TODAY -

Emerging manifestation of armed violence and nationalism as reflected in Manipuri literature
- Part 3 -

H. Ibotombi Khuman *



Conclusion Manipur is a pluralistic society inhabited by about 40 different communities. Owing to their common physical traits and appearances, and common genesis, and with many cases of inter-marriage, they all have been harmoniously livingin peaceful co-existence.

But unfortunately, in the recent trend, there have been an upsurge of preference of exclusive ethnic identity overriding the collective pluralistic identity.

Assertions for exclusive ethnic homeland by the Kukis and the Nagas have started threatening the holistic and pluralistic identity and integrity of Manipur.

It is, in fact very timely, that Government had entered into some sort of peace arrangement with armed insurgent groups, either in the form of Suspension of Operation (SoO) or some other. Let it speedily arrived at solution and restore peace to the society and state of Manipur.

Armed Forces Special powers Act (AFSPA), 1958, was imposed in the Northeastern states of India to contain and suppress the armed insurgent uprising arising out of the discontentment and wrongs that happened in India's post-independence.

It led to rampant human rights violation in the form of combing operation, atrocities, human degradation, extra-judicial killing, physical disappearance, custodial death, molestation, rape, fake encounter killing, massacre, village collective fine etc.

In the year 2004, Thangjam Manaroma, after being arrested from her home, was raped in custody and brutally murdered and later found her bullet-ridden body abandoned in a field. It led to intense protest. Consequently cases of human rights violation were to some extent scaled down.

The Supreme Court also intervened by obliging the army headquarters to issue "List of Dos and Don'ts while acting under the AFSPA, 1958". But not only the common people, even the Ministers have suffered due to non-compliance to dos and don'ts by the Armed Force personnel who are here in the state of Manipur to aid and assist the civil authority.

So many intense agitations, conventions, sit-in-protest, so far held and organized, alongside with submission of many representations and memorandums to the competent authority have been done to repeal the AFSPA, 1958.

Irom Sharmila had also completed her 16 years fasting demanding the repeal of AFSPA. All these efforts proved futile bearing no consequence. However, AFSPA, 1958 was lifted from the seven assembly segments of Imphal Municipal area following the removing of 'disturbed area' tag from the said area.

Following people's demand, the Ministry of Home Affairs, GoI instituted theJeevan Reddy Commission to review the AFSPA, 1958. The committee recommended to either amend the provisions of the act to bring them in consonance of the government towards protection of human rights, or to replace the act by a more humane act.

But nonetheless, with the armed forces insisting for continuing AFSPA, 1958, nothing happened as the government had maintained stoic silence. On the other hand, instead of AFSPA, 1958 containing insurgency, more and more mushrooming and proliferating of armed insurgent groups had been witnessing in post AFSPA, 1958 Manipur and Northeast.

Manipur came under British colonialism following the defeat of Manipur in the Anglo-British War of 1891. During the long period of British rule in Manipur from 1891 to 1947, the administration in the hills of Manipur was done directly by the British.

The British administrators at the threshold of leaving formulated the Manipur Constitution Act, 1947 and the Manipur Hill Areas Regulation Act, 1947 with the objective of putting it to practice after their departure. Because of that legacy, when Manipur attained statehood, the State Legislative Assembly existed alongside with Hill Areas Committee.

As its outcome, the colonial practice of divide and rule policy continued with the implementation of respective dual system of administration for the hills and the plains.

For instance, Panchayati Raj in the valley, district council in the hills, Patta system in valley and house tax in hills for land revenue and settlement, allowing of people from any communities to settle in the valley areas while prohibiting non-tribes from settling in hill areas, etc.

In the light of such continuing colonial legacy of divide and rule, we need to realize to remain united as one against such adversary forces that attempt to divide us. Any force on earth will not able to divide the brethren communities in Manipur who belonged to the same racial stock having similar physical features, sharing the fraternal bond with a long tradition of inter-marriage.

In this age of globalised world with development reaching its zenith, northeast seems still in the grip of under-development. In fact, development is found lagging in all fronts as infrastructure is found wanting.

Many smaller communities are in a fear of becoming extinct or getting submerged by the larger community. As they remain unrepresented in the decision-making bodies, they don't have any means to raise their grievance.

If the existing system continues, these people belonging to smaller community will not be able to have their representation even after thousands of years. Addressing it requires commissioning a bicameral system having legislative council with representations from all the brethren native communities irrespective of the population size.

By doing so, there will be peaceful co-existence and future generations will benefit from it in the form of even development, mutual empathy which in turn would ultimately result to unity and oneness.

Concluded...


* H. Ibotombi Khuman wrote this article which was published at Imphal Times
This article was webcasted on June 12 2019.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Chayom Thupki (Meetei Philosophy) #5
  • Yoga Day at Pune : Gallery
  • The demand for ST, need for a unified path
  • Mass Media & Library Services : Book
  • Towards a modern budget of Manipur
  • On the unseen river :: Poem
  • Environment - Let your actions speak
  • 5th International Yoga Day at Pune
  • World Music Day @Yaiskul #1: Gallery
  • Let us make schools better
  • Zeliangrong settlement at Heibokching #2
  • King - makers & king - savers
  • A Shadowy Figure :: Poem
  • Naga MPs feted in Delhi
  • Job Opening @Globizs Web Solution
  • Sanamahi Cheng Hongba #1: Gallery
  • Ambassador of Japan with CM : Gallery
  • Moirangthem Kumar Singh: Sangeetbhusan
  • Cry of a Dying River - 81 :: Poem
  • Research Scholars Day at Manipur Univ
  • Yoga: ultimate connection for healthy life
  • International Yoga Day Celebrated
  • Long walk to final pact
  • Seriously, mercury is rising
  • The Great June Uprising #3: Gallery
  • Chingkhei Thanbi, Asangcha :: eMing
  • Sangai : The brow-antlered deer of Manipur
  • Mutum Somorjit cracked IIT
  • In the name of Love :: Poem
  • Population control: Learn from China
  • Skin pigmentation & its home remedies
  • Lutembacher Syndrome treated 1st time
  • Numerous issues facing Manipur
  • Finally Manipur got Lokayukta
  • Meiteis & Meiteilon are not Tibeto-Burman
  • Uttamkumar Ningthoujam: Achievers Award
  • 'Tales of Human Mischief' :: Book
  • Pettigrew contribution to Tribal practice #2
  • New treatment for children with TB
  • Children shouldnt work in fields..
  • Placement Coordinator @JCRE Skill
  • Let Centre decide on leadership quip
  • Pouring anger to media wont solve crisis
  • The Great June Uprising #2: Gallery
  • The Great June Uprising #1: Gallery
  • Cry of a downtrodden State 2 :: Poem
  • Fostering Environmental Innovation
  • 'Confer Bharat Ratna on Dalai Lama'
  • Tobacco In Manipur and COTPA
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • From bandh to mass prayers
  • Remembering the great Uprising
  • The Great June 18 Uprising :: Sub-Site
  • Zeliangrong settlement at Heibokching #1
  • Mind Mapping
  • Virtual Assistant as career option
  • Environmental bio pollution in Manipur
  • Parenting - A challenge in modern time
  • From June 18, 2001 to June 18, 2019
  • Revolt by dissidents is a lesson for CM
  • The Great June 18 Uprising :: Flash
  • Bishnupriya Manipuri: Identity : Book
  • The Rain-Clad Skies of Imphal : Poem
  • Healthy ageing & screening tests
  • Adaptability to quality will boost Education
  • Greencane Industries
  • Staring at political & financial crisis
  • Indo-Myanmar ops on rebel camps
  • Chayom Thupki (Meetei Philosophy) #4
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • The Story of Two Incidents in One State
  • Cry of a Dying River - 80 : Poem
  • Combating climate change
  • Idea of selling seized liquor
  • Mutum Somorjit : Passed IIT Main/Advance
  • Chak-tangba, Overdraft & Game of Throne
  • Poumai Paoki Wrestling #1: Gallery
  • AEKo_Igi wari :: Seireng
  • Pettigrew contribution to Tribal practice #1
  • Man in White (MIW)
  • India Influence Report 2019
  • Skin care essentials for dry skin
  • Rejoinder to NDPP :: NPF [14 Jun]
  • Far removed from Cong Mukt slogan
  • Taming the traffic
  • Tolloi, Ukhrul :: 360 Panorama View
  • Heritage Park #1 : Gallery
  • Daniel Chabungbam in 7 best NE Journalist
  • Bamboo as a green gold bioresource
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Her Fantasy :: Poem
  • NDPP communique on NPF President
  • Pedagogy for 21st Century Teaching
  • Media Sensitization Workshop on Hepatitis
  • Taking back to 1999: Of overdraft & politics
  • The battle for the Throne
  • Lai Lamthokpa, Thangjing #3: Gallery
  • Invisible workforce: The domestic worker
  • Manipur - An Ethnic Dilemma #2
  • Contemporary issues in Mizoram : Book
  • Modern village administration #2
  • Mitigating hunger is only choice of a poor
  • Digitisation & Cyber Security Training
  • Disturbing dissent within the BJP
  • Id-ul-Fitr @ Hatta #2 : Gallery
  • An evening with Manipuri dance
  • Finally some semblance of awareness
  • Nationalism in Manipuri literature #3
  • Sail Away With Me :: Poem
  • World Music Day at Yaiskul, Imphal
  • Selected candidates to the Global Shapers
  • India-Myanmar conf: Better late than never
  • Thangjing Lai Haraoba : Beyond optics
  • Irungbam Padmabati : Khunung Eshei
  • A tribute to Arambam Somorendra
  • In quest of green vibes :: Poem
  • Workshop: Livelihood & Social Protection
  • Catering service as career option
  • Not yet an open revolt but not all well
  • Something more needed
  • Explain 'misleading' news, tells local daily
  • Chayom Thupki (Meetei Philosophy) #3
  • World Ocean Day 2019
  • Post election scenario : Manipur
  • ICC World Cup under the English Summer
  • Cry of a downtrodden State :: Poem
  • Yaithibi Loukol- violation of Land Act
  • Looking at politics of peace talk
  • Laija - Film Scenes #2 : eRang
  • Government Of India Stratagem
  • Love at Sunset :: Poem
  • Tips to make blood testing easy
  • IGNTU Seminar: Indo-Myanmar Relation
  • Budding Malwares in Manipur University
  • Aimol Baptist: Felicitation Program
  • Political uncertainty in Biren govt
  • Tangkhuls in traditions of Manipur #2
  • Imphal Jamboree- Improving state of youth
  • Zonel Sougaijam : Facebook Hall of Fame
  • Stop Station construction @Sagoltongba
  • Diploma at Don Bosco School, Kalimpong
  • Condemn firing incident at NDPP Sec Gen
  • The art of shuffling, reshuffling
  • Of our identity
  • Id-ul-Fitr @ Hatta #1 : Gallery
  • Tree plantation by Journalists : Gallery
  • Manipur textiles & handicrafts export
  • Phou-su Phou-su khol :: Poem
  • Nationalism in Manipuri literature #2
  • Training on Cyber Security
  • World Environment Day : Go Green Call
  • Environment Day and Manipur
  • Bamboo Cooking Competition : Gallery
  • Exploring Indigenous Knowledge : Book
  • Traditional environmental ethics
  • Air pollution : Focal theme of WED
  • Career options in Optometry
  • World Environment Day at Kumbi
  • I Want to Make Dingko Biopic : Shahid
  • Kwatha: Aayush to play an army officer
  • NSCN (K) must take NCA path: Tatmadaw
  • Cabinet to be reshuffled this month: CM
  • Dzukou valley declared 'plastic-free zone'
  • Modi will resolve Naga issue.. N'land BJP
  • Manipur - An Ethnic Dilemma #1
  • he UpaL :: Seireng
  • Cry of a Dying River - 79 :: Poem
  • The Killing Fields 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • World Environment Day, 2019
  • Time to 'beat air pollution'
  • Free Heart Scan at SKY Hospital
  • Nagaland CM on World Environment Day
  • 50 percent absence at Cabinet meet
  • Introspecting self for good of society
  • Lai Lamthokpa, Thangjing #2: Gallery
  • BEHS interacted with Guv: Gallery
  • India's Forest policy 2018 & concerns
  • Khoidajei- best Music Video Award @ SIFF
  • A constellation of Five :: Poem
  • A moral obligation for CSOs in election
  • BEHS, Motbung, students tour Raj Bhavan
  • Job @JCRE Skill Solutions
  • Ghost of 2001 not yet exorcised
  • Concern for a clean environment
  • Paoki Paddy Festival @Purul #2: Gallery
  • puNsi IceL :: Seireng
  • Meiraba : U-19 singles at All India Ranking
  • Modern village administration #1
  • Schoolchildren in the Park :: Poem
  • Tree Plantation at RIMS, Lamphelpat
  • First suspect always the husband
  • Gudui Ngai @ Kakhulong #2 : Gallery
  • Nationalism in Manipuri literature #1
  • Rain compelling ritual of Meiteis
  • Nehru to Modi: Profiles of PM : Book
  • Heart that reserved for destitute kids
  • Summer beauty tips & tricks for busy mom
  • The unintended fear psychosis
  • Urmila Shagolsem : Miss India : Gallery
  • Draft Indian Forest Act & impact on Manipur
  • Tobacco in Manipur and COTPA
  • End victimization of Research Scholars
  • Another opportunity missed for Congress
  • Failing to fear insecurities is strength
  • World No Tobacco Day observed
  • Striking regional balance : 2 from NE
  • RIMS again: Why ?
  • Chayom Thupki (Meetei Philosophy) #2
  • June Calendar for Year 2019 :: Tools
  • Heat wave advisory : Medical Directorate
  • Cry of a Dying River - 78 :: Poem
  • 1st Sports Event at Bengaluru
  • Election-Politics-Parties & Govt
  • 'Know Your Assam Rifle' violate UN Protocol
  • Modi in second stint as PM
  • BJP, Liberal & Mayang Settler in time of CAB
  • Amur falcon reaches breeding site in China
  • Tangkhuls in traditions of Manipur #1
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park : Gallery
  • Rise & Fall of Cachari Kingdom #2
  • Lai Lamthokpa, Thangjing #1: Gallery
  • How Modi & Shah decimated Congress
  • Public health Care :: Book Review
  • Function of Nampou of Zeliangrongs #2
  • Gudui Ngai @ Kakhulong #1 : Gallery
  • Cheirao-chingkaba #3 : Gallery
  • Paoki Paddy Festival @Purul #1: Gallery
  • Laichombam Sapana @ JNMDA : Gallery
  • Zhaoshomai, indigenous religion of Liiyai
  • Fashion by Kumarjit Laishram #2 : Gallery
  • Pakhangba Cheng-hongba #1 : Gallery
  • 2019 HSLC Exam Toppers :: Gallery
  • HSLC Toppers share thoughts, aspirations
  • HSLC :: Top 25 Rank Holders
  • HSLC :: Subject Topper
  • HSLC :: Statistical Abstract
  • HSLC :: Full Roll No Listing
  • HSLC :: Compartmental
  • ELVEEGO : Top 10 Promising Companies
  • Hr Sec Exam 2019 Toppers #2: Gallery
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2019 #2: Gallery
  • Purnima Moirangthem : 5th in Commerce
  • Jiribam Bazaar :: 360 Panorama View
  • Manipuri Calendar for 2019 : Download
  • SPONSORED ADS