TODAY -



E-Pao! Manipur - Merger of Manipur with the dominion of India

Merger of Manipur with the dominion of India - I
Creation of India in 1948

By: Waikhom Damodar Singh *



Before the British came to India, the land was a very much divided country, a land then not existing under a unified or unitary sovereign Govt but a vast land of conglomeration of different domains and principalities called kingdoms and states (later on named native states), big and small, with so many culturally, ethnically and linguistically varied and divided groups of indigenous peoples under their own hereditary rules and chiefs, in the names of Maharajas, Rajas, Nawabs, Dewans, Zamindars, Jagirdars and Emperor.

The British landed in India in the year 1608 AD firstly at Surat, one of the richest sea ports on its west coast, as ordinary traders, in the name of 'British East India Company' who had been granted on 31 December 1600 by Queen Elizabeth I a charter with rights of exclusive trading for 15 years to the 'Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies'.

The British people who so landed as very ordinary traders initially consolidated their power in due course of time, and with their better skill and supremacy in arms and diplomacy, became the overlords and invincible rulers of the vast and much divided country by expanding their power gradually for which they took the fullest advantage of the 'disunity' that were there amongst the indigenous peoples, who by then, were living not as a unified and strong nation as such, though majority of them had been somehow brought under the rising great Mughal power established at Delhi from the times of Babur and his son, Akbar, the great during the 16th/17th centuries till it came to an end from 1707 AD onwards with the death of their last and weak Emperor, Aurangazeb.

The power so established by the British East India Company in the vast and much divided land during the period of some two and half centuries came under the direct control of the British crown by an Act passed in the British Parliament with effect from August 2, 1858 under the name 'The Government of India Act', with full power and responsibilities for the Government and Revenues of India vested on one of Her Majesty's secretaries of States due to the effect of a great and widespread 'Indian Revolt' known as 'Sepoy Mutiny of 1857' that had flared up against the misruling of the company over several aspects.

The great frustrations and discontent of the people had been accumulating for long which culminated at the aforesaid time with a violent burst. The British Govt thus continued to rule over the vast country directly under their crown in the name of 'British India', including that of the land of a large area in the east annexed by them on 1 January 1886 known as the kingdom of Burma (now Myanmar) ruled by king Thibaw, till year 1935-36 when it was separated as a different unit (Dominion) under their rule.

The direct ruling of the British Crown over the country was done through a representative known as the Viceroy of India with his capital shifted to New Delhi from being earlier at Calcutta (now Kolkata), founded by Job Charnock of the company in the year 1696 on the 'marshy village called Sutanati' after the failure of the company to take nearby port Chittagong by force in 1686.

The British thus had been ruling over the country with unchallengeable mighty powers, for the establishment of which the credit really goes to Robert Clive, who began his service in the East India Company as a mere clerk but who subsequently rose to higher military ranks by his hard works and exemplary valours displayed in the crucial battles taken place between the force of the company and the outnumbering local force and ultimately became the Governor of the Presidency of Bengal annexed and ruled by the Company.

However, they (the British) had to part with their paramount power so acquired quite dearly, as was inevitably compelled to do so under the rapidly rising national and international political heavy pressures that had been exerting on them since 1929/30s which reached the highest peaks in the year 1946 and 1947 i.e. immediately after the end of the Second World War.

Therefore, as a result of an Act passed in the British Parliament under the Premiership of Clement Richard Attlee of the Labour Party under the name 'the Indian Independence Act, 1947' they ultimately relinquished their 'imperial power' at midnight of the 14th August by handing over to the interim Government headed by a Governor-General, Lord Louis Mountbatten, later on succeeded soon by CR Rajagopalchari under an interim Constituent Assembly which soon enacted and adopted a new Constitution for the independent country and it became a Republic from the day of the 26th January 1950 onwards with Dr Rajendra Prasad elected as its first President and Jawaharlal Nehru as the first Prime Minister.

The handling over of the Sovereign power to the interim Government was done at midnight of the 14th August 1947 as it was considered to be a day more auspicious than the day of the 15th of August 1947, a day and date for the occasion recommended by Mountbatten and approved by the British Prime Minister, CR Attlee.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the leader of the interim Constituent Assembly thus hit upon a compromise by calling the sitting of the Constituent Assembly in the midnight and thus took over the power immediately after the 'zero hour' of the day thus serving both the purposes of observing the 'auspiciousness' of the day as fixed by the learned Hindu astrologers according to Hindu calender, and also fully conforming to the date fixed by the British authorities, for the British system the day of the 15th August 1947 begins immediately after the midnight of the 14th of August 1947 which, for the Indian system, continues to be the day of it still till the 'Surya-udai' - the 'Sun-rise' of the 15th morning.

While the people of the land rejoiced on their becoming a nation of a free and independent sovereign country it was shrouded in deep feelings of great sadness because the great land, which was once existing as a vast domain of a singular country, known as 'Bharat-Varsha' had been divided into two separate dominions of independent countries named, India and Pakistan, the former being a 'Secular State' and the later a country purely of Muslim religion.

To the Pakistanis they prefer India to be called always by the name 'Hindusthan', most probably with an aim to subvert its well laid down spirit of being always a secular country.



to be continued


* Waikhom Damodar Singh wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on October 05th, 2006


* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #2 : Gallery
  • CAB Protest #1 [21 Jan] : Gallery
  • Rongmei and Kabui are one
  • Rani Khidir : Kalaritu (Laiyekpa) : Profile
  • MPs in Lok Sabha must be increased
  • Sri Hanumanji is universal :: WJ
  • Facing the consequences
  • Words of caution for the expendable citizens
  • 11 in line for Congress ticket
  • Gaan-Ngai @Majorkhul #1 : Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • CAB, 2016: Ethnocide of Indigenous People
  • When 7th Pay & UGC regulations for college
  • Truthfully Yours :: Poem
  • Detox your hair
  • Job Openings at PR Enterprises, Imphal
  • Police action to protestors in Tripura
  • India in grave danger
  • Issues, issues everywhere, anytime
  • Match: 4th Women's Polo #1: Gallery
  • CAB Protest [17 Jan] : Gallery
  • Ranjit Ningthouja : Profile of a playwright
  • Poetry Of Manipuri Women Authors #3
  • Bird's Eye view at 'Go To School' Mission
  • 10 % reservation & ST demand ?
  • Poetic Justice - III :: Poem
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Legislative Assistant to MP- Fellowship
  • The changing face of Manipuri youths
  • Rolling up sleeves for ST tag
  • Symbolism in the Tribal Art #1
  • Chongdeinem, Abothem :: eMing
  • ST Demand - Poster Campaign : Gallery
  • Retrospective View On Driver's Day
  • Integrated farming & its importance
  • Nightingales in winter :: Poem
  • Tour to Delhi for border area students
  • Nagaland Cabinet Meeting on CAB
  • Gaan-Ngai @Chingmeirong : Gallery
  • Gaan-Ngai - festival of Kabui #1
  • Protest against CAB [Jan 15] #2: Gallery
  • Gaan-Ngai, Festival of Zeliangrong
  • Understanding Mao Tse-Tung
  • Of Vernacular & my Enlightenment..
  • Teacher wanted at Tekcham High School
  • Demanding release of Kishorechandra
  • BJP's Agenda : Curtain raised
  • Topping in enrolment in pvt schools
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #1 : Gallery
  • Gaan Ngai :: Flash Presentation
  • CAB Protest [16 Jan] : Gallery
  • Dr Thokchom Asha: Teacher Award
  • Cry of a Dying River - 62 :: Poem
  • Occasion & festivity as career choice
  • Rejoinder to NDPP on CAB by NPF
  • Saving tomorrow for our children
  • Open invitation to Mission schools
  • Women's Intl Polo [Jan 17] : Gallery
  • A Hymn for Goddess Emoinu
  • Manipur tops enrolment in private schools
  • Variance of laboratory results
  • A Christian perspective on solidarity #2
  • Naga International Trade Fair at Dimapur
  • Has Loktak mortgaged to Company
  • CAB: Lining up public convention on Jan 20
  • Purnima Ngangom (Printmaker) :: Profile
  • CAB Protest [11 Jan] #3 : Gallery
  • Poetry Of Manipuri Women Authors #2
  • CAB & scoring 21 out of 25 ?
  • Complications :: Poem
  • North East Business Summit at Delhi
  • Almond oil is the ultimate skin care
  • The Bill that haunt the government
  • Over 50 police personnel chargesheeted
  • Insurgency related incidents in NE states
  • Myanmar border fence going nowhere
  • Protest against CAB [Jan 15] #1: Gallery
  • Crop diseases & organic way of managing
  • War and Poetry :: Poem
  • Landeng-Pena yakaiduna Poster Campaign
  • The Killing Fields 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • Condemns communal nature of CAB 2016
  • PCC, Arunachal Pradesh on CAB, 2016
  • CAB and other issues before LS polls
  • Sit-In against CAB [Jan 14] : Gallery
  • CAB : Our Identity & Culture is at stake
  • Re-Imagining the Naga Peace Process
  • Demand for ILP :: Articles/Photos...
  • Northeast Startup Summit 2019
  • Ponder them to live like human beings
  • No Shield for Manipur against CAB
  • Missing link: NE, CAB & obscure assurance
  • JCILPS Protest against CAB : Gallery
  • AMUCO Rally against CAB : Gallery
  • Poetic Justice - II :: Poem
  • Makar Sankranti Musing
  • Biren should release Kishorchandra
  • New archaeological site in Senapati
  • A Christian perspective on solidarity #1
  • New craft gallery to promote NE products
  • Rights body warns Nagas on Article 371 (A)
  • NE Black Day against CAB : Gallery
  • CAB Protest [11 Jan] #2 : Gallery
  • Narendra Modi @ Imphal #2: Gallery
  • Myanmar-India Business Summit, Sagaing
  • Cry of a Dying River - 61 :: Poem
  • Preventing the Dengue threat
  • NPF on Citizenship Amendment Bill, 2016
  • Nagaland Chief Minister On CAB 2016
  • Hijacking by pseudoscience
  • Mr. CM, you can't fool people on CAB
  • CAB 2016: Adoption of foreign citizens
  • CAB Protest [11 Jan] #1 : Gallery
  • CAB & question of India's North East
  • Poetry Of Manipuri Women Authors #1
  • Local actions for #GlobalGoals
  • Know your HIV status
  • Pope Francis - the last Pope!
  • CAB is unsecular discriminatory bill
  • When Govt. disregard Constitutions...
  • Citizenship Bill: An exceptional exception
  • The Walking Lady : A Short Story
  • 4th Convocation Ceremony of CAU
  • The Voice of Silence :: Poem
  • Against CAB 2016 : 6 Student Bodies
  • Need for a separate time zone
  • BOOM MMA : 'Manipur Top Team' members
  • Against Citizenship Bill Act 2016
  • Lt Gen Rajeev Sirohi at Spear Corps
  • Is the middle man responsible
  • Economically weak at Rs 8 lakh per annum ?
  • Umanglai Haraoba: Traditional Institution
  • Strike against CAB : Gallery
  • People - animal conflict
  • Fine on relieving in public
  • Flawed/divisive Citizenship Bill dangerous
  • Broken :: Poem
  • Meetei gi mayokta leiba Political party..
  • NE uniting under shutdown call : CAB
  • Trains in NE to get 'glass-top' coaches
  • Yubi Lakpi #2 : Gallery
  • Freedom's fault lines
  • Traditional Manipuri Curries
  • Governance in Multi-Ethnic States
  • Understanding animal welfare
  • Unite against corruption for development
  • Manipurgi Maraibk Kari Oihougani
  • On restoring of director of CBI
  • Citizenship Bill : scourge for NE
  • Feel good factor from UNC
  • New Year picnic at Sekmai #2: Gallery
  • A tale of two falcons
  • Artificial Insemination in livestock
  • The Naked Truth :: Poem
  • My itinerary visit to Veeranapalya
  • Test for Free Coaching for IIT/AIIMS
  • Critique of Transgender Persons Bill
  • Press Rejoinder from NPF [7 Jan]
  • Nagaland Cabinet on Citizenship Bill
  • Can we expect something from govt
  • Mova Cave, Ukhrul #2 :: Gallery
  • Sangai Fest: Sumo Wrestling #2 :: Gallery
  • Maipaksana RK: Entrepreneurship Award
  • Poetic Justice - I
  • IIT-G Technology Incubation Centre
  • Sana Chahi Ahum & 1857 revolt #2
  • Economics of climate change & growth
  • Singhat Students tour to Delhi & Agra
  • Congress against Modi on Rafale Deal
  • Press Club celebrates foundation day
  • NSF to impose 11-hr bandh on Jan 8
  • 518 drug traffickers arrested in 2018
  • Gangmumei Kamei Memorial lecture
  • Taking the Street Vendor seriously #1
  • WWII museums in Japan: Gallery
  • Schedule : HSLC Examination 2019
  • Schedule : Class XI Examination 2019
  • Schedule : HSE Examination 2019
  • Caste System in Contemporary India: Book
  • Save energy and save your skin
  • Benefits of henna for beauty
  • Coronary In-stent obstruction treated
  • A take on PM visit to Imphal
  • No over the top promises, assurances
  • Narendra Modi @ Imphal #1: Gallery
  • Management of commercial broiler farming
  • 61st CC Meet Football Tournament 2019
  • Noise Ruins & Blights Lives
  • Social media & freedom of speech
  • Cry of a Dying River - 60 :: Poem
  • Declare war against air pollution
  • Winter relief at Thanga
  • Of monologues and conveniences
  • Raising posers before PM's arrival: Cong
  • Irengbam Bedamani :: eRang Photos
  • Poireiton Chakhao at Loktak Lake
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • New Year picnic at Sekmai #1: Gallery
  • Sangai Fest: Evening Prog #2: Gallery
  • Nupi Lal Ningsing Lamjel #4: Gallery
  • Bye Bye 2018 !!! : Gallery
  • Manipuri Calendar for 2019 : Download
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2018 #6: Gallery
  • A view of Ukhrul Town #1: Gallery
  • January Calendar for Year 2019 :: Tools
  • National Mathematics Day & Ramanujan
  • Snowfall @Tamei, Tamenglong : Gallery
  • China spreads across Indochina Peninsula
  • Ningol Chakkouba Shopping #2: Gallery
  • Xmas: Churches @Lamphel : Gallery
  • The Crying Call of Motherland :: Poem
  • Kwatha Festival #3 : Gallery
  • Harvard Leadership Program at Don Bosco
  • Christmas @Churachandpur : Gallery
  • UN Rapporteur briefed on Kishorechand
  • Nupi Lal Ningsing Lamjel #3: Gallery
  • Irengbam Bedamani - Actress :: eRang
  • List of Restricted Holidays for 2019
  • List of Public Holidays for 2019
  • List of General Holidays for 2019
  • Ningol - mapam lamdam : Gallery
  • Fabrics of Bangladeshi Manipuri: Download
  • Manglandasu Nang - OST :: e-pao Radio
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic
  • SPONSORED ADS