TODAY -

A brief history of Manipur Police
- Part 1 -

Waikhom Damodar Singh *

While the history of the Indian Police began only from the time of Lord Cornwallis, the Governor general of the British India in the year 1791 who then had their Capital at Calcutta, the history of the Manipur Police actually began from the period as old as the history of the State itself which had existed as an independent kingdom of her own from the time of the deitic king, Pakhangba in 33 AD and it was he who established institutions known as Cheirap (court, which was both judicial and executive), "Loisang Lois", "Patcha Phaida" (women's organisation) etc and began the policing system in the land.

The Cheirap consisted of officials known as Keirung Hanjabas-4 and Pana Lakpas-4 assisted by other members called "Loisang Loi". The Court tried summarily all cases except those of murder and high treason and could inflict all punishments except "death" sentences which were exclusively within the power of the king, who was also the highest appellate authority in the State.

As for the Patcha Phaida, the women's organisation, it consisted of 7 to 11 women members and had original jurisdiction over the cases in which women were involved. It was the sole duty of the Patcha Phaida to apprehend a woman on a specific charge on adultery, assault on women, kidnapping, rape etc. They were also responsible for peace and order in the women bazar.

The organisation of the Patcha Phaida can be called Women Police of those days. The highest form of punishment then inflicted on women charged with adultery was to carry the convict woman from place to place in the bazar after having shaved or tonsured her head and smeared with lime and turmeric (giving yellow colour).

Punishment of imprisonment of women convicts was unknown then and such a Women Police organisation existed quite effectively in the kingdom was unknown not only in any part of the then undivided India but also in any part of the world.

During the period from 111 to 663 AD there was no particular improvement with regard to the Police organisation in the State but in 664 AD during the time of the reign of Meidingngu (king) Naothing­khong, Keishumshang (Jail) was first established where convicts for heinous offences were imprisoned. For other offences only "corporal punishments" like whipping was inflicted.

In 1475 AD Meidingngu Kiyamba reigned in the kingdom and it was he who annexed the Kabow valley in Burma to his territory and opened 18 Police Outposts — at Bishenpur, Chakpi, Chattaik, Heituppokpi, Ingourok, Jiri, Keithel­manbi, Kampang, Kambiron, Kangbong, Karong, Kongal, Nashingha, Yaingangpokpi, Meithapham on the Burma side, Mayangkhang, Moreh and prowy in the bordering areas to regulate the import and export and particularly to check infiltration of foreigners.

Each of the OP was manned at least by one officer and ten sepoys. More important than the internal maintenance of law and order was their duty to collect intelligence about aggression from outside. During the reign of King Khagemba (1596-1651 AD) he reorganised the police force as well as the courts. Dolaipabas were appointed in place of Loisang Loi whose posts continued to be in existence till the integration of the State with the Indian Union.

It was during the reign of the great king Pamheiba—Garibniwaz (1709-1740 AD) that the Cheirap and Patcha Phaida who used to function so long only during the daytime were made to work in nights also. The strength of cheirap was also augmented —

  • Keirung Hanjaba­ 4,
  • Keirung Nahas - 4,
  • Songkhubas - 4,
  • Hanjaba - 1,
  • Hidang - 1 and
  • others.
The strength of the Patcha Phaida was also raised and the king had the direct control of the intelligence staff. During the reign of Maharaja Gambhir Singh from 1826 to 184 AD, as an important landmark in the history of the State Militia (State Military Police) an armed wing of the State civil forces was established. In 1833 AD Chandpur Thana which was in the Cachar District of Assam as the border outpost was shifted to the eastern bank of the Jiri river.

During the time of Maharaja, Chandrakirti Singh in the 19th century (1851 - 1886 AD) there was considerable improvement in the organisation and training of the State police force, a large column of which, under the command of Senapati Bir Tikendrajit Singh and General Thangal etc accompanied by the then British Political Agent of Manipur colonel Sir James Johnstone rescued a column of British force and personnel besieged in their garrison at Kohima—Khonoma, also called Thigomei-Thibomei by the Manipuris, by the local Angami Tribe revolters.

For the timely help extended Maharaja Chandrakirti Singh received profound gratitudes from the British Government and he was awarded the British title KCSI (Knight Commander Star of India) by way of recognition of his most valuable service rendered to them by the Manipuri columns as their good allies.

However, it was from the time of the British rule which commenced from 1891 onwards when they conquered the State after their decisive victory in the Anglo-Manipuri War that broke out in that year and began their more effective and organised administration under the charge of the Political Agent, Major Maxwell as the Superintendent of the State.

During the period of the minority of the newly installed king, Churachand Singh from 1891 to 1907 that the State Police set-ups began to exist on the patterns introduced in India by the British Government particularly on the pattern of the recommendations of the Police Commission set up in 1860 and of provisions of Police Act enacted thereafter in 1861 and came into force.

It began with a sanctioned strength of 1 Sub Inspector, 2 Head constables and 30 constables on the Civil Police side from January 1893.

One Arambam Ramlal Singh alias Meino Singh of Sagolband, Imphal, after the name of whom the lane there came to be known as "Sagolband Meino Leirak", was the first local officer who became the head of the State Police (and later on Shri Khomdram Dhanachandra Singh, officiating SP and from 1959 to 1965.

Shri Laishram Gopal Singh, the first directly recruited local Police officer in the gazetted rank (Dy SP) in 1949 who received his initial Police training at Assam Police Training College, Dergaon and who became the first local officer promoted to the IPS with 1952 seniority given and the Superintendent of the State as a whole as till then it was only a single district State which although had started having more districts from 1972/73 onwards during the time of Md Alimuddin as the Chief Minister.

to be continued...




* Waikhom Damodar Singh wrote this article for The Sangai Expres . This article was webcasted on December 23rd, 2008.

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Pathetic Imphal-Jiri Road #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 05 Oct : Govt of Manipur
  • Amit Tonk wins Indian hair style icon
  • The International Day Of The Aged, 2022
  • Regulations for entry at Khuman Lampak
  • World Mental Health Day 2022
  • Sign language: Fundamental right of HI people
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Draft liquor policy testifies no rollback stand
  • Draft regulation for sale of liquor
  • MM Ahmed: Sahitya Akademi Translation
  • COVID-19 Status 04 Oct : Govt of Manipur
  • Frontier Nagaland- a path to justice, equality
  • SW Developer/Marketing @PiCaSoid, Imphal
  • Climate change & livestock #1
  • The different magnitude of footprints
  • Traditional textile globally recognised struggle
  • Need to look beyond the 'immediate'
  • Bor @Hiyangthang Lairembi #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 03 Oct : Govt of Manipur
  • Poets keep a mirror of the real world
  • World Animal Day: Wildlife Week Celebration
  • 'Who am I?'
  • NSU land claims undermining sportspersons
  • Poor reflection on society: Students on street
  • Mera Chaorel Houba @ Kangla #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 02 Oct : Govt of Manipur
  • Chingangbam Ranju: Gold in Skateboarding
  • Clean India Campaign 2022 at MU
  • Prof without a PhD
  • Bio-security to prevent diseases in livestock
  • Befitting response from 'unwanted' parents
  • Stand of STDCM & WMC : ST demand
  • Lamyanba Irawat Birth Anniv #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 01 Oct : Govt of Manipur
  • North East cheers for now
  • Loving Her :: Poem
  • Revoke Show Cause Notice to Dr Sanatomba
  • This Gujarat Model is worth replicating
  • The age-old art of Chola bronze statues
  • Laklaroi Amuk Hanna Yeningtha #2 : Gallery
  • October Calendar for Year 2022 : Tools
  • Old Lambulane, was a trend setting locality
  • Agniveer recruitment rally at Mizoram
  • Prevention of parasitism in livestock #3
  • The ground zero of gratitude
  • Eye makeup products every girl should have
  • Another statewide observance of Irabot Day
  • Saluting the Lamyanba : Respecting dissent
  • How does the full moon make waves...
  • COVID-19 Status 29 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Legalising production & sale of liquor
  • RKCS Children's Painting Competition
  • Online Essay Competition
  • Significance of World Heart Day 2022
  • A kind of feeling :: Poem
  • Free rice and plight of state's farmers
  • Lifting prohibition after 3 decades
  • Linthoi Chanambam : First Judo Gold Medalist
  • COVID-19 Status 28 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2022 #4: Gallery
  • Sore Admiration :: Poem
  • Accountant Assistant @ Amber & Arthur
  • World Heart Day 2022
  • Indo-Naga Talks (2012-) :: News Timeline
  • Plastic menace: Time over for warning
  • Promoting cycling in Imphal
  • Mera Chaorel Houba @ Kangla #1 :: Gallery
  • Tripura Fashion Week @ Agartala :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 27 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • ST status demands in India #2
  • Socio-cultural tourism in NE India
  • Investigation against CRPF Personal
  • Backache in diabetics: Never ignore it
  • 'Poison' liquor still favourite for commoners
  • What has happened to the ban on SUP ?
  • Maibi Jagoi @ Thangjing Haraoba :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 26 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Lamyanba Irabot Ningsing Tha : Plantation
  • World Pharmacists Day 2022
  • Workshop of Wildlife Crime Prevention
  • Genius is knowing when to stop !
  • Naga final pact as Nagaland polls near
  • Lifting prohibition : Talk of the day
  • Tarpon Chaklen Katpa @ Andro #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 25 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Lamyanba Irabot Ningsing Tha : Fingerlings
  • Tripura Fashion Week in Agartala
  • World River Day & our environment
  • Nubank : banking industry in Brazil
  • Opposition parties struggling to dent BJP
  • From High Court to Supreme Court ?
  • Lokchao Bridge @ NH 102 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 24 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • What were Phizo's last words to Khodao?
  • Priyadarshini, Priyanka: Everest Taekwondo
  • I swear :: Poem
  • Incomplete lifting of prohibition
  • Prevention of parasitism in livestock #2
  • Wakhal Eronba- Sumang Leela #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 23 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Arbin Tonjam: best designer - Miss Manipur
  • Lamyanba Irabot Ningsing Tha at Ithing
  • Ferry to Ganges :: Poem
  • Making public health messaging entertaining
  • Student schooling order exposes fault...
  • Discipline : The common thread
  • Camping @ Shirui Lily Fest #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Youth : An idea can change the world
  • Perceived class conflict triggers friction ...
  • The tale of a forgotten diary
  • Face Redness- How to get rid of it
  • CADA - Govt on collision course
  • Inching towards a final pact ?
  • Border Pillar Inspection @Kamjong :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 21 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Strange bed fellows attempting to cohabit
  • Training for entrepreneur in Food Processing
  • Recalling Alzheimer once again !
  • New Education Policy : The CUET rigmarole
  • Liquor for better health! Indigestible
  • Now focus on ST demand
  • Byron Aihara - A True Lover of Manipur
  • International Day of Peace 2022
  • Human Capital Formation, need of the hour
  • Prevention is better than cure !!
  • Prevention of parasitism in livestock #1
  • Security Conference at Tamenglong
  • Concrete action must follow 'CM Da Haisi'
  • Tag of a dry State for the last 30 years
  • Pungyam Yeiba Fest @Singjamei :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • National Bamboo Innovation Challenge
  • International Day of Peace & environment
  • Lamyanba Irabot Ningsing Tha: Social Service
  • World Bamboo Day celebrated
  • Domestic capitalists unwilling to trust & invest
  • Street food vogue boon for youth
  • Sit-ins demanding inclusion in ST list
  • Down Memory Lane: My Years with MSAD #3
  • COVID-19 Status 18 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Licypriya to attend UN General Assembly
  • Screenwriters invited to 6-month screenlab
  • An ideal civil servant
  • Tripura Fashion Week in Agartala
  • Opposition parties struggling to dent BJP
  • Taking the customer for granted
  • Miss Manipur 2022 #2 :: Gallery
  • Irabot Ningsing Tha : Jagoi Competition
  • Bringing drug users to mainstream society
  • Namo Birthday special: India matters globally
  • Criticizes village occupation in Ukhrul
  • Use of local agri wastes as substrate
  • Jiribam Keithel [15 June] #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 16 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Boeing University Innovation Leadership
  • ST status demands in India #1
  • Literacy enhancement as a career choice
  • Agniveer recruitment rally at Assam
  • Ignoring the perfect solution to everything
  • Eyeing to end insurgency in next 5 years
  • Laklaroi Amuk Hanna Yeningtha #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 15 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Manipuri Muslim (Pangal) Historical Society
  • 7th election: NE Student Org, Jalandhar
  • Macnivil releases new song: Price they'll pay
  • Youth advocating for sexual health & rights
  • Engineers : The backbone of any Nation
  • IBSD celebrated Hindi Diwas
  • Who is at fault for shrinking roads?
  • After 25 years of negotiations
  • Heikru Hidongba @Bijoy Govinda #2: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 14 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Joint Accordant by NSCN/GPRN & NNPGs
  • In search of Khubak Ishei
  • Lamyanba Irabot Ningsing Tha at Bishnupur
  • Beauty benefits of Amla
  • STDCM sets sight on bandh to draw Govt
  • The unplanned city of Imphal Concrete jungle
  • Down Memory Lane: My Years with MSAD #2
  • COVID-19 Status 13 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Constitution & flag still dogs settlement
  • Churachandpur - The chaos and mess !
  • Rice Afrika is using tech to increase rice
  • Voluntary Blood Donation: An act of solidarity
  • Nagaland desperate for solution to Naga issue
  • Final solution likely very soon: Note key word
  • Miss Manipur 2022 #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 12 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Is there a need for another Nupi Lan ?
  • Consultation: Development at Lairouching
  • Bullying : Losing of children's dignity
  • Social Entrepreneur, social currency they earn
  • AMSU in dire need of support of CSOs
  • Mum on the points of JCILPS, STDCM
  • 57th Hunger Marchers' Day #3 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 11 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • 1st Anniv: The Keithel Store Pune :: Gallery
  • Beyond Teachers' Day
  • On farm production of Mycorrhizae
  • Onam and the legend behind it
  • COVID-19 Status 10 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Fake voters testify official nepotism
  • From 1999 to 2022 : TSE is now 23
  • Yaoshang Thabal Competition #3 :: Gallery
  • Kholao Deben went with the Queen
  • Imaginary grudge severs human relations
  • A Phenomenally Him :: Poem
  • Bharat Jodo Yatra: Last ditch effort...
  • Special Lok Adalat for Imphal & Bishnupur
  • Pineapple Fest @Bunglon, CCpur :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 09 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Tarpon: Annual offerings to the dead by living
  • Book review: Aeromycology over Kachai lemon
  • On saying Hello
  • Himalayan Day celebrated at IBSD, Imphal
  • Get rid of strawberry legs at home
  • Manipuri driver primary source of 'Loyalty tax'
  • The 'tax-extortion' argument
  • Down Memory Lane: My Years with MSAD #1
  • COVID-19 Status 08 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • [Jobs] Biotechnology ignition grant for NE
  • 1st Anniversary of The Keithel Store Pune
  • International Literacy Day & our Environment
  • 1 Lakh Hand Sanitizer Bottles handed over
  • Pinning hope on Sangai fest to draw tourists
  • Points to study from Mizoram
  • Heikru Hidongba @Bijoy Govinda #1: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 07 Sept : Govt of Manipur
  • Schedule Tribe Demand, Recent cries
  • Intricacies of core issue in Naga insurgency
  • On Poiroukhongjin High School issue
  • Krishna Janma @ ISKCON :: Gallery
  • Meira Rally against Drug Traffic #2 :: Gallery
  • Reception of Linthoi Chanambam :: Gallery
  • Haipou Jadonang - Martyr Day :: Gallery
  • Mirabai Chanu: gold @ Commonwealth Game
  • Rules of English Pronunciation : Download
  • Sub-Syllables in English : Book Download