeded back to Kangla en-route Hanjing Chingmei, arrived at Nonghumshang of Kangla and ascended the throne of Kangla. Thus, from the time of Nongda Lairel Pakhangba through successive generations of kings up to the time of king Kulachandra during whose reign Manipur fought its last war of independence with the British in consequence of having killed five Britishers and the British occupied Kangla on 27th April, 1891, Kangla had been the capital of Independent Manipur.

Ethnic Tribes of Manipur:

From bygone days, different tribes have settled in the hills surrounding the valley of Manipur. In the east and the north-east are scattered villages of Tangkhul tribe. In the hills of the north are lying diverse villages of Mao, Maram, and Kolya @ Khoirao @ Mayangkhang tribes. In the west and north-west Kabui tribes inhabit in villages spread across the hills. The Khongjai (Kuki) tribes dwell extensively in the hills of the south, but they also settle in scattered villages in all the hill areas except the Mao area of the north. And in the hills adjoining the valley of Manipur settle the Chiru, Koireng, Chothe, Anal, Maring, Khoibu, Kom, Namphou, Purum, Mantak tribes, etc.

To be continued....


* Naoroibam Indramani wrote this article which was published at 'Manipur Today' on Republic Day Celebration on 26th January 2016
This article was posted on March 30, 2016.


* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Licypriya speech at East Timor :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Licypriya delivers Speech at East Timor
  • Tobacco epidemic continues...
  • Dry Manipur still Wet and 'High'
  • Insects as feed for aquaculture
  • Inflation worries real but a passing phase
  • Dealing with suspected forest encroachers
  • Morphine to heroin to WY
  • English phonetic sounds :: Book download
  • COVID-19 Status 21 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Rs 2,80,000 assistance to 6 Journalists
  • Manipur Roads: A rainy season Nightmare
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Workshop on "Research Ethics" at MU
  • Tacitly tacit
  • Gleanings from Buddhism
  • Thaopai Shithaine @ Phuba #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 20 May : Govt of Manipur
  • North-East Research (NER) Conclave
  • Fisheries development in NE Region #1
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • North East LSN Partners Meet 2022
  • Cold facial during Summer
  • Check gate closure: Boon or bane for driver
  • Covid free after 26 months: A brief look back
  • Wakhom Leikai Lairembi Haraoba #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Shija celebrates 26 years of surgery
  • International Webinar: Computing Trend in AI
  • New MAHUD for a new Imphal City
  • R&D initiatives of Ministry of Info Tech
  • PMFBY - Every cloud has a silver lining
  • Banking on Modi to eradicate plastic malaise
  • One step down from Greater Lim ?
  • Flood Watch: Nambul Turel [18 May] :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 18 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Ambassadors for Christ
  • "... where women are not respected"
  • Nursing as a career choice
  • Conquest of the last frontier
  • Dry Manipur among top 5 liquor states!
  • Scoring high on liquor consumption
  • Flood Watch: Imphal Turel [17 May] :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 17 May : Govt of Manipur
  • World hypertension day : 17th May 2022
  • Taking advantage of dying sedition law
  • Market innovations & vertical integration
  • Soram Oscar: Mr India Intl Tourism 2022
  • Cyber Security Lecture at Tamenglong
  • Involve village chief in Save Singda Movement
  • Reaching out to SC Jamir
  • Jalakeli Offering @ Govindajiu :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 16 May : Govt of Manipur
  • On 200th Anniversary of MK Binodini Devi
  • East Timor : Licypriya Kangujam invited
  • Carbon Sequestration in Dailong Site #2
  • Semiotic interpretations of traffic policing
  • Citrus Marcoptera: Rare Citrus species in NE
  • Same old healthcare issues for new minister
  • Rain : Bringing out the dirt of Imphalites
  • Art Exhibition @Imphal Art #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 15 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2022 #2: Gallery
  • Soil rejuvenation through plants
  • Harrowing memories of a blast victim
  • Pristine Death :: Poem
  • Odisha File
  • Anti-poppy vows: Govt shouldnt be taken...
  • After more than 2 decades of talks
  • River & River Based Communities
  • COVID-19 Status 14 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Second National Lok Adalat
  • Manipur Cabinet: Blurry representation
  • Tips for summer party make up
  • Harvesting Fest of Tarao #4 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 13 May : Govt of Manipur
  • The USP of Churachandpur
  • Pranks unloaded: From fiction to mundanity
  • Radio comes to our rescue in pandemic
  • 3rd North-East Foodtech begins
  • Irreparable damage done to environment
  • Promotion of nurseries for plantation crop #2
  • Issues staring at the face of Manipur
  • Yaoshang Thabal Competition #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 12 May : Govt of Manipur
  • International Nurses Day 2022
  • Carbon Sequestration in Dailong Site #1
  • Various voices on reduced areas of AFSPA
  • IBSD, Imphal signed MoU with CSIR
  • Stay on sedition case smack on political elite
  • Identifying a district with one group ?
  • Kakwa Lairembi Haraoba #1 :: Gallery
  • Understanding Environmental Problem
  • Pre Recruitment Training at Keithelmanbi
  • Three rain catchers feted
  • How India is empowering women...
  • War-era bridges amid development rhetoric
  • Aerial route over heart of Imphal ?
  • SN Chand: The father of Manipuri cinema #1
  • COVID-19 Status 10 May : Govt of Manipur
  • NPF Kohima consultative meeting
  • Market creating innovation & business model
  • The element of surprise
  • 3rd North-East Foodtech at Guwahati
  • Growing support to 'war on drugs' mission
  • Backing the War on Drugs call
  • Mao-Imphal Market @ Kabo Leikai :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 09 May : Govt of Manipur
  • We live in the best of times to preach
  • Mixed Marriages & our Heritage !
  • Review Meeting on National Lok Adalat
  • Road blocking for everything
  • Promotion of nurseries for fruits & crop
  • Cong vigil essential to expose Govt
  • Thangjing Hill : Mischievous restrictions
  • Student appearing HSLC Exam #3 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 08 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Workshop with Vice-Chancellors of NE
  • BJP's major challenge in Nagaland - Church
  • Motherhood : A symbol of Love
  • Song of spring :: Poem
  • Mother's Day at Tamenglong
  • Stringent only means to deter poppy grower
  • Congress : Uncharacteristically quiet
  • 4th Documentor Imphal [7 May] :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 07 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Being a scapegoat for ages in this disaster
  • Entrepreneurs invest 8 lakhs to documentary
  • 12th Mahousa Ima Ningsing Tha
  • Float Festival of Tamil Nadu Temples
  • Yaoshang Thabal Competition #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 06 May : Govt of Manipur
  • On custodial death of Arambam Nanao
  • Placating Sharmila : The Iron Lady
  • Service Engineer @Info Trade, Imphal
  • Integrated farming- 2x farmers' income #3
  • Tree Plantation Programme at Kangla
  • Greed blinding rogue police elements
  • War on Drugs : Give it more teeth
  • Artisan Lourembam Bino Devi :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 05 May : Govt of Manipur
  • The Truth Alone Must Triumph
  • ICU bed facility launched in Tamenglong
  • World Hand Hygiene Day 2022
  • Workshop on Climate Change at Lilong
  • Water education for food security
  • Torpid tourism sector
  • Separate flag & constitution
  • Id-ul-Fitr @Hatta Golapati :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 04 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Lavish event management gone wrong
  • World Veterinary Day 2022
  • Condemnation on the killing of Nanao
  • Summer skin care tips for a natural glow
  • Centre's push for NSU commendable
  • Powerless power
  • Ole Wangkheimayum : Making a difference
  • COVID-19 Status 03 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Last surviving Naga regionalist- Shurhozelie
  • DoNER Minister visited NSU, Khuman Lampak
  • Market creating innovations & economic
  • Kuzholuzo takes charges as NPF Leader
  • Swachhata Pakhwada at IBSD Imphal
  • Jiribam Keithel #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 02 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Cheilaoba : A short story
  • A tribute to Asok Potsangbam
  • Id-ul-fitr :: From a book
  • Building India to be the world's master
  • Rapists don't deserve mercy
  • Taking the case to a higher Court
  • Cheirao-chingkaba #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 01 May : Govt of Manipur
  • May Calendar for Year 2022 : Tools
  • Nirupa Sanjenbam, Woman Achiever NE Fest
  • Student Centre for Excellence at Bishnupur
  • MPSC : Re-recruitment of MCS/MPS officers
  • Integrated farming- 2x farmers' income #2
  • Alangtakhou waterfall @Tml #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 30 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Blood Donation camp @Keisampat : Gallery
  • Appeal in High Court against Zou acquittal
  • Jubilee Celebration of Manipuri Cinema
  • Labour Day (May Day) -Chennai Connection
  • 24th - 30th April is World Immunization Week
  • Yaoshang Thabal @Mongshangei #4 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 29 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Foundation Day celebrated at IBSD Imphal
  • Alone but not lonely :: Poem
  • Gender balanced workforce
  • Govt North East plan: Repealing AFSPA
  • AFSPA repeal vow galore as NE enjoys peace
  • Promise of AFSPA free NE
  • The hike to the summit of Koubru
  • COVID-19 Status 28 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Documentor Lab concludes with Final Pitch
  • Interlocutor promises the impossible
  • Natural ways to maintain a Summer glow
  • 2024 polls: BJP eyeing to tighten grip
  • Manipur : A smuggling paradise
  • Lunghar in Ukhrul district #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 27 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Call for a face-lift for cross-border town Moreh
  • Project Coordinator for Shestrong Assn
  • Integrated farming- 2x farmers' income #1
  • 21 Lessons for the 21st Century:: Book
  • Inclusion of Chandel in aspirational district
  • No takers at Lamphel
  • Student appearing HSLC Exam #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 26 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • My 'Tragic Tryst' with politics & politicians !
  • Education embroiled in cultural nightmare
  • Creativity is must for Career Development
  • Is Mizoram smarter in promoting border trade?
  • Back in the examination hall
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #3 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 25 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Talk Series with Aribam Syam Sharma
  • Market Creating Innovations & Pull Strategy
  • Intl Conclave on Universal Happiness
  • Four Churches in one compound
  • Employees in dilemma over 'place of posting'
  • Delivering LPG at Rs 100 per cylinder
  • Tributes on Khongjom Day :: Gallery
  • Tongjei Maril (Old Cachar Road) :: Gallery
  • Painting Competition on 'Tribal' #2 :: Gallery
  • Floral tributes @ Cheiraoching #2 :: Gallery
  • Cheirao-chingkaba #1 :: Gallery
  • Yaoshang Sports @Bamon Leikai :: Gallery
  • Rules of English Pronunciation : Download
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa [Apr 14] :: Gallery
  • Shajibu Cheiraoba @Pune :: Gallery
  • Yaoshang @Bengaluru #2 :: Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Shopping :: Gallery
  • Sub-Syllables in English : Book Download
  • Learn English pronunciation: Book Download
  • Learning calculating skills : Download Book