TODAY -

Historical Study Of Print Journalism (Newspapers) In Manipur (1910-1980)
- Part 3 -

By A Chungmeikamei *



A cyclostyled weekly Anouba Jug was published in April 1947. The journal was designed to reform the manipuri Society which was based on religion. The paper wanted to abolish the system of untouchability and tried to improve the conditions of farmers and fought the evil of feudal system to the people. This was clearly written in the editorial of April 20, 1947.

Anouba Samaj a daily paper in 1953, of November 14th edited by Shri Chingangbam Gowrahari Singh at Ajat printing works, Jimson road (now known as Paona, Bazar) Shri Thangjam Bijoy Singh and Shri Naba Singh edited the paper for sometime. Later, Shri Chingangbam Gowrahari Singh took charge again. The papers serve the people of Manipur fpr about 27 years. Under the name of title was written "A progressive Manipur Daily". One copy of the paper cost four pice. Shri Chingangbam Gowrahi Singh also edited Loumee Sunmee and Lanmee.

In 1954, the Manipur public library published a Sahitya and Sanskrit Magazine. In this magazine some of the importance of Manipur Sahiitya based on literary and language based for example, Matam, Malem,Matamgee Khongthang are some of the Magazine produced weekly by Manipur Sahitya. During the establishment of Manipur State Kala Academy, in the year 1977-78, a bulletin Souvenir was produced which contain a vast number of culture Sahitya, drama, dance, song and related issues.

From 1935 to 1979, about 40 newspaper and 8 periodicals of different dialect were published from different places of Manipur Hmasawnia a cultural paper in Hmar languages which was published annually began in 1935. The journal was printed in Churachandpur. Inchuk Khainun (Hmar) journal also published in Churachandpur in 1 950.

Known which means light is also a Hmar journal in 1960 published in Churachandpur, Sikhawar which means morning star is also a church journal in Hmar Haflong, Assam. Mairam which means torch flame in Kabui dialect, edited by professor Gangmumei kamei, the journal was a monthly based in social and cultural related during 1958.

Chamdin a kabui dialect journal from Tamenglong, Angko Bungbi by Meingan, a text book in Rongmei dialect for children of class A and B which is approved by Rongmei Literacy committee Manipur and selected by Govt, of Manipur and selected by Govt of Manipur education dept. Imphal. The first edition was published in 1957.

Alauduan by P. Aching John which is also a children textbook approved by Rongmei Literacy society Tamenglong published in Sept 16 of 1958. Lathan Reimei by Namthomang Kamei produces a small text book of class I and II to learnt grammar in Rongmei. The textbook was published in 1958 at the price of 0.37 NP. The book was printed in Tarun printing works, Imphal.

The Hmar students Association magazine published both in Hmar and English in 1 969. The Journal emphasis mainly on aspect of cultural and Tradition. The Gangte students Organisation also published a Journal both in Gangte and English during 1962 in Churachandpur. The monthly journal serves for some years. Siamsin Pawl the annual magazine published both in Paite and English in 1 962 in Churachandpur.

League Tribune both in English and Zoumi in 1962 which is a Bi-monthly published in Churachandpur. Hraituthar a Lushai monthly journal in 1964-65 published in Churachandpur. Chongsem a monthly journal in Kom dialect in 1959-74, published in Bishempur, this Journal mainly talks on importance of religion and culture.

Mathoimi a tangkhul monthly magazine published in Ukhrul district during the year 1948-67. Zingram a Tangkhul daily publication based in politics during 1964-65 from Ukhrul. Changthan a kabui monthly local newspaper published from Imphal. Changthan which means new way talks mainly on importance of culture and religion of the community.

Mairam a kabui monthly published in 1958 from Tamenglong in the year 1950 published from Tamenglong. Wanson a liangmei bi-monthly published during the year 1965-66 from Imphal to then later to Tamei. Chamdin a Kabui daily paper from 1950-60 published from Tamenglong, Christa Pallei & Kuki Herald a Kuki monthly Christian Publication from Imphal, Motbung and Churachandpur.

Chuna (which means now) in zeme dialect published monthly journal in 1970, a newsletter of Zemi Naga Baptist Association. Thutak and Vaiphei Herald is the Vaiphei dialect of monthly journal in 1967-77 from Churanchandpur. MBC Newsletter which is a Christian News Journal published for all the Christian church and Christian members in Manipur during 1 977, a bi-monthly from Imphal.

Thusaka, a Kuki weekly journal in l979 published from Imphal, Gam-tachin also kuki monthly published in Imphal. The Munlie the annual English Magazine published in Imphal from 1 975. There are also Manipur Herald, The Hill Monitor published in English for tribal people.

Most of the news was cover in a manner to bring about close relations among the tribal people. It covers both Manipur and India News. A paper run by the tribal people in English which can be mention are The Young Zomi by the former MLA Gogin both in Imphal and Churachandpur. The young democratic, half monthly published from 1961-69 is an Association voice by the Naga Students Union Association gives their thought in relation with the state policy to bring together the Naga people and the land.

"The Hunter" a magazine by the Naga Students Union Imphal in 1975 in English was also published, the young students of Tamenglong, Mao, Kabui, Chothe, Anal and Sema bring out a new Voluntary Organisation established to show the problem of Naga, a photo roll of honour category of picture was put and they produced a journal reflecting a separate Naga dignity to the outside world. Most of the journal produce is in English and their respective dialects.

The development of press can be seen apart from Manipuri language of different dialects especially in hills areas from the year 1930 through some Christian journal of Church circulation during this period. Most of the hill people are Christian converted by Christian Missionary from outside India which later spread the importance of literature through setting up of education institution. The setting up of education institute give rise to the beginning of journalism in the hill areas of tribal community in Manipur.

From the year 1950-80, some of the periodical published found during these period are:-

  • Jhanma Boomee Patrika (1950) daily paper,
  • Ngasi (1950) children monthly magazine,
  • Kisan, monthly magazine (1950)
  • Sahitya Ichel (1950) monthly,
  • Inchuk Khainun (1950) hmar monthly.
  • Dicham and Chamdin (1950) daily and monthly journal published in Rongmei dialect,
  • Sadhu Sanga (1950) a monthly journal mainly for Gowra religion,
  • Satsanga (l956-62)
  • Anouba Matam (1951) daily paper.
  • Mother Manipur (1953) daily paper,
  • Anouba Samaj (1953) daily,
  • Chithi Marup (1956) a children journal published by MSPD,
  • Matam (1957) a monthly,
  • Independent, Manipuri paper,
  • Simanta Patrika (1957) daily,
  • Mairam (1958) monthly Rongmei dialect journal,
  • Chongsen (1 959) journal
  • Khollao (1963) most popular Manipuri daily
  • Era (1962) Bi-monthly journal (1965)
  • Meitrabak (1966) trio-month journal
  • Sahitya (1966) quarterly journal
  • Changthan, A Rongmei Christian Journal (1966),
  • Chandrabat Khutpai and Vishevabani (l966-67) by Manipuri astrological society,
  • Lasani (1967) Bi-monthly,
  • TNBC Talla (1967) Anal Journal,
  • The cultural flow in 1968, edited by Rajkumar Thambal Sana a quarterly magazine.
  • The Meitei Leirang in 1968 (annually) edited by N. Tombi.
  • Scale in 1968, by All Manipur Non-Government Teacher Association (annually) based on cultural Forum journal.
  • Hunger Marcher Day journal by AMSU published in August 27, 1968.
  • Eikhoina Katchari- produced by Singjamei Makhagi Club in 1968.
  • Wakhal (1968) quarterly paper Marup & Jukki Echel 1969, Both weekly journal,
  • Lamyanba Khongthang, Malem, Ekhoigi Manipur, Gangte Student Organisation Magazine (1969) weekly.
Bi-monthly quarterly etc.
    Yaipha Yumbalba Nupi(l969),
  • Eikhoigi Kangla(l969-70) a historical religious magazine of monthly produced by Meitei mayek research association,
  • Yaon and Nachom (monthly and later bi-monthly) in 1969-70,
  • Panthung (1970) Sunday published, weekly
  • Panrithan, Rongmei Journal (1970),
  • Olympia Magazine (sports magazine), 1970-72,
  • Paojel (1971) daily
  • The Manipur Arbitrar (1971) daily,
  • Ching-Tam(Hill-valley) in October 15,1972
The journal are based on relation and unity among the hills and plains people of Manipur. This journal was produced during the observation of the Manipur cultural Integration Day.
  • Ireibak (1974) daily,
  • Imphal times (1974) weekly,
  • Divya Jyoti (1974) .
  • Voice of Churachandpur (1974)
  • Poknapham (1975),
  • Gandhi Bhal (1975) weekly.
  • Cyclone (1975)
  • Zoram Thar (1975),
  • Pathou (1976),
  • Chingtam (1976) daily paper,
  • Sumang Leela journal (l976) produced by All manipur jatra association,
  • Eikhoigi saktam (1976)
  • Dharma journal (l977)
  • Janata (1977) daily,
  • Loyalam (l977) a monthly journal published by rural development organsation, Manipur.
  • Leishemba (1977)
  • Huiyen Lanpao (1978) daily,
  • Manipur News (1978) daily,
  • Panthung (1978) Sunday published weekly,
  • Meeoia (1978),
  • Bhigyangi Wa (1978)a science journal which is the first Meitei language in science journal, sponsors by science teachers forum Manipur,
  • Payam Islam (1978) a quarterly religious magazine,
  • Samriti Manjudas magazine( 1978) and
  • Bhagabatta Darshan magazine by Harare Khrisna Consciousness Imphal branch produced in Manipuri.
Bibliography-
  1. Singh, M.Kirti - Manipurda Journalismgi Itihas, Imphal, 1980
  2. Singh, R.H.Sanahal - Meitei Chephong, Imphal, 1982
  3. Rangaswami Parthasarathy - Journalism in India, 1989
  4. Nataranjan.S. - A history of the Press in India, New Delhi, 1962
  5. Emery Edwin, Ault Philip H. and Age Warren K - Introduction to Journalism, 2nd Edition 1969, pp. 4-5.
  6. Ben H. Bagdikian, Articles contributor "Journalism" pp. 138-39.


Concluded ...


* A Chungmeikamei is a PhD Research Scholar in History department at Manipur University . This was originally printed on "Manipur Today" - a publication by DIPR, GOvt of Manipur on the eve of Khongjom Day 23rd April, 2010. This article was webcasted on May 10th, 2010.



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