TODAY -

First Wave Feminism

Joyshree Heisnam *



Feminism developed as a movement for demanding legal and right to vote especially the right to vote. Their main goal was female's suffrage because they believed that if women could vote, all other forms of sexual discrimination and prejudice would disappear soon. Seneca falls convention of 1848 marked the birth of the US women's movement.

It adopted a Declaration of Sentiments, calling for female suffrage written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) . The ideological basis of 'First wave Feminism' emerged from Mary Wolstonecraft's book "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" in 1792, J.S Mill and Harriet Taylor's "On the subjection of Women", Emmeline Pankhrust and Christabel also launched a campaign of direct action which included public demonstration and attacks on property demanding right to vote for women.

First wave feminism ended with the achievement of female suffrage in New Zealand in 1893.
Second wave feminism emerged around 1960's Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique 1963.
Kate Millet 's Sexual politics 1970 .
Germaine Greer 's The female Eunuch 1970.

Second wave acknowledge that the achievement of political and legal rights had not solved women's position . They started Feminism focusing attention on personal, psychological and sexual aspects of female oppression.

The goal of second wave feminism is therefore not merely a political emancipation but women's liberation. They demanded a more far regime and perhaps revolutionary process of social change. Ideologically they were influenced by Betty Friedan, Kate Millet, Germaine Greer.

Third wave Feminism emerged in 1990's with the believe that the campaign and demands of second wave Feminism have limited relevance in the contemporary times. In the contemporary times new issues has emerged in feminist politics. There has been various social and political changes so, we need a new feminism. Various feminism have emerged new. For example : Black feminism . It believes that sexism and racism are linked system of oppression.

Islamic feminism: Coming back to tradition and wearing traditional attire like covering with veil are liberating for women. For some post feminism is defined by the rejection of second wave feminism. According to them women should not be seen as victims. Women need to take greater responsibility for their own sexual and personal conduct. Post modernist Feminism questions the idea of a fixed female identity. According to them the idea of 'women' maybe nothing more than a fiction.

Post colonial feminism theory: According to them women's rights are essentially a western concept and may not be applicable to non western world. Sexual equality may even devalue women 's traditional role as home makers and mothers and undermine traditional institution and cultural practices. And also there is fourth wave feminism too.

There are some major traditions within Feminism such as Liberal feminism, Socialist feminism, Radical feminism, Difference feminism.

There are some generally accepted core themes of feminism.
1. Personal is politics
2. Patriarchy
3. Sex and gender
4. The concept of equality.

All the feminist believe in a state where there is equal treatment of woman and the liberation of woman . Susan James characterizes feminism as follows: " Feminism is grounded on the belief that women are oppressed or disadvantaged by comparison with men,and that their oppression is in some way illegitimate or unjustified.

Under the umbrella of this general characterization there are, however ,many interpretations of women and their oppression ,so that it is a mistake to think of feminism as a single philosophical doctrine or advice implying an agreed political program" . But despite of all these differences in technical ideas of the feminism, one thing is certain i,e. women are the groups which has been discriminated, tortured and the victim of all these social systems.

Simone de Beauvoir - "One is not born but rather becomes a woman". For all "Meetei Nongsha" patriarch. The patriarchal society believes that biology is destiny. The female sex having a certain biological features have to perform their social role according to their sex. This idea has a sharp distinction between sex and gender. Sex refers to biological difference between females and males. These differences are natural and unalterable.

Gender differences are socially and politically constructed. Women and man should not be judged by their sex but as individuals, as persons. The goal of an egalitarian society is the achievement of genderless personhood. These socially constructed stereotypes of masculinity and femininity identities can be reconstructed or even demolished. The question of sexual equality can never be fully addressed if we continue to locate politics only on public sphere.

According to Kate Millet, politics is power structure relationship arrangements whereby one group of person is controlled by another. The relationship between husband and wife, parents and children, government and citizens, employers and workers are all political. In every relationship there is always a dominant class over other. Politics shouldn't stop at front door, "The personal is political".

We need to analyse the politics of everyday life. The politics of everyday life implies the process of conditioning in family and society, the distribution of house work and other domestic responsibilities, the politics of personal and sexual conduct. The society is based on a system of inequality and oppression. We should change this patriarchy which is a systematic institutionalised and pervasive form of male power that is rooted in the family.

"Family as an instrument of female oppression" - Engels Women are always portrayed by patriarchal values and beliefs, philosophy, morality and religion of society. Women are portrayed as inferior and subordinate to men, a stereotype of feminity being imposed by man and are conditioned to a passive sexual role. Patriarchy should be challenged through a process of "consciousness raising".

Women need to have equal access to rights and opportunities and we should try to end all forms of discrimination against women for a better society and to bring a peaceful coexistence of both the genders. A woman with a voice is by definition a strong woman. But the search to find that voice can be remarkably difficult. Melinda Gates.

Reference :-
Arihant political science, Andrew Heywood Political ideologies, Feminism Margaret Walters.


* Joyshree Heisnam wrote this article for Imphal Times
The writer is doing BA at D. M College of Arts.
This article was webcasted on April 04, 2019.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • LS : Voting for Inner : Gallery
  • Ahingbi, Chareinu :: eMing
  • Thang Ta @Sangai Festival #4: Gallery
  • The current status of Naga-Kuki relation #1
  • Traditional warfare technique of NE native #1
  • Cry Of A Dying River #72 :: Poem
  • Looking forward to May 23
  • Judgment day
  • Meekap Thokpa Numit #1 : Gallery
  • CC Meet Final: NEROCA Vs SU #2: Gallery
  • Floriculture : A booming industry in Mao
  • Positivity is the soul of life
  • Basic health competency by patients
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • 7th Woodpecker International Film Festival
  • Cracking the repoll whip in Outer
  • Dirty game is a threat to Democracy
  • Ibendhou Kounu Haraoba #2: Gallery
  • Indo-Naga & other peace talks #1
  • Civil Society Forum Manifesto for Election
  • Life and Me :: Poem
  • The Killing Fields 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • Election jamboree & voters bonanza
  • Suspension Order for 7 MLAs : NPF
  • Chin Woman Dies after Tatmadaw Bomb
  • A reference to the party in power
  • An idea without fear
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba at Mysore #2: Gallery
  • Artillery Regiment in Battle of Imphal
  • Appraisal on LS election (Outer) #2
  • Minimum Income Guarantee is a promise
  • Northeast Fiesta 2019 at Jalandhar
  • Cyber Security - the need of the hour
  • Sunset Unplugged, Agartala: Event Report
  • Reality of casting vote in Outer PC
  • Real face of Indian election
  • Tributes to PLA killed #1 : Gallery
  • Khomlen Manglanda : Play synopsis
  • Download: Meetei Mayek Keyboard
  • Voting (PC) @ Kangpokpi #3: Gallery
  • Letter from a river most polluted
  • Truth commission in Manipur needed..
  • Vacancy at Makok Tech, Bishnupur
  • Cheirao Chingkaba #2 : Gallery
  • The sky is the SIYOM of the stars
  • An introspection of roots of AFSPA
  • A note on Cheiraoba ..
  • A well-known paradox :: Poem
  • The saga of EVMs
  • Festival of Democracy hypes
  • 14 girls sold to persons in Saudi Arabia
  • Took up boxing after watching Ali- Mary
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba at Mysore #1: Gallery
  • Mittong Khunou: The Battle Honour of INA
  • A Lifeline for the Assamese
  • Multiple posts at PiCaSoid, Imphal
  • NE Annual day of CNESPR , JMI
  • Essential summer travel tips
  • Discussion : Myanmar's Democratization
  • Violating election model code of conduct
  • Catapulting AFSPA in the limelight
  • Revisiting CAB issue
  • Voting (PC) @ Kangpokpi #2: Gallery
  • Voting (PC) @ Kangpokpi #1: Gallery
  • Bloody Phanek at Paris Film Festival
  • Homoeopathy, a revolutionary science
  • The goodness of good fate does not smile..
  • Outer Constituency has voted
  • Helpless indignation
  • CC Meet Final: NEROCA Vs SU #1: Gallery
  • Yengkhom Roma : Lifetime Award
  • Appraisal on Lok Sabha election (Outer) #1
  • Cyber Crimes - Crimes by finger tips
  • Research Support Officer @ Amethyst
  • Condemns militarization of NEHU Campus
  • Shadow of CAB on Lok Sabha elections
  • "CAB" Factor Faded
  • Thabal Chongba @Khurai : Gallery
  • Military Sociology: Present, Past & Future
  • Know your MP - Election 2019
  • Dirty Dancing :: Poem
  • Democracy needs time for good admin
  • Travel at U-Factor
  • Shadow of NSCN (IM) in Outer PC
  • The great escape
  • Arambai Exhibition Show : Gallery
  • View of Premier State College Senior Assn
  • Distant One :: Poem
  • The hysteria of a first time voter
  • Course in Folkloristics & Semiotics
  • NDPP is 'Entertainment Govt' : Zeliang
  • On issue of "Letters signed by Neiphiu Rio"
  • The visit of PM Modi
  • If BJP win, people of Manipur support CAB
  • Cheirao Chingkaba #1 : Gallery
  • sekeN heN :: Seireng
  • Yangnu Golmei : Sangeetbhusan 2018
  • Victimizing only the Women & Children
  • Lest The North-East Fall Asleep
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Driving a dangerous feat on Indian roads
  • Need to be democratic in a democracy
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #1 : Gallery
  • Selfie da track :: e-pao Radio
  • Demand for ILP :: Articles/Photos...
  • The legend of the Laiyyars : Election tale
  • Sports for peace & development
  • What is peace ?
  • Rongali : Celebration of Assam & NE
  • Manipuris celebrate New Year
  • Imphal security beefed for Modi's visit
  • Sajibu Nongma Panba Shopping: Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba: Ritual festival of Meiteis
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Meitei New Year Day
  • Stop War with Nature :: Artwork
  • Cry of a Dying River - 71 :: Poem
  • Pulmonary Valve Balloon dilatation
  • Supping with an ally of the foe
  • Deflected focus: The dress debacle
  • Nipalsuba Mapok #2 : Gallery
  • Running for LS polls: The candidate
  • Gift :: Poem
  • Architect/Architectural Designer @R-Square
  • Little things that help to enhance beauty
  • Congress Manifesto for Repeal AFSPA
  • Social Media - a boon or a curse?
  • Anti-CAB stand: Interesting take from PRISM
  • AFSPA on Congress Manifesto
  • Bamboo Cooking Competition #1 : Gallery
  • April Calendar for Year 2019 :: Tools
  • Yaoshang Sports @Keishampat #2 : Gallery
  • First Wave Feminism
  • JRF wanted at NERIST, Arunachal [Upd]
  • Cheiraoba Thabal 2019 at Bangalore
  • NPF to support Congress on issue based
  • Jyotishmita to represent Assam in Miss India
  • Paothang : Newsletter from Pune
  • Eyeing votes with promise on AFSPA
  • Together let's save the future
  • Shirarakhong Village, Ukhrul :: 360 View
  • Journey into Nature of Human Culture #4
  • Candidate accommodation at Aligarh
  • The globe is in your fist
  • Heartless :: Poem
  • Condemn Killing of Manjur Ahmed
  • Indifference bordering on arrogance
  • Modi's visit: Will it restored BJP image?
  • Yaoshang Halankar #1 : Gallery
  • No Budget at International Mime Festival
  • In defence of the "Meira Paibis"
  • Post-Doctoral fellow @ NEIST, Jorhat
  • Attributes for vibrant career #2
  • Against Custodian Killing of Manjur Ahmed
  • Revamp Sajiwa Jail : The great JN escape
  • LS Poll : CAB factor and Manipur
  • Dont trust anyone: Pune police to NE
  • Muhammad Abdur Rahman Khutheibam
  • Yaoshang Fancy Dress : Gallery
  • Urmila Chanam on menstruation myths
  • Meetei Tribe Bears More Tribal Characters
  • Dear Happiness :: Poem
  • MP election issues & non-issues
  • Augment credit flow to farm sector
  • Fresh approach of Sangma
  • Phayeng Koubru Haraoba #3: Gallery
  • TabLlE :: Seireng
  • The Naliya Queen
  • Distress Relief at various districts
  • Bedtime Blues :: Poem
  • Babies who are born deaf
  • The approaching day of redemption
  • Yaoshang Marathon Race: Gallery
  • Abok :: Artwork & an Essay
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Yaoshang Pichakari #2: Gallery
  • Utlou incident & of Nupi Khongoinaba
  • Understanding failure & how to face it
  • Responsibilities of voters : 5 years stake
  • Nando escaped from custody is a threat..
  • A New Dawn Awaits Tusom & Somra
  • Yaoshang Cooking competition: Gallery
  • Symposium on Dance & Music : Speech
  • Journey into Nature of Human Culture #3
  • Problem of Substance Abuse in Children
  • Morality must defeat religion
  • Noting approach of Dr Lorho
  • Revisiting BJP's stand on CAB
  • The Innampei festival of Chothe #3
  • MSAC Literary Meet @Chandigarh : Gallery
  • Time for Meiteis to stand for ST
  • Yaoshang Mei Loukhatpa #2: Gallery
  • Lamtagee Thabal @ Pune : Gallery
  • Yaoshang Sports @Keishampat #1 : Gallery
  • Yaoshang Sports @ Khongman : Gallery
  • Abdur Rahaman : Gopal Sharma Award
  • Yaoshang Mei Thaba : Gallery
  • Thokchom Sanatombi : Sangeetratna
  • AEgi puNsi :: Seireng
  • Babloo Loitongbam at UNHR Geneva
  • View of Ukhrul Town #2 : Gallery
  • Nipalsuba Mapok : Shumang Leela
  • Mukna Kangjei #2 : Gallery
  • Sory Wahengbam : eRang Actress Profile
  • Phayeng Koubru Haraoba #2: Gallery
  • Saroi Khangba @Imphal : Gallery
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2019 #1: Gallery
  • Maharaj Kumar Priyabarta Singh : Profile
  • Manipuri Calendar for 2019 : Download
  • List of Restricted Holidays for 2019
  • List of Public Holidays for 2019
  • List of General Holidays for 2019
  • SPONSORED ADS