Chronology of Manipur Administrative Units
- With special reference to Sadar Hills -

Haokholal Hangshing *

A political map of Manipur
A political map of Manipur :: Pix - TSE

I. Till 1891 the State of Manipur was under the direct control of the King of Manipur. As per record of the then Political Agency, there was no sub-division as existing in the present setup of Administrative Division, and rather it was treated as a single District State under the then Chief Commissioner of Assam. However, it can be observed that from the period 1899 to 1900 or so the area known as Manipur State and had 6 (six) Panahs as Administrative Units.

    (i) Ahallup Panah
    (ii) Naharup Panah
    (iii) Khabam Panah
    (iv) Laipham Panah
    (v) Imphal Panah
    (vi) Sadar Collection Panah.

They were put under the control of Tehsildar/Davan. Out of the 6 (six) Panahs 1 to 5 were described as the Panahs in the Plains and the 6th in the Hills as a whole.

II. Administrative Division - 1901

When Administrative boundary/Division of 1901 above remained unchanged in 1911, it depicted some important spots like, Karong, Mao, Sadar Hills on the North, Dabiram in Tamenglong on the West, Changland in Churachandpur on the South, Thoubal and Bishenpur in the Central Area of the State. Imphal was shown as the centrally located Capital of the State.

III. Administrative Division - 1911

In 1911 also, status of the State administrative division was as much that it was a simple district State as in 1901, with 6 (six) Panahs
    (i) Ahallup Panah,
    (ii) Naharup Panah,
    (iii) Khabam Panah,
    (iv) Laipham Panah,
    (v) Imphal Panah and
    (vi) Sadar Collection Panah,
the population of Manipur was 3,84,016 with a geographical area of 8,456 square miles, during 1911-1921.

IV. Administrative Division - 1931

As detailed in 1931 census, there were 2 (two) broad sections as valley and Hills on physiographic basis, the geographical area of Manipur was recorded as 8,620 square miles with the total population of 4,45,606. There was a slight change in the 6 (six) Panahs Division viz,
    (i) Naharup Panah,
    (ii) Ahallup panah,
    (iii) Imphal Panah,
    (iv) Khabam Panah,
    (v) Laipham Panah,
    (vi) Jirighat Panah
in the valley and 2 (two) Panahs of Imphal North and Imphal South,
in the sHills which were break-away section of the Sadar Collection Panah Divisions.

In the Map of 1931 census, the Panah boundary lines could not be demarcated.

However, some of the important names of places were shown, like :
    (i) Imphal (Capital),
    (ii) Mao-Maram,
    (iii) Kangpokpi,
    (iv) Tamenglong,
    (v) Nungba,
    (vi) Tolbung,
    (vii) Churachandpur,
    (viii) Thoubal,
    (ix) Kakching,
    (x) Moreh,
    (xi) Ukhrul,
    (xii) Kasom,
    (xiii) Bishenpur,
    (xiv) Moirang.

V. Administrative Division in 1951

The status of Manipur State boundaries were same as shown in 1921, with a total population of 5,77,635. As regards the administrative division, Manipur was made comprising 8 (eight) sub-divisions, of which 3 (three) were in the plains and 5 (five) in the Hill areas.

They were:
    (i) Sadar Sub-Division,
    (ii) Thoubal Sub-Division,
    (iii) Jiri Sub-Division in the Manipur plains,
    (iv) Mao,
    (v) Churachandpur,
    (vi) Tengnoupal,
    (vii) Ukhrul and
    (viii) Tamenglong in the Hills.

vi) Administrative Division, 1961:

As against 8 (eight) administrative sub-divisions in 1951, Administrative Sub-Divisions of Manipur were made comprising of 10 (ten) Sub-Divisions in 1961 viz
    (i) Imphal West
    (ii) Imphal East
    (iii) Bishenpur
    (iv) Thoubal
    (v) Ukhrul
    (vi) Mao and Sadar Hills
    (vii) Tamenglong
    (viii) Jiribam,
    (ix) Churachandpur and
    (x) Tengnoupal Sub-Divisions
with the total papulation of the union territory at 7,80,037.
Mao and Sadar Hills recorded a population of 72,039, the highest of the whole Hill Sub­Divisions.

vii) Administration Division, 1971:

Administrative Boundaries and division of International, State, Districts, Sub-Divisions and Blocks were demarcated by various lines and symbols as shown the legend for the first time, perhaps.

The Administrative set-up was thoroughly changed since the upgradation of sub-division into district level for the purpose of administrative convenience.

The new districts so far formed were:
    (i) Manipur North (comprised Mao-Sadar Hills Sub-Division),
    (ii) Manipur West
    (iii) Manipur South
    (iv) Manipur East
    (v) Manipur Central districts
it may be noted that Imphal East, Imphal West, Jiribam, Bishenpur, Thoubal, Tengnoupal were jurisdictional included in the Manipur Central District.
The total population of Manipur State by then was 10,72,753.

viii) Administrative Division, 1991:

With the population of 18,37,149 according to 1991 census, the State was divided into 8 (eight) districts and 30 (thirty) sub-divisions for administrative purposes. It has been observed that during the 1991 census, the names of the districts were modified from earlier names as
    North ­ Senapati,
    West - Tamenglong,
    South - Churachandpur,
    East - Ukhrul,
with the newly created district: Chandel, Thoubal, and Bishenpur were bifurcated from Central District.

ix) Administrative Division, 2001:

With the advent of civilized administrative convenience, the administrative divisions were made into 9 districts and 32 sub-divisions in Manipur. The Central District was bifurcated into 2 (two) districts and there are 38 sub-divisions since 2001 including the newly created/upgraded sub­divisions after 1991.

Mention maybe made in this regard that, the Manipur Statehood Bill was passed by the Parliament under Bill No 76 dt 26/12/71 simultaneously with the creation of 6 (six) Hill Autonomous Districts in Manipur as enacted in the 22nd Year of the Republic of India 1971.

Thus, the notification in this regard was effected vide Notification No 28/1/71 dt 14/2/72 creating 6 (six) Autonomous Districts viz
    (i) North Autonomous District
    (ii) Hills Autonomous District,
    iii) Ukhrul Autonomous District
    iv) Chandel Autonomous District
    (v) Tamenglong Autonomous District,
    (vi) Churachandpur Autonomous District.

Obviously, the Sadar Hills Administrative Divisions is neither bifurcated from any Administrative Division nor created a new, but it is of the legend.

Unfortunately, the status of Sadar Hills Administrative Sub-Divisions were in the dark for the last 39 years since effecting notification, while all other counterparts were upgraded to full-fledged districts.

The Sadar Hills comprises of 3 (three) Sub-Divisions which are also the present jurisdiction of the Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council and on which basis the District Council Constituencies were constituted and elections held without any bias and complains thereof.

The detail and thorough demarcation of sub-divisions under Sadar Hills vide the Govt of India census, 2001 were:

1. Kangpokpi - Sadar Hills West
    i) Code No. - 00012200
    ii)Sq. Km.- 476
    iii)Population - 60945     iv)No. of village - 122

2. Saitu-Gamphajol Sub-Divisional
    i)Code No. - 00024400
    ii) Sq. Km.- 457
    iii) Population - 44130
    iv) No. of village - 161

3. Saikul- Sadar Hills East:
    i) Code No. - 00040500
    ii) Sq. Km. - 765
    iii) Population - 54438
    iv) No. of village - 221

The 3 (three) Sub-Divisions of Sadar Hills comprises 1698 with a total population of 1,59,513 (2001 census) and on the other hand, Senapati District comprises 1573 with a population of 1,21,408 {2001 census).

The discrimination and deprivation meted out towards the total souls of 1,95,513 of the 3 (three) sub-divisions amounts to violation of their due fundamental rights of the great-grand Constitution of India, after all such necessary criterion for upgradation of the district are fulfilled.

* Haokholal Hangshing wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was posted on September 17, 2011.

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