TODAY -

What had happened to Manipur ?
- Part 2 -

Puyam Nongdrei *

The Shillong Accord 1949
The Shillong Accord 1949
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The interplay of submissive negotiation, aggressive interference and political favouritism led to the Merger Agreement, 1949

Table: Important dates and major events leading to the signing of Merger Agreement, 1946-1979

Important Dates Major Events Significance and Analysis
22 May 1946 The Cabinet Mission published the Memorandum on States' Treaties and Paramountcy which is known as the Memorandum of the 12th May 1946; the 3rd June 1947 Statement re-affirmed the position taken in the Memorandum It was submitted to the Chancellor of the Chamber of Princes on 12 May 1946. The Cabinet Mission Plan consisted of two parts namely the 16th May Statement of 1946 and the Memorandum on States' Treaties and Paramountcy
12 December 1946 King Bodhachandra issued order for setting up a Constitution Making Committee -
March 1947 A 16-member Constitution Making Committee was constituted -
May 1947 Sir Conrad Corfield's visit to London to seek better deal for the Princely States without the knowledge of Viceroy Lord Mountbatten; Sir Conrad met the Secretary of State for India, the Earl of Listowel He was the Viceroy's Political Secretary and deputy responsible for exercising the authority that the princes had ceded to the king Emperor; in Delhi the king Emperor was represented by the Viceroy controlling the foreign affairs and defence of the States while maintaining autonomy for the rulers
May 1947 Mountbatten visited London with a new draft prepared by VP Menon after the rejection of the earlier one; independent India and Pakistan to be remained part of the British Commonwealth; quick transfer of power before the old dateline of 30 June 1948; to get rid of the burden of the Indian sub-continent sinking into civil war -
28-29 June 1947 During his visit to Imphal, Governor Akbar Hydari explained the position of Manipur to the Maharaja; Manipuri Darbar members led by MK Priyabrata submitted a letter to the Governor through the Political Agent of Manipur, GP Stewart Independence of Manipur was impracticable and Manipur should join the Constituent Assembly of India; submissive negotiation on various issues
30 June 1947 Manipur State Darbar was dissolved -
1 July 1947 Manipur State Durbar converted into Manipur State Council King transferred power to the State Council and became a Constitutional Head
1 July 1947 A memorandum to Governor of Assam signed by the king and Manipuri members of the State Durbar Submissive negotiation for the closest relationship on a reciprocal basis between Manipur and Assam and the Indian Union
2 July 1947 A memorandum to Governor of Assam signed by king and other members of the Durbar including President FF Pearson Submissive negotiation on various issues
25 July 1947 The special session of the last Chamber of Princes was attended by king Bodhachandra Lord Mountbatten urged the States to join the two Dominions leaving no hope to the independence seekers; India was a member of the United Nations since 30 October 1945; Belarus, India, the Philippines, Ukraine were not independent at the time of admission to the UN as member states; what stopped the UK from recognising Hyderabad and Kashmir as independent countries and facilitating them to become members of the UN?
26 July 1947 The Manipur State Constitution was adopted It is subjected to the Rules of Administration, Manipur Courts Act and Hill Regulation; It has colonial fetters to be amended on or after 15th August 1947
11 August 1947 King signed the Instrument of Accession and Standstill Agreement With this Manipur joined the Constituent Assembly of India with GS Guha as representative and MK Priyabrata as Advisor to GS Guha (clause 7 of the Instrument of Accession affected)
13 August 1947 The State Council was dissolved to form an Interim Council 1 July-13 August 1947 was the period of the State Council
13 August 1947 King's order to form the Interim Council (14 August 1947 to 7 October 1948) A 7-member Interim Council was formed
14 August 1947 King swears in the Interim Council What was the position of the Interim Council on merger issue?
15 August 1947 The Indian Independence Act, 1947 came into force Lapse of British paramountcy over Manipur; king hoisted the National flag of Manipur in the State Council Hall
24 December 1947 Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Act/Foreign Jurisdiction Act, 1947; It violated the Indian Independence Act, 1947 which states that Manipur is a sovereign State after the lapse of paramountcy. It was enacted to take over territories beyond the Dominion of India; Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Ordinance since 27 August 1947 with retrospective effect since 15th August 1947; GP Stewart as Dominion Agent since the appointed day?
1-3 January 1948 Deputy Prime Minister Sardar Patel visited Shillong to discuss matters relating to the Federation of Khasi States, Tripura, Manipur and others On 2nd January, king Bodhachandra attended the Rulers' meeting held in Shillong with Sardar Patel and others of the Ministry of State
April 1948 (?) King Bodhachandra visited Shillong accompanied by his ADC M. Anandmohan and others Governor-General Lord Mountbatten visited Shillong This visit before his departure from India in June 1948 and election in Manipur under the Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947 was significant
11th June to 27th July 1948 Election was held in the valley and hill areas under the State Constitution Act, 1947 -
21 June 1948 Lord Mountbatten laid down the charge of the Governor-General (15 August 1947- 21 June 1948) C. Rajgopalachari took the office as the second and the last Governor-General (21 June 1948-26 January 1950); both of them were appointed by George VI; He remained as king of both India and Pakistan after 15 August 1947 but the title of Emperor of India was abandoned in June 1948
June 1948 Abolition of Dominion Agency
GP Stewart and Deveshwor Sharma were Dominion Agents
In June 1948, Lord Mountbatten left India; election in Manipur began in June and dominion agency was abolished;
2nd August 1948 Assam Governor Akbar Hydari's letter to king to appoint Dewan to oversee the treaty relations between India and Manipur Abolition of Dominion Agency; appointment of DEWAN signified the aggressive Indian interference in the affairs of Manipur
22 August 1948 P.C. Gosh preached formation of Purbanchal Pradesh Merger of Manipur to form a new province destroying its 'pre-existing' status
13-18 September 1948 Military action against Hyderabad known as 'Operation Polo' Hyderabad defeated and annexed to India; Hyderabad's plea to the UK for recognition rejected earlier
21st September 1948 State Council declared Krishak Sabha and Praja Sangha as outlawed organisation The historic Pungdongbam incident, killing of Inspector Naran, denial of an inquiry committee; Hijam Irabot went underground
18th October 1948 Inauguration of the State Assembly King Bodhachandra's proclamation and hope of a cordial India-Manipur relationship; Manipur as a component unit of India?
26 November 1948 Praja Shanti party-led coalition government formed in Manipur There had to be amendments to the Manipur Constitution to do away with the colonial fetters; need for disentanglement with British era administrative arrangements; any major steps towards this?
29th November 1948 MK Priyabarta Singh became the Chief Minister and was appointed as Dewan by Assam Governor Sir Akbar Hydari, the last British-appointed and the first Indian Governor of Assam King argued that there is no provision for dewan in the Constitution of Manipur; MK Priyabarta must hold the post if there has to be one (submissive negotiation)
28 December 1948 The first Indian British-appointed Governor of Assam Sir Akbar Hydari visited Imphal and died on this day at Waikhong because of cardiac arrest ; he made military threat to the NNC while deliberating at Kohima before the signing of the 9-point Accord in 1947 Akbar Hydari also visited Imphal in late June 1947 after three days deliberation from 26 June to 28 June 1947 with the Naga National Council (NNC) led by AZ Phizo at Kohima. His mortal remains was buried in the Kangla
10 March 1949 Assembly Question No. 21: Laishram Achou raised the issue of government's information about Manipur's merger with India -
22 March 1949 A team of Assam Governor Sri Prakasa, Joint secretary to the Ministry of State, Govt of India A.B. Chatterjee and NK Rustomji came to Imphal To discuss the merger issue and Hijam Irabot's communist revolution
15th January 1949 The Government of India (Amendment) Act, 1949 passed by amending the Government of India Act, 1935 on 5 January 1949; inserted section 290-A for acceding princely States Came into force on 15 January 1949; The amendment had to be accepted by the king of Manipur (clause 5 of the Instrument of Accession)
14 April 1949 Governor Sri Prakasa's letter to king urging to transfer power to Dewan An unconstitutional proposition; Aggressive interference of India taking advantage of Manipur's submissiveness and viability factor
16 April 1949 Major General Rawal Amar Singh appointed as Dewan Role of Indian military in the take over of Manipur and administration began with this in the post-15th August 1947 period
4 May 1949 Premier of Assam Gopinath Bordoloi wrote to Sardar Patel to immediately take over Manipur Communist revolution, strategic border state and the threat of foreign aggression from the Manipur-Burma border areas was cited as reasons for take over
25th June 1949 Sri Prakasa's secret Memo to king stating that the Government of India does not recognise Manipur State Council and Assembly An anti-merger coalition government led by Praja Shanti party with support of king Bodhachandra was to be de-recognised
26th July 1949 Congress Bulletin 4 declaring Indian Congress's support to the Manipur State Congress's slogan to dethrone the king from his Constitutional Ruler status India Government knew the anti-merger position of king and his Praja Shanti-led government; lack of co-operation between the Council of Ministers and king
4 September 1949 Sri Prakasa and Rustomji left Guwahati for Benares en route to Delhi to discuss the Manipur affairs Assam Premier Gopinath Bordoloi was already in Delhi to discuss the merger of Manipur with central leaders; Both Assam and West Bengal proposed to merge Manipur with their provinces but could not materialised.
6 September 1949 The team from Assam had an hour long discussion on Manipur and other issues with the Ministry of States No conclusive decision could be reached in regards to Manipur and Sri Prakasa left for Bombay to meet Sardar Patel at Birla House
8 September 1949 Sri Prakasa had discussion with Sardar Patel on the issue of Manipur merger Is there no brigadier in Shillong? Indian military and CID detained the king's team in Shillong; the 4th Assam Rifles Battalion stationed in Imphal and another 1st Assam Regiment were prepared to face any eventuality in Manipur
17 September 1949 King received a letter from Sri Prakasa asking him to come to Government House at 11 am the next day The first meeting was held on 18 September and king Bodhachandra tried his best to persuade the Government of India to do everything democratically.
21st September 1949 King was coerced to sign the Merger Agreement; Article 1 of the agreement ceded full and exclusive authority, jurisdiction and powers for and in relation to the governance of Manipur and agreed to transfer the administration of the State Merger Agreement was a great necessity for the Dominion of India (clause 5 of the Instrument of Accession requires a supplementary Instrument to accept amendments in the Indian Independence Act, 1947 and Government of India Act, 1935)
15th October 1949 India took over Manipur by issuing the Manipur (Administration) Order, 1949 All the road blocks were cleared with the signing of the Merger Agreement; the Central Government of India had full and exclusive authority and powers for, and in relation to, governance of Manipur; order issued in exercise of the powers conferred by sections 3 and 4 of the Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Act and all other powers enabling the Central Government of India in this behalf
21st September- December 1949 There was no repetition of the 1891 incident; since 21st September 1948 Pungdongbam incident, Hijam Irabot-led armed movement was active but no large scale outbreak of anti-merger armed struggle with mass participation in the wake of the Indian take over; MK Priyabrata Singh wrote: The only thing that could be done was to act like Mr. Phizo? There were public resolutions, resolution of the State Assembly against the Merger Agreement, MLAs took resolution against it; many from the hill and valley rejected it; repressive measures of the Government of India were also present; the question is: why didn't the Manipuris fight like Mr. A.Z. Phizo or Paona?
26 December 1949 The Merged States (Law) Act, 1949 Came into force on 1st January 1950; applicable to new Provinces or Chief Commissioner's Provinces
22nd January 1950 The States' Merger (Chief Commissioner's Provinces) Order, 1950 Came into force on the 23rd January 1950; Dominion of India had full and exclusive authority, jurisdiction and powers for, and in relation to the governance of Manipur; The Governor-General exercised the powers conferred by section 290-A of the Government of India Act, 1935 and all other powers enabling him in that behalf
15 December 1950 Vallabh Bhai Patel, the then Home Minister of independent India had a major heart attack in March 1948 following the murder of MK Gandhi; he died of another major attack on 15 December 1950 not long after the Merger Agreement was extracted The architect of the Indian Union will be remembered forever in Manipur for his words: Is there no brigadier in Shillong? Some sources said that he asked: Is there not one regiment in Assam? Assam Governor Sri Prakasa went to meet officials in Delhi but he was sent to Birla House, Bombay to consult Sardar Patel who was hospitalised there after heart attack
26 September 1951 Hijam Irabot who founded the Communist Party of Manipur died in Burma (now Myanmar) The communist ideology did not appealed to the king and other educated minds of his time; Outlawing Krishak Sabha and Praja Sangha forced Irabot to underground
9 December 1955 Bodhachandra died a miserable death. Power struggle between the Royalists and democrats was an important factor. Even his brother MK Priyabrata was said to be having bad relationship with him. Communist party led by Hijam Irabot was also an anti-royalist, anti-feudal party which could not join hands with king Bodhachandra. The elected assembly-king-communist party of Manipur-State Congress were major forces competing for power. The privy purse given by the Government of India did not make him happy till his death. He spent his last days on the hilltop of Nongmaiching, Gouranagar village (Wakha area) at the foothill and near Shri Govindajee Temple; why didn't any organisation approach him to ascertain the reasons behind his strange conducts?
27 August 1979 Louis Mountbatten was killed in a bomb attack by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) The motor boat called Shadow V blasted killing the man who joined hands with the Indian nationalists to make India a strong country in Asia taking into account the geopolitical interests of Britain


See a List of Reference Materials for this article



To be continued ...


* Puyam Nongdrei wrote this article for e-pao.net
The writer can be contacted at khuman_mei(at)yahoo(dot)com
This article was posted on October 14, 2014.


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