Endless Kabaw Valley
(British created vicious cycle of Manipur, Burma and India)
- Part 1 -

By Dr Th Suresh *

Part I: The Boundary - Past and Present
Scenario after transfer of Kabaw Valley to Burma i.e from January, 1834:-

1) Let us see how far Manipur extended its boundaries in the Past. It itself is endless and fascinating. Let us take the most recent official record - the inaugural speech of (L) Maharaja Bodhachandra at the 1st Manipur State Assembly dated 18th Oct. 1948 :- "Her present area is 8,650 sq. miles plus 7,000 sq. miles of Kabaw Valley, including 7,900 sq. miles of the hills". This statement itself is confusing to a simple reader like me - that of the last 7,900 sq.miles. Is it a part of Kabaw Valley hills or another claimed different hills? However after repeated reading and referring to other books, the writer came to the conclusion that what the Maharaja referred to as 7,900 sq. miles was the hill areas of Manipur within the stated area of 8,650 sq.miles.

Quoting political history from 24 AD the Maharaja stated that her dominion extended to the : North - South portion of China and Goldmines of Sibsagar Valley, East and South - River Chindwin and West - Chandrapore (Cachar).

2) However Professor Gangmumei in his article " The Lost Territory of Manipur: Cession of Kabaw Valley" published in "Manipur: Past and Present", Vol I, 1987, page 23, stated the Kabaw Valley proper is about 150 miles long and 8 miles breath and is situated between present Manipur Sector and Angoching hills adjacent to Chindwin River. In terms of area, he stated that the Valley lies between Manipur Sector of India boundary (i.e. West) and Western bank of Chingwin River (i.e. East); the South is the southern limit of Kule (Kale-present Kalwa) where Manipur river falls to Ningthe River (Chindwin).

The Professor further adds that Kabaw Valley which is subject of dispute is much larger territory consisting of about 3000 sq. miles which is now a part of upper Chindwin District of Burma. It includes three Sub-divisions - Samjok, Khumbat and Kale. In ancient times it had three principalities - Samjok (Thandent), Khumbat (Khambat) and Kale (Present Kalewa).

It is glaring that there is a difference of about 4,000 sq.miles even if we take the upper limit of 3000 sq.miles of what Gangumei quoted in 1987 and what the Maharaja said in Oct. 1948 at 1st Manipur State Assembly. The Maharaja probably meant was Kabaw Valley proper plus surrounding Ango hill ranges and plains whereas what the learned Professor meant was the disputed valley proper which are areas of 3 sub-divisions as explained by him. The Professor did not probably include Angoching ranges and surrounding hill tracts and plain areas.

3) Let us examine another statement. R. Brown in his book "The Statistical Account of Manipur" 1873, page 1 under the title "The hill territory under its rule" stated that Manipur area was about 7000-8000 sq.miles out of which the valley had about 650 sq.miles. He further stated that these are approximate as the country had never been surveyed and mapped. He also mentioned that there were boundary disputes in the North i.e. Nagahills and Manipur, and on the East between Burma and Manipur. It is clear that what Brown stated about Manipur area was without Kabaw Valley i.e. after the transfer of the valley to Burma in January, 1834.

Scenario before transfer of Kabaw Valley to Burma i.e. before January, 1834:

It is very complex, mind boggling, mind testing Chakraview (Vicious Circle). One book or write-up don't give you a true picture. Sometimes these give contradictory pictures/scenario. However the more you read about Manipuri history, the more it becomes interesting, tasty and fascinating. It is here that Manipur historian /writers have hailed us; they gave us a patchy, occasionally brilliant but incomplete picture.

I always feel sorry that with all their brilliant mind and available vast resources, the true Geographical boundary of Manipur had not been attended to. We have to wait for younger generation to do an indepth research. Our mindset had been poisoned to the idea that various kings/emperors conquered upto Ningthe River, hence that was the true boundary. It is not so. That our boundary extended for beyond Chindwin (Ningthe) River is proved by the following:-

4) Dr. N.N. Acharya, in his article - "Manipur in the eye of the Foreign Historians" in "Manipur: Past and Present", Vol I, page 55, quoted famous British historian Walter Hamilton who prepared a report on Manipur and submitted to British Parliament in 1820. According to Hamilton, Manipur was bounded on the North by Cachar; on the South by Arracan; on the west by Bengal district of Triperah and Silhet, and on the East by River Kaendwen which taking a South-eastern course, unites with Irawaddy a sort away above the town of Sombewghewn.

5) Let us see other facts. Professor Gangmumei in "Glimpses of land and People of Ancient Manipur" in the same book refered above, page 8, quoted R.B. Pemberton who stated that, Manipur's size extended or contracted according to the fluctuating fortunes and prowess of her monarchs. In the same book, Gangmumei, in pages 23-36, beautifully analysed the "Cession of Kabaw Valley" The important aspects are summarized below:

But before that, we must know who Lt. R.B. Pemberton is. He is the one (along with Captain F.J. Grant) associated with Gambhir Singh and Nara Singh from the beginning i.e. Tilain War (to the South of Silchar town) during 1st Anglo Burma War (1824-26), came as an observed of Raja Gambhir Singh levy during the drive of the Burmese from Manipur.

He was a witness, along with Grant, to the flag hosting ceremony by the side of Ningthe River after the conquest of Samjok and Tamu forte by Nara Singh and Gambhir Singh respectively on 1st Feb. 1826. Latter on he, along with Grant, represented Manipur in the Ding Dong battle like negotiation between Manipur and Burma from 1826 to January, 1934. They handed over Kabaw Valley to Burma on 9/1/1834 without the consent of Maharaja Gambhir Singh. He is a great cheater, Manipuris should never forget and forgive them. However he did extensive research on Shan Chronicle during the said negotiation period. Important bearings, as quoted by Gangmumei, are:-

i) King Khumomba (1263 - 1278) defeated the Kabaw Chief and captured a number of Chiefs.
ii) King Ningthoukhoma (1432 - 1467) defeated the Kabos (Shans)
iii) King Kiyamba (1467 - 1508) along with Pong King Sooloongkhum defeated the Raja of Khumbat, devided the captured territory and thus Kabaw Valley was annexed to Manipur in 1475. This is the common believe that Kabaw Valley was part of Manipur since 1475. This is an utterly wrong one propagated by half-heated historians.

6. i) King Mongyamba (1562-1597) crossed the Ningthe, traversed the tract East of Ningthe for 3-4 days and captured 100 Shan Chiefs.
ii) King Khagemba (1597-1652) crossed the Chindwin again, defeated Mungyang and subjected a large number of Shan Chiefs. There is a saying that he even defeated the Chinees, hence the name Khagemba.

7. Let us see another chapter - that of reign of Maharaja Garibaniwaj (1709-48) one of the most courageous but hatred King because of his enflaming of priceless old Manipuri historical books (Puran Meithaba). B. Kulachandra Sharma in his book "Kingly descendants who were not jealous of Manipur History" (Actual little - ), 2009, page 16, 41,42, described Garibaniwaj's conquest beautifully by quoting Cheitharol Kumbaba, Kaibaron Puya-Khute Lairik etc. The able King invaded Burma for 10 yrs. out of which 7 yrs. (i.e. 1738/39 to 1744/45) were continuous. He captured Myedu, Samjok (Thangdut/Swang - Hsup), Matsem, Dabayen, destroyed Awa Capital Sagaing/Tsitkiang

This conclusively proved that, during Garibaniwaj's reign, Manipur boundary extended far beyond Ningthe on three directions i.e. North, East and South as well. Upto which area needs further research and endepth analysis. When he crossed Ningthe and destroyed Awa Capital Sagaing, it is safe to presume that he conquered the present disputed Kabaw Valley, Pong Kingdom, Ka-ya Kingdom and remaining area of present Burma.

It is a little difficult to pin point the exact tradition of that time. However seeing the natural courses of the River and Mountains, it is logical to conclude that the able King extended our territory in normal time at least upto the up and down stream of River Irrabaddy and its tributaries. Previous Manipur's boundary is only upto Ningthe is rally a myth. That he enthroned one Burman to Alva under him will be seen later on.

8. Maharishi Bhyagyachandra alias Joy Singh (1762-99) also more or less maintained the status quo.

9. Gambhir Singh's reign (1825-34):- Let us know analysis the most recent, most controversial and most important one. Here I will depend on the resources of Kulachandra Sharma, quoted above, page 145-154. Nara Singh Captured Shanjok on 23/1/1862; campaign was started from 18/1/1826. In this battle, Nara Singh Captured Shamjok King Seimoola, Khampat King Kakangka, King of Kale (present Kalewa) and one Poiyong (Probably Pong King). Total Captured was 30 persons along with various war body including Gold, Silver, Utensils, Armory etc. He also released about 300 meitei war prisoners.

Kulachandra also described Samjok as a small principality on the eastern side of Ningthe river and on the western boundary of Awa Kabo (Mirap Shan). On the other side, Gambhir Singh also captured Tamu forte on the same day i.e. 23/1/1826. It is mentioned that Gambhir Singh also destroyed Eastern Chindwin basin thereby meaning that the two brothers met at the side of Ningthe River at Samjok- 24.430 N and 94.420 E.

It is here that Gambhir Singh washed the blood - stained forefatherly sword called "Braja Singh" after taking from Nara Singh. The said sword was given by Maharaja Chourajit. It is also here that Gambhir Singh took the Manipuri freedom flag from Nara Singh after washing the sword, and hoisted it by the side of the River. A British Crown is also included in the flag as a mark of friendship.

(Writer Chana Lukhoi, who undertook several trips to Burma, is telling me that this flag hoiting place is 18 km. away from Tomphang Hiden where Garibniwaj and Shamjay Khurailakpa was killed by Tollen-Tomba in 2nd week of January, 1752).

Kulachandra was also quotes the bold statement of Gambhir, which everyone of us heard since our childhood, that of - "I have recaptured the lost territory of Manipur and henceforth our boundary will be upto the Ningthe Riverů.." Kulacandra however gave a contradictory statement on next page, 154, that Gambhi Singh returned to Manipur after capturing the land on both side of Ningthe River. In all these incidents, both Captain Grant and Lt. Pemberton were witnesses.

It is here that we require an indepth analysis and research. It is now certain that the two brothers recaptured land on the Easter side of Ningthe. It is also a fact that Samjok is a small principality on the eastern side of the said River. Hence there are a few points to ponder:-
(i) Where the flag was hoisted on the Western side or eastern side?
(ii) Why should Gambhir Singh declare that Manipur boundary will be Ningthe River when the two brothers recaptured territory situated on both the western and eastern side of the River.
(iii) Even presuming as true that the freedom flag was hoisted on the western side of Ningthe, why should one conclude that the boundary belongs to that particular area of flag hoisting?
(iv) Who where the witnesses to this historic declaration which are quoted time and again by Manipuri historians/writers/intellectuals?
(v) What is the Northern and Southern limit of the Ningthe basin where we claimed to be our boundary etc.

10. Dr. N. Lokendro in his "A Brief Note on the Seven Years Devastation of Manipur" (extracted from Computer on 21/12/2010, 4:21pm.) briefly mentions about the Negotiation of the Valley before handing over to Burma. He states that the British Officers on the basis of living witnesses and other relevant testimony convinced the Burmese Authority that the eleven towns of Khambat, Wokhong, Tummu, Mungsa, Sumjok comprising the whole extent of the Kabaw Valley from Khombat were held by Manipuri Thanadars on behalf of Raja Chourjit Singh. However Dr. lokendro missed one important point that Kale (present Kalewa) was also a disputed area under Kabaw Valley.

11. While I was writing this article, The Sangai Express published an Article entitled '' (Rough English Translation - The lost previous boundaries of Manipur), on 28/1/2011, page 4, written by Pheiroijam Nando Luwang. Luwang has given us a little clear picture. According to him, in the East - it is extended from the side Moo River to Myedoo during Garibaniwaj's time (1735), however it was shrunken to Samjok and Khambat upto Ningthe River during Gambhir reign (1826);

on the West the whole Barak Valley was the limit during Chaurajit/Gambhir's reign, at present Jiri River is the limit; on the South - 12 km. away from Burma's Yamadung, Tin-jin and Yamadung River courses being the limit (the period probably he meant were Gambhir and Chandrakirti); and on the North between Doyang and Dhaneshwari at Brahamutra Basin in the beginning of the reign of Chandrakirti (1835). He also gave a hint that there was no Nagaland at that time and part of it belongs to Manipur.

12. The analysis part: By this time the reader must be clear on the following points:
i) When we commonly refer to Kabaw Valley proper, it refers to Samjok, Kendat and Kale which were small principalities ruled by different Kings. These were occasionally ruled by one King. It is sometimes conquered by Pong King whose principality is on the North - East of Samjok. It is always under Manipur, except on a few Gangmumei which will be seen below subsequently. This area is roughly 3000 sq.miles as Prof. Gangmumei noted above. The more important is - the Chindwin (Ningthe) is not its natural boundary, it extends beyond Ningthe on the eastern side. How far is left to future researchers.

ii) However when official documents refer to Kabaw Valley, it is a much larger area including the above one plus Ungoching ranges and strip of valley running between Eastern foot hills and Western bank of Ningthe has given in the Kabaw Valley agreement - 1834. This is probably what (L) Boohachandra stated as 700 sq.miles in his inaugural speech of 1st Manipuri State Assembly dt. 18/Oct./1948. Boohachandra rightly included it as part of Manipur as we have not signed the treaty and still getting Rs. 500 sicca as compensation per month.

iii) The present area of Burma, in older disputed times, had 4 major Principalities i.e.
(a) Kabaw Valley refered to officially which were always under our control
(b) the Pong Kingdom in the Northeast of Samjok which were occasionally under us.
(c) the Ka-ya (Koi) kingdom (also occasionally under Manipur) in the South-Eastwards on the South of Shan Plateau and on the eastern side of the Irrabaddy river and (d) Awa Kingdom on the remaining area with Alva as its Capital.

13. The possibilities:- Hence seeing and reading all these complexities which are mind boggling, we have now three distinct period as far as Past Manipuri boundary is concerned.

Talking the present Manipur as static point, those three possibilities are:-
i) From 1263 to 1508 i.e. during Khumomba, Ningthoukhomba and Kiyamba's period (not mentioning lesser important Kings): In the North - a part of Nagahills (present Nagaland) plus the land track between Nagaland and Chindwin river, the northern most being the Tarret River which originates from Phrek ( of Nagaland) and merged to Ningthe. In the South- a part of Mizo hills (preset Mizoram) plus the land tract between Chinhills and Ningthe river or a little more Southwards. In the East - Ningthe river plus about one day's journey to the east of Ningthe. On the West-Barak Valley including part of Bangladesh.

ii) From 1562 - 1799 i.e. during Mongyamba, Khagemba, Garibaniwaj and Bhagyachandra Period (not mentioning lesser important Kings). The below projected boundary is based on certain facts. The writer is forced to repeat it again and again so that the reader can have a more clear prospective.

(An indepth analysis is a attempted for Kabaw Valley under different sub headings i) boundary - Past and Present, ii) Anglo-Manipuri relationship iii) Manipur - Burma relationship, iv) Indo-Manipuri relationship, v) various treaties and finally vi) what we can do; being published serial wise - editor)

To be continued ....

* Dr Th Suresh wrote this article for Huieyen Lanpao (English Edition) .
The author is an MD. WHO Fellow (Holland and UK), and Ex Director of Health Services, Manipur & Chairman, Dr. Suresh Centre for Foreign Studies & Placement
This article was webcasted on February 21, 2011.

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