Emerging manifestation of armed violence and nationalism as reflected in Manipuri literature
- Part 1 -

H. Ibotombi Khuman *


The states comprising Northeastern region of India are inhabited by people who share similar physical attribute and speak different language. In early precolonial history, they are all self-determined people and have resided in self-governed territories. After colonization by the British, Naga Hills, Lushai Hills and Khasi Hills were created as a district within the state of Assam.

Manipur had existed as an independent Asiatic sovereign. Manipur became a 'British Protectorate' following her defeat in Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891. Manipur became independent following the lapse of British Paramountcy on the intervening night of 14 August 1947 [N. Sanajaoba, 1997: 8].

Under Manipur Constitution Act, 1947, elections were held for 52 Assembly Constituencies (ACs) in the month of June and July, and for Mao AC where election could not be held, it was represented by a nominated member. On 21st September of the same year, all the members took oath of office and the assembly was inaugurated by the titular king of Manipur, His Highness, Maharaja Bodhchandra.

The Merger Agreement of Manipur to India was signed between Maharaja of Manipur and Government of India on 21 September 1949. It came into effect on 15 October 1949. Following Merger, Manipur became a Part C State of India. Manipur then had to go through a status of territorial Council and afterwards the Union Territory before attaining statehood. It was only in the year 1972, Manipur was granted a full-fledged statehood.

In the year 1953, Manipur National Union under the leadership of Sagolsem Indramni, in a mammoth gathering attended by thousands, at Pologround declared that Manipur should be a 'Buffer State'. For declaring so, he was and put into prison. In the year 1954, Praja Socialist party, also launched the agitation for demanding responsible government in Manipur [Ibid., 10].

Many organisations and political parties also launched an intense agitation demanding the installation of full-fledged assembly [Ibid.]. There was also a prolonged movement for demanding statehood by the Manipur State Demand Coordinating Committee.

In the case of erstwhile Naga Hills and Lushai Hills, with the rising armed violence by the Naga National Council (NNC) and the Mizo National Front (MNF), two new states, Nagaland (1963) and Mizoram (1987) was created to appease and pacify the rising armed insurrection.

In the case of Manipur, Manipur was granted statehood after the emergence of Meitei State Committee which was founded in 1960 and remained active till 1969, and United National liberation Front (UNLF) which is still a force to reckon with since its inception in 1964, and Revolutionary Government of Manipur founded in 1968.

Thus, history is a witness that without resorting to armed violence, likelihood of getting regional aspirations fulfilled through democratic means is remote and almost ruled out.

Manipur's unrepresented 'Fourth World State' armed liberation movement' which continued uninterrupted from the last decade of the Twentieth Century to the present Twenty-First Century had started to gain recognition in the international arena. This important phase in the history had also started reflecting in Manipuri literature.

Non-State Armed Insurgent Groups in Manipur: Profile and History

Manipur has a more than 2000 years old recorded and documented history. Its existence as an independent East Asiatic sovereign power and the precursor effort for the regaining of its lost political status through armed revolution was made by Hijam Irabot by founding 'Manipur Communist Party' and 'Armed Red Guard' in 1948 and continued the movement till 1951.

An assembly constituted by the duly and democratic elected government had by taking a resolution denounced the Merger Agreement signed between the Government of India and Maharaja Bodhchandra on 21 September which came into effect on 15 October 1949 as null and void.

Accordingly the resolution of denouncing the Merger Agreement was let known to the Dominion Government of India by sending a signed statement.

Subsequent to it, in the year 1960, Meetei /Meitei State Committee under the leadership of Wangkheirakpam Tomba actively carried out violent armed struggle till the time their President, Secretary and other leaders got arrested and imprisoned in 1967 and accordingly waned down [ Ibid., 11].

On 24 November 1964, the United National liberation Front (UNLF) was founded under the leadership of Arambam Samarendra and started the revolution struggle. After assuming the charge of leadership by Sanayaima aka Meghen, the movement of UNLF gained prominence and became more and more in the limelight.

As of now, Sanayaima aka Meghen was arrested by the security forces from Bangladesh and after handing him over to India, the National Investigation Agency (NIA) had prosecuted him and accordingly imprisoned by awarding 10 years imprisonment.

At present, UNLF is under the leadership of Mr. Pambei. UNLF, as a constituent member of Co-ordination Committee, a conglomeration of Underground groups of Manipur, better known by its acronym CorCom, have been relentlessly engaged in a joint revolutionary struggle under the banner of CorCom.

Some of those who wanted to accelerate the pace of the revolutionary movement deserted the UNLF and join the Consolidation Committee Manipur (ConsoCom) under the leadership of Oinam Sudhir [Hanjabam, 2011: 102]. ConsoCom, started the 'Manipur liberation struggle' by forming a Government in Exile in the year 1968.

The activity of this revolutionary group continued till 1972 but after most of its leaders got arrested in Tripura and Manipur, and imprisoned accordingly, it no longer continued.

Sequel to it, on 9 October 1977, a People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) was founded by RK Loyataba aka Tullachandra. The party launched the armed Self-determination movement of Manipur with a hoisting of flag.

The founding leader, Tullachandra, was killed in an encounter with the Manipur Rifle's security personnel at Kabow Wakching on 12 November 1985. At present, the party is led by Sathi aka Heera. This party, also, as a constituent coordination member of CorCoM, is actively engaged in joint armed struggle.

PREPAK – Progressive, another faction from PREPAK, under the leadership of Longjam Suresh aka Paliba has also been very active and still continuing the armed struggle as constituent coordinating member of CorCom.

On 25 September 1978, People's Liberation Army (PLA) under the leadership of Nameirakpam Bisheswar was founded. In the subsequent year, on 25 February, 1979, its political wing, Revolutionary People's Front (RPF) was set up.

RPF claimed itself as conforming to the United Nations' Indigenous People's Charters in their sustained armed struggle for right to national self-determination for the complete decolonization of Manipur representing the Meitei and the Meitei cognates viz, the Nagas, the Kuki-Chins from the present 'colonial administering power of India which has occupied Manipur, since 15 October, 1949 till today.

At present, RPF is taking a big role in the joint struggle as Coordination member of CorCom [Ibid., 104].

Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL), another potent armed revolutionary group was formed on 24 April 1994 under the leadership of Namoijam Oken and Achou Toijamba, by those who parted from UNLF owing to differences in the ideology and style of working. The party also had been carrying out sustained armed struggle for the stated cause of liberating Manipur and regaining her lost independence without retreat.

After the demise of Achou Toijamba, KYKL, under the leadership of Namoijam Oken had tied up and joined hands with Kangleipak Communist Party – Noyon (KCP–N). Both the two parties have earlier been constitutent members of the conglomerate groups, Revolutionary Joint Committee (RJC), Manipur People's Liberation Front (MPLF), and CorCom.

At present, both the parties have joined hands with the National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K) and continue with the armed uprising.

To be continued...

* H. Ibotombi Khuman wrote this article which was published at Imphal Times
This article was webcasted on June 02 2019.

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Chayom Thupki (Meetei Philosophy) #4
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • The Story of Two Incidents in One State
  • Cry of a Dying River - 80 : Poem
  • Combating climate change
  • Idea of selling seized liquor
  • Mutum Somorjit : Passed IIT Main/Advance
  • Chak-tangba, Overdraft & Game of Throne
  • Poumai Paoki Wrestling #1: Gallery
  • AEKo_Igi wari :: Seireng
  • Pettigrew contribution to Tribal practice #1
  • Man in White (MIW)
  • India Influence Report 2019
  • Skin care essentials for dry skin
  • Rejoinder to NDPP :: NPF [14 Jun]
  • Far removed from Cong Mukt slogan
  • Taming the traffic
  • Tolloi, Ukhrul :: 360 Panorama View
  • Heritage Park #1 : Gallery
  • Daniel Chabungbam in 7 best NE Journalist
  • Bamboo as a green gold bioresource
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Her Fantasy :: Poem
  • NDPP communique on NPF President
  • Pedagogy for 21st Century Teaching
  • Media Sensitization Workshop on Hepatitis
  • Taking back to 1999: Of overdraft & politics
  • The battle for the Throne
  • Lai Lamthokpa, Thangjing #3: Gallery
  • Invisible workforce: The domestic worker
  • Manipur - An Ethnic Dilemma #2
  • Contemporary issues in Mizoram : Book
  • Modern village administration #2
  • Mitigating hunger is only choice of a poor
  • Digitisation & Cyber Security Training
  • Disturbing dissent within the BJP
  • Id-ul-Fitr @ Hatta #2 : Gallery
  • An evening with Manipuri dance
  • Finally some semblance of awareness
  • Nationalism in Manipuri literature #3
  • Sail Away With Me :: Poem
  • World Music Day at Yaiskul, Imphal
  • Selected candidates to the Global Shapers
  • India-Myanmar conf: Better late than never
  • Thangjing Lai Haraoba : Beyond optics
  • Irungbam Padmabati : Khunung Eshei
  • A tribute to Arambam Somorendra
  • In quest of green vibes :: Poem
  • Workshop: Livelihood & Social Protection
  • Catering service as career option
  • Not yet an open revolt but not all well
  • Something more needed
  • Explain 'misleading' news, tells local daily
  • Chayom Thupki (Meetei Philosophy) #3
  • World Ocean Day 2019
  • Post election scenario : Manipur
  • ICC World Cup under the English Summer
  • Cry of a downtrodden State :: Poem
  • Yaithibi Loukol- violation of Land Act
  • Looking at politics of peace talk
  • Laija - Film Scenes #2 : eRang
  • Government Of India Stratagem
  • Love at Sunset :: Poem
  • Tips to make blood testing easy
  • IGNTU Seminar: Indo-Myanmar Relation
  • Budding Malwares in Manipur University
  • Aimol Baptist: Felicitation Program
  • Political uncertainty in Biren govt
  • Tangkhuls in traditions of Manipur #2
  • Imphal Jamboree- Improving state of youth
  • Zonel Sougaijam : Facebook Hall of Fame
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Stop Station construction @Sagoltongba
  • Diploma at Don Bosco School, Kalimpong
  • Condemn firing incident at NDPP Sec Gen
  • The art of shuffling, reshuffling
  • Of our identity
  • Id-ul-Fitr @ Hatta #1 : Gallery
  • Tree plantation by Journalists : Gallery
  • Manipur textiles & handicrafts export
  • Phou-su Phou-su khol :: Poem
  • Nationalism in Manipuri literature #2
  • Training on Cyber Security
  • World Environment Day : Go Green Call
  • Environment Day and Manipur
  • Bamboo Cooking Competition : Gallery
  • Exploring Indigenous Knowledge : Book
  • Traditional environmental ethics
  • Air pollution : Focal theme of WED
  • Career options in Optometry
  • World Environment Day at Kumbi
  • I Want to Make Dingko Biopic : Shahid
  • Kwatha: Aayush to play an army officer
  • NSCN (K) must take NCA path: Tatmadaw
  • Cabinet to be reshuffled this month: CM
  • Dzukou valley declared 'plastic-free zone'
  • Modi will resolve Naga issue.. N'land BJP
  • Manipur - An Ethnic Dilemma #1
  • he UpaL :: Seireng
  • Cry of a Dying River - 79 :: Poem
  • The Killing Fields 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • World Environment Day, 2019
  • Time to 'beat air pollution'
  • Free Heart Scan at SKY Hospital
  • Nagaland CM on World Environment Day
  • 50 percent absence at Cabinet meet
  • Introspecting self for good of society
  • Lai Lamthokpa, Thangjing #2: Gallery
  • BEHS interacted with Guv: Gallery
  • India's Forest policy 2018 & concerns
  • Khoidajei- best Music Video Award @ SIFF
  • A constellation of Five :: Poem
  • A moral obligation for CSOs in election
  • BEHS, Motbung, students tour Raj Bhavan
  • Job @JCRE Skill Solutions
  • Ghost of 2001 not yet exorcised
  • Concern for a clean environment
  • Paoki Paddy Festival @Purul #2: Gallery
  • puNsi IceL :: Seireng
  • Meiraba : U-19 singles at All India Ranking
  • Modern village administration #1
  • Schoolchildren in the Park :: Poem
  • Tree Plantation at RIMS, Lamphelpat
  • First suspect always the husband
  • Gudui Ngai @ Kakhulong #2 : Gallery
  • Nationalism in Manipuri literature #1
  • Rain compelling ritual of Meiteis
  • Nehru to Modi: Profiles of PM : Book
  • Heart that reserved for destitute kids
  • Summer beauty tips & tricks for busy mom
  • The unintended fear psychosis
  • Urmila Shagolsem : Miss India : Gallery
  • Draft Indian Forest Act & impact on Manipur
  • Tobacco in Manipur and COTPA
  • End victimization of Research Scholars
  • Another opportunity missed for Congress
  • Failing to fear insecurities is strength
  • World No Tobacco Day observed
  • Striking regional balance : 2 from NE
  • RIMS again: Why ?
  • Chayom Thupki (Meetei Philosophy) #2
  • June Calendar for Year 2019 :: Tools
  • Heat wave advisory : Medical Directorate
  • Cry of a Dying River - 78 :: Poem
  • 1st Sports Event at Bengaluru
  • Election-Politics-Parties & Govt
  • 'Know Your Assam Rifle' violate UN Protocol
  • Modi in second stint as PM
  • BJP, Liberal & Mayang Settler in time of CAB
  • Amur falcon reaches breeding site in China
  • Tangkhuls in traditions of Manipur #1
  • Sinnaiba, Akhul, Amom :: eMing
  • Keibul Lamjao National Park : Gallery
  • Rise & Fall of Cachari Kingdom #2
  • Industry try to co-opt World No Tobacco Day
  • A new economic policy of Manipur
  • Gossips & rumours around 303 of BJP
  • Turmoil within the Congress
  • Heal the wound before it rots
  • Lai Lamthokpa, Thangjing #1: Gallery
  • How Modi & Shah decimated Congress
  • Public health Care :: Book Review
  • Finding Elopement :: Poem
  • Function of Nampou of Zeliangrongs #2
  • Public Health (MPH) at IIPH- Shillong
  • Spelling out pratical plans
  • Vocational Programs at BSDU, Jaipur
  • Injecting civic senses to citizens
  • Political development : Impact on Congress
  • Gudui Ngai @ Kakhulong #1 : Gallery
  • Chayom Thupki (Meetei Philosophy) #1
  • Excercise of adult franchise in LS Poll
  • Voices less heard - women candidates
  • Paramedical courses as career options #2
  • Manipur Traffic : A game of fast & furious
  • Rev William Pettigrew & Modern Education
  • Cheirao-chingkaba #3 : Gallery
  • Old-Kuki group by Linguistic Survey in 1904
  • A constellation of Five :: Poem
  • A free stopover at Amsterdam
  • Standing in queue for exam form at MU
  • Questions on the ceasefire coverage
  • Paoki Paddy Festival @Purul #1: Gallery
  • Status of Naga-Kuki relation in Manipur #2
  • There is no 3rd option between true & false
  • Global Warming- Climate change & effect
  • Summertime Blues :: Poem
  • Blocked heart valve treated without surgery
  • Reality of Education system in Manipur
  • Laichombam Sapana @ JNMDA : Gallery
  • Rise & Fall of Cachari Kingdom #1
  • Modi once again- Reading Election result
  • Function of Nampou of Zeliangrongs #1
  • Zhaoshomai, indigenous religion of Liiyai
  • Fashion by Kumarjit Laishram #2 : Gallery
  • Dams as a death trap in Manipur
  • Raju Bista (Kangpoki) is MP of Darjeeling
  • Pakhangba Cheng-hongba #1 : Gallery
  • Repeal AFSPA enacted on 22 May 1958
  • Future Hindu Culture of Meitei is magificient
  • Poumai Purul Paoki Fest : Gallery
  • AEgi KoHcY :: Seireng
  • 2019 HSLC Exam Toppers :: Gallery
  • HSLC Toppers share thoughts, aspirations
  • HSLC :: Top 25 Rank Holders
  • HSLC :: Subject Topper
  • HSLC :: Statistical Abstract
  • HSLC :: Full Roll No Listing
  • HSLC :: Compartmental
  • Mukna Kangjei Tournament : Gallery
  • Phayeng Koubru Haraoba #4 : Gallery
  • ELVEEGO : Top 10 Promising Companies
  • Hr Sec Exam 2019 Toppers #2: Gallery
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2019 #2: Gallery
  • Purnima Moirangthem : 5th in Commerce
  • Jiribam Bazaar :: 360 Panorama View
  • Thailand Princess @Kangla #2 :: Gallery
  • Kadigampou, Akeng :: eMing
  • Ningombam Tampha :: 3rd in ISC Exam
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #2 :: Gallery
  • M Diana: National Women Social Award
  • Urmila Shagolsem: Miss India 2019 Finalist
  • Manipuri Calendar for 2019 : Download