TODAY -

Romanticizing the monumental and antiquarian past and delaying change: The Manipur context
- Part 2 -

Wangam Somorjit *



The autocracy of monarchy was abolished in favour of democracy with the inauguration of the Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947, where out of six ministerial seats, two were reserved for the minority hill people and one for minority Muslim community, besides remarkable dual voting system was introduced in the constituency where minority communities were settled.

Besides, the autonomy of hills was also granted under Manipur Hill Peoples Regulation, 1947. Although, the dominant ideology of the state was kept under reserved with the consent of the masses which is manifested on the Proclamation of Bodh Chandra on the inaugural function of the first State Assembly, held on October 18, 1948, affirming the state's authorized hegemonic history. The democratic arrangement lived for a short period of time with the annexation of Manipur in 1949, and substitution by militarization.

The Janmabhumi in its editorial dated Nov, 26, 1950 lamented "When the Manipuris has seen the dim light of democracy and felt a feeling of political consciousness in 1947… the dawn of democracy had been totally enveloped by the autocratic stoke from an unknown hand by setting up a bureaucratic regime… The Manipuris cannot be ruled by a police regime."

As a direct consequence Hijam Irabot formed Red Guards to resist Indian occupation. His movement ended with his death in 1951. Since the 1960s, the resistance movement has been resurrected with the emergence of a series of armed revolutionary organizations, which intensified the armed struggle against the Indian State for more than 60 years, but continually reaffirming the state-authorized 2000 years old 'written' history.

It shows the sense of inability to depart fundamentally from the romantic feudal legacy of the past and the political beliefs surrounding around feudal family feud, apparently perpetuating the proclamation of 1783, in which only a section of dominant group is legitimated to rise into authority, and the proclamation of 1737, in which valley people are described as superior and hill people as inferior.

If in the core of this 60 years old liberation movement lies the politically beliefs surrounding around the romantic feudal legacy of the past and ideology associated with it, or even if it is based on the principles of this decadent state-authorized history or dead record of the past, then it is a dying struggle.

It is risking the future with "delusion, injustice and blind passion" as Nietzsche warns that history, an expensive surplus of knowledge and a luxury, is not merely for glossing over the egotistical life and cowardly bad act but it should be used only to serve living.

Through the prism of Aimé Césaire, if this 2000 years old 'written' history proves incapable of solving its present antagonistic situation created by it, then it is a decadent history. The closer we approach to the ruling class ideology, the more we diverge from reality, leading inexorably towards "false consciousness", keeping the common people from recognizing and rejecting their oppression.

Destroying of past relations or traditional ideology is as difficult as creating the new one. Even if it is succeeded we may find ourselves in a critical phase, what Gramsci called it as "the old dies and the new cannot rise."

The situation in Manipur can be summed up as the effect of 1949 annexation, the oppression of one nation or group by another, in the words of Freire "cultural invasion" and the oppressed people, being unable to transcend from this present situation, romanticize the "monumental and antiquarian" memory of an earlier period or historical knowledge, putting the past on the pedestal, albeit its oppressive nature, and thus gradually emerges a situation where the old still shapes contemporary political and popular attitudes and common sense.

In such situation Nietzsche suggests a choice making progress towards liberation, "Only man whose breast is oppressed by a present need and who wants to cast off his load at any price has a need for critical history, that is, history which sits in judgment and passes judgment."

Besides, it is also necessary to concern the essential of materialistic understanding of history. Feuerbach's materialist doctrine, where Gramsci revives "matter" as "historical and socially organized for production", implies that men are essentially the products of environment and education or upbringing, so for a change, men need to make another environment and different education, in archaic Manipuri proverb "meena semmaga lai oi; laina semmaga mi oi" and in Sartre's phrase, "Humanity makes history and history makes humanity".

Precisely for this new environment one should become self-conscious, which means one's political sense of self and recognition of his true position in history, for "concrete action" to change his rule of behavior and world view, so that he could perceive the reality and build up a collective political force in recognition of his true nature, besides he would be able to direct others to realize their true human nature and potentialities by the construction of counter hegemony, which is rationally understood as revolutionary practice and its extension.

To establish a new environment characterized by cognition of material reality, i.e. science and recognition of necessity, i.e. freedom, and to move forward towards growth and progress, it is necessary to look at historical reality, which is subjectively experienced by the masses, instead of devoting excess to historical knowledge, i.e., historiography, which is the subjective creation of ruling elite's interest and values, as Henri de Saint-Simon visualized "The golden age of humanity lies not behind us, it is in front; it lies in the perfection of the social order…"

Concluded...


* Wangam Somorjit wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writer is the author of the books"The Chronicle of Meetei Monarchs, 1666 to 1850 CE" and the forthcoming, "Manipur: the Forgotten Nation of Southeast Asia"
This article was posted on February 13, 2016.


* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Krishna Janma @ISKCON :: Gallery
  • Natural Body Building #4 :: Gallery
  • The struggle so far...
  • Shadowy Lies :: Poem
  • Students, agitation & symptomatic treatment
  • The Killing Fields :: News Timeline
  • A Political Messiah Has Come to Nagaland
  • Nungbi Khullen, Ukhrul #2 :: Gallery
  • Protest in Kangpokpi District :: Gallery
  • Cirrhosis: Basics & laboratory diagnosis
  • Impact of television in rural development
  • The Echoing Hills :: Poem
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand : Timeline
  • Nagaland CM respond to Dr. SL's bureau
  • Unauthorized CEC meeting
  • Student leaders detained for mobilizing ILPS
  • Earning our keeps
  • Meira Rally on Patriots' Day #2 :: Gallery
  • ... All The Flowers Gone? #2 :: Gallery
  • Shri Shri Govindaji Temple #1 :: 360 ° View
  • My Japanlan memoir after 4 score yrs
  • Traffic jam and 13th August
  • Manipur District Demand :: Articles / Photos
  • The Law is Mightier Than The Pen
  • Let the law decide
  • ...health insurance scheme for scribes
  • Absurd 1 Village, 1 Denomination decree
  • Singcha Wuya Won (flower) #3:: Gallery
  • Sunday Cup Football @Lamshang :: Gallery
  • Gurmayum Robert wins gold at World Event
  • Loktak Project & corporate unaccountability
  • Supremacy Of The Party :: NPF
  • Binding the wound: The district row
  • Admission Notice - AiTC, Imphal
  • 'Sexuality & Internet' at Digital Summit
  • Zeliang welcomed support from NPF Minority
  • NSU site and undue communal overtones
  • Tripartite Talk: GOI/GOM/UNC :: Gallery
  • Governor's Cup Fencing :: Gallery
  • 13 Aug @Kangla & BT Park :: Gallery
  • Bruce Dickinson: "son-rise" of Iron Maiden
  • Biren should learn from Mamata Banerjee
  • The globe is in your fist
  • AR I-Day festivities with Myanmar army
  • AR celebrates 71st Independence day
  • Unconstitutionality of TR Government
  • Stadium upgrade for I-League
  • NE film festival in Delhi from Aug 18
  • Myanmarese advised to follow traffic rules
  • The human torch and AFSPA
  • The real taste of Independence Day
  • Mission XI football @ Andro :: Gallery
  • Krishna Janma @ Mahabali :: Gallery
  • Blood Donation for 13 August:: Gallery
  • Mahabali Temple , Imphal :: 360 ° View
  • Graphic & plastic arts of Zeliangrong #3
  • Silence :: Poem
  • Sport Univ: Promises kept but corruption?
  • Job requirements at SKY Hospital
  • Jobs @ National Informatics Centre (NIC)
  • I-Day Celebration at BJP State Office
  • Celebrations amid militant boycott call
  • 3 Manipur terrorists arrested in Delhi
  • NSCN/GPRN condemns raid
  • NSCN-K signing hinges on cross-border..
  • Meira Rally on Patriots' Day #1 :: Gallery
  • Patriots' Day @ Kolkata :: Gallery
  • 26th NAMA Convention Report, Houston, TX
  • Forming Plurals in Manipuri Language
  • Mammography and frequently ask question
  • Indo-Naga Talks 2017 :: News Timeline
  • NPF Office Bearers reaffirm support
  • DAN Co-ordination Meeting Resolutions
  • India and China: From rivalry to enmity
  • For better tomorrows
  • Security forces round up NSCN (IM) cadres
  • 13 August @Hicham Yaichampat :: Gallery
  • Achingliu, Haokhulan, Hiyaichenbi: eMing
  • Patriots' Day @ Hojai, Assam :: Gallery
  • Protest: malpractices of MPSC :: Gallery
  • On MPSC scam & people defending it
  • 126th Patriots' Day observed in Delhi
  • 126th Patriots' Day observed in Hojai
  • Lajong U-12 to represent India in BRICS
  • Learn something from 2015 experience
  • The district creation headache
  • State Thang-Ta Competition :: Gallery
  • Search operation [Aug 12] :: Gallery
  • 13 August Patriots' Day : Read all about it
  • Thangal General : The Patriot
  • Proxy examination and Wrong politics
  • Women should not live in fear ....
  • Summer Thoughts :: Poem
  • NPF Youth serve Ultimatum to Rio
  • A slap on the face of Christianity
  • U-Morok @ Shirarakhong :: Gallery
  • Dangers of 'Trial by Media' & the MPSC
  • Is Culture of insensible activism taking root
  • Meiteilon never been Tibeto-Burman
  • Mechanized threshing of foodgrains #2
  • ZSUB Foundation Day, Fresher's Meeting
  • Sadar Hills District Demand: News Timeline
  • Breaking the barrier
  • National Handloom Day @ GHY :: Gallery
  • Chirom Indira shine in hearts of NE Weavers
  • Investigate killings as ordered by SC
  • MSTC CMD met with CM of Manipur
  • Conspiracy behind the toppling game
  • Armed groups attack..a human right abuse
  • Drawing Competition at Khengjoi, Chandel
  • Save the indigenous people cry : Valley..
  • A matter need to ponder
  • Earthen wares of Ningthemcha Karong
  • Indigenous Wrestling @ SPT #2 :: Gallery
  • Awunching Biodiversity Park #3 :: 360 ° View
  • XXVIII State Thang-Ta Competition 2017
  • India's HLPF review of SDGs & Manipur
  • Robotics as career options
  • International Day of Indigenous People
  • Rejoinder Issued By Shurhozelie Liezietsu
  • Hard facts of political crisis (Nagaland)
  • Viewing through one's community
  • Darkening shadows of doubt
  • Ziumi village, Maram Landscape:: Gallery
  • Inter School Handball Tournament :: Gallery
  • The Proud Bamboo Tree :: Folk Tale
  • Populated Attitudes :: Poem
  • Marijuana, Mahadev and Maneka
  • Notice for MSc Biochemistry Admissions
  • Assam edition of NE India Fashion Week
  • Being different from Cong Govt
  • Cracking down on fraudulence
  • Hanuba-hanubi paan thaba :: Funga Wari
  • ... All The Flowers Gone? #1 :: Gallery
  • Need to bust racket running inside MPSC
  • Will PM Modi betray Assam in No ST, no rest
  • State Level Essay Writing Competition
  • RIST Condolence Function at MU
  • When we stumble and fall
  • Customer Care Executive @ basicP, Imphal
  • Petition for Disqualification of 10 MLAs
  • Cracking down on fraudulence
  • Rape of small newspaper
  • Landscape of Ukhrul District #2:: Gallery
  • Jhulon Nupi Pala Phamsak :: Gallery
  • TR is CM by technicality sans Legality
  • One Day in Heaven :: Poem
  • Libraries Vs Google: Are we heading there
  • ..for electrical distribution rearrangement
  • Lessons to learn from CCpur: public hygiene
  • Angaoba Film Scenes #1 :: eRang
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • The dawn of cricket in Manipur
  • Lumbini Leikolda Shat-houba Leirang
  • Workshop on MU Reservations held
  • Job posting at C-DAC Silchar
  • Lafikul murdered to stir communal tension
  • Wayward rules of law
  • Indigenous Wrestling @ SPT #1 :: Gallery
  • Tourist Watch Tower, Khongjom #4 :: 360 °
  • Admission for B.Ed at Manipur University
  • The Evening Blues :: Poem
  • A village called Nbena :: Book Review
  • Employment Generating Hands on Skill
  • Unnatural death of Sainik School student
  • Condemns killing of KNO/KNLF leader
  • AR conducts Pre Recruitment Training
  • Makeshift sheds at Lamphel
  • For a clean future generation
  • Mr Maipak Body Building #2:: Gallery
  • CM referring to ST Comm is ultra vires
  • VIP culture out, VVVIP culture in
  • Be an unchained raindrop :: Poem
  • Holistic education : Trends & challenges
  • Jobs - Going Officers Pamjei
  • Providing Various Health Benefit Plans
  • larification to Tokheho's recollections
  • SoO groups in the news for wrong reasons
  • Confession
  • Nongbrang, bank of Thoubal River :: Gallery
  • Pukpha Fest @Tamenglong :: Gallery
  • Binalakshmi Nepram at UN, NYC : 1 Aug
  • Free Computer Course by KEN @ Imphal
  • Where is the justice in mob justice
  • Ishu : Feature Film in Assamese :: Review
  • Flood: State efforts are too little too late
  • Crisis within NPF unfortunate : KG Kenye
  • decision-making body of NPF resolve: 2 Aug
  • NPF Legislature Party Statement : 2 Aug
  • ..honoring martyrs by raising Tri-colour
  • ..strong Opposition: Cong MLA striving hard
  • Battle Of Khongjom & Manipuris in 1891 #3
  • Khongjom War Memorial #2 :: 360 ° View
  • Oops! They've Done It Again!
  • Photography: Career through lenses
  • Mega Marathon Manipur : Download Form
  • Chemical Ecology: Info for college/Univs
  • Jobs - Nursing Aides in Singapore
  • NPF responds to MLAs' demand
  • Overlooking one's own Cabinet decision
  • Potential of our state
  • Drinking joints in a dry State : Liquor tragedy
  • Landscape of Manipur #7: Wallpaper
  • Singcha Wayawon opening #2:: Gallery
  • Manung Kangjeibung, Kangla :: 360 ° View
  • 1st Mao Market day @Nagamapal:: Gallery
  • ILP : Students protest [27 July] :: Gallery
  • Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon #2 :: Gallery
  • Ethoi Oinam (Actress) #2 :: eRang Photos
  • Echum Lairembi, Khurkhul #3:: Gallery
  • Tapta :: Funga Wari
  • Featured Photo for 2017 #3 :: Gallery
  • Lai Khong Chingba @Thangjing #4
  • Manipur Sangai Festival 2016 #5 : Ooba
  • SPONSORED ADS