Traumatic experiences stemming from 'Kuki'-Meitei bloody clash
Death anxiety among displaced inmates in burning Sanaleibak-Kangleipak
- Part 1 -

Chakpram Purnima Devi *

Background of the study

The current study is aimed at ascertaining traumatic experiences and its effect on death anxiety among inmates who had encountered life-threatening experiences due to violence resulting from a conflict between the "Kuki" and Meitei that has been simmering in Sanaleibak –Kangleipak since May 3, 2023. In this violence, over 160 people have been killed and more than 50 thousand people rendered homeless, taking shelters in the relief camps set up across the State.


The ex-post facto approach under the descriptive method was adopted. Altogether 151 subjects were involved in the study (females 95 and males 56) who hailed from Churachandpur, Torbung, Moreh, Khuga-tampak, Serou, Ekou Dolaithabi, Phougakchao Ikhai, and Awang Sekmai taking shelter in the Relief Camps located at Imphal. They were selected through the convenience sampling from a cross-section of inmates at a single point in time. The study was conducted during 20th June to 2nd July 2023.

Measurement Instrument

Death Anxiety was measured using the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (DAS, Templer, 1970) [1]. The DAS is a self-administered 15-item on 2 point scale as True or False, allocating 1 point to every question answered correctly and then summing up all the items. High scores on this Scale indicate high death anxiety, while low scores indicate low death anxiety. This Scale was found to have good psychometric properties, with a three-week test-retest reliability of 0.83 and internal consistency coefficient of 0.76.

This Scale was found to be the most popular measure of death attitudes in the literature and it has been used throughout the world, with translation into several languages, as compared to any other attitude instruments. It may be mentioned that now, researchers could also use the Templer's 51-item Death Anxiety Scale—Extended published in September 2006.[2]


To begin with, an 'informed consent' was obtained from the organizers of the relief camps and then from the would-be participants as well. After selection of the samples, the questionnaires were distributed to the participants on an appointed day in the camps itself.

All questions in the questionnaire were bilingual with English and Native Language, so as to enable them to understand each question easily. The investigator briefed participants on the purpose of the study and due instructions were given before the administration of the questionnaires.

In case of illiterates/mere literate subjects, the researcher read out each question to the respondents and recorded their responses accordingly. Participants were given sufficient time to complete the questionnaires and any questions they had were answered by the researcher.

Literature Review
What is Anxiety?

The term anxiety is described as an uncomfortable emotional state characterized by inner turmoil and dread over anticipated future events, or apprehension of possible failure, misfortune, or danger. [3][4].

Anxiety is closely related and overlap with fear, a response to perceived and actual threats, which often results in nervousness, rumination, pacing, and somatisation.[4] Anxiety becomes pathological when it is so overwhelming that there is persistent distress, a decrease in quality of life, and impairment in regular major life activities.[5]

What is Death Anxiety?

The term "death anxiety" is described as anxiety about many other aspects of death. For example, people may have fear of how they will die, how significant others will be affected by their death, what will happen after they die, that is, about their afterlife [6] It is conscious and unconscious fear of death and dying.[7]

Death anxiety or fear of death is used synonymously by some researchers.[8] For example, the Collet-Lester Fear of Death Scale is based on 4 aspects:1. Fear of Death of Self, 2. Fear of Dying of Self, 3. Fear of Death of Others, and 4. Fear of Dying of Others.[9]

Death anxiety is a negative and apprehensive feeling that one has when feeling about death and dying.[10] It was also distinguished into: "death anxiety" and "fear of death", in which death anxiety refers to a dread of complete annihilation (abstract concept), while fear of death is a belief that death is frightening (concrete concept).[11]

However, different researchers often use the terms "death anxiety" or "fear of death" to mean different aspects of this psychological construct.[12] "Death" signifies end of life and "Death Anxiety" connotes feeling of fear of apprehension of death.[13]

Death anxiety is "vague uneasy feeling of discomfort or dread generated by perceptions of a real or imagined threat to one's existence".[14]It is also defined as "the state in which an individual experiences apprehension, worry, or fear related to death and dying".[15]To sum up, death anxiety is the fear and apprehension of death.

Is there any relationship of death anxiety with age, gender, education, occupation, marital status, and health?

In the present study, the following six variables were examined to determine whether there was any differences in death anxiety between younger and older, female and male, individuals with differenteducational and occupational statuses, married and unmarried, and physical health status. Based on these variables, we may examine the findings of some previous studies.


Studies found that age is considered an important factor that affects death anxiety. In the present study, participants were broken down into two groups. The first group included participants who were in younger age (from 15 years old to 35 years old), while the second group consisted of older individuals who were above 35 years of age to 73.

Age is one of the significant predictors of death anxiety; for example, death anxiety is higher in middle-aged than in elderly participants. It declines from middle age to older age and stabilizes during the final decades of life; higher death anxiety among adults; highest death anxiety among men and women in their 20s, decreasing significantly with age until the age of 60; higher death anxiety among younger staff members; younger people reported higher death anxiety than older people.

Adolescent students showed greater anxiety, depression, low anxiety above 70 years; less emotional distress associated with death and the loss of a loved one among older people;older persons were significantly more anxious about the word "death".

On the other hand, some studies revealed that older participants (55-70 years old) had higher rates of death anxiety as the participants are old and are nearer to death, they might think about their mortality frequently and this behaviour results in increased fear and anxiety. Another factor is that, death of near and dear ones might trigger increased death anxiety.

In contrast, age was not linked to fear of death;mixed results.

To be continued...

* Chakpram Purnima Devi wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writer is a UGC Junior Research Fellow Independent
This article was webcasted on 25 September 2023

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Violence in Manipur 2023 :: News Timeline
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2023 #5: Gallery
  • Petition to Rectify UN PR surpasses 100000
  • Workshop : Integration of Social Change
  • Where have the guns come from ?
  • Securing future for the next 1000 years
  • Oinam Chaoba Devi: Sepak Takraw : Gallery
  • Mirik Memories
  • Program Explores Gender & Mental Health
  • Ensuring proper sanitation as careers
  • Purul Paoki (Paddy Plantation) #2 : Gallery
  • Young Adulthood: A Blank Canvas
  • Demand for Naga Flag, Constitution are hurdle
  • Meitei Alliance officially launched [Upd]
  • Indian fisheries : The sunrise sector
  • The descent of Radha-Krishna #12: Download
  • 6th NE Fashion Week : Final Report
  • Misuse of medicines is making infections ...
  • A unique initiative by Coal & Lignite PSUs
  • Relief Materials @Moirang : Gallery
  • Plant disease management in organic farming
  • AMEA - 40th foundation day
  • HPV Vaccination Services launched
  • 40th Foundation Day AMEA : Gallery
  • 43rd Foundation - Manipur Women's college
  • Is Myanmar on the brink of 'breaking apart'
  • Guideline for preparation of UPSC exams
  • Art Exhibition: RKCS Art Museum #3 : Gallery
  • Growing call to find all TB to stop TB
  • Ethnic strife in Manipur :: Poem
  • Meitei 'Tribal', almost ST now
  • Honouring tribal tradition and pride
  • Questions on sticking to SoO
  • Pinning hopes on justice delivery system
  • Naga-Kuki Clash 1992-94
  • Volcanoes of India
  • Climate in 2023, a tipping point for crisis
  • Day 3: 6th NE Fashion Week
  • Photography & Creative Writing Contest
  • Time to go after the big fishes
  • Political insensitivity to suffering of citizens
  • Interview : Ayekpam Maipak (Sepak Takraw)
  • Shillong Cherry Blossom Festival
  • Technologies in veterinary extension services
  • National Integration & Social Harmony
  • Paradox of ignorance & quest for knowledge
  • More than sighting a flying object
  • Seeking central help to end conflict
  • Relief Materials @Phubala : Gallery
  • Adolescence Crisis
  • European Higher Education Virtual Fair
  • Day 2: 6th NE India Fashion Week
  • Will govts firewall health from Big Tobacco
  • Missed call campaign from MTU
  • Questioning the legitimacy of Kuki history
  • The descent of Radha-Krishna #11: Download
  • For Whom the Bell Toll ?
  • Cancer Awareness at Imphal East
  • Winter Relief for IDPs at Moirang
  • Licypriya to miss UN Climate in Dubai
  • Careers related to controlling diabetes
  • Relief Materials @Sawombung : Gallery
  • Those responsible for 'removal' of RN Ravi...
  • Relief Distribution at Sawombung
  • JAC against Brutal Killing of Birchandra
  • National Lok Adalat at Lamphelpat
  • India's UPI: Global front-runner in digital
  • The ill-logic of ITLF's self-rule declaration
  • Frustrated call for 'self rule'
  • Sonia Khundrakpam: Yuva Puraskar Award
  • Moirangthem Nilamani: Lifetime Achievement
  • The Power of Poppy - 9 :: Poem
  • Maipak Inka: 1st Inpui Christian Convert
  • Cancer Awareness & Screening at Thoubal
  • World Diabetes Day 2023
  • The self-rule ultimatum of ITLF
  • Debate over ST for Meiteis demand
  • Designate Moreh as a Special Admin Zone
  • Relief Distribution at Keibi Heikakmapal
  • Black Rice & Glycemic Index
  • Innovative nanofertilizer for green agriculture
  • Art Exhibition: RKCS Art Museum #2 : Gallery
  • Surviving Pre-adolescence
  • Ride Against Narco Conspiracy
  • 15th Manipur State Film Award 2023 Results
  • In the stillness of night :: Poem
  • Skincare essentials for travellers
  • Dark Diwali & Fasting Chakkouba
  • Killing two birds with one stone ?
  • Morning : Mera Houchongba #1 : Gallery
  • Ningol Chakouba Funds to Support IDPs
  • A book & a story for the kids
  • World Diabetes Day - 2023
  • Burning hay is suicidal for farmers
  • NCC Car Rally - Nagaland Leg
  • Tasks before the Government
  • The sound of silence - missing teens
  • Tangkhul legends & Tenimiyas
  • Catch them Young! Early Childhood
  • Merciless November :: Poem
  • Free Eye Camp on diabetic retinopathy
  • Ningol Chakkouba or Chakkoudaba
  • Internal displacement, not separation
  • An indication to road ahead
  • Manipuri Student in Bangladesh : Gallery
  • Meeting with SABF, NID & CCU Taiwan
  • Livelihoods Development Program for IDPs
  • NSUD Diamond Jubilee Celebration at Delhi
  • Sleep :: T Lingcholi Sangtam
  • Disaster Management as Career
  • Mass rally demanding NRC #2 : Gallery
  • Licypriya appears in CBSE textbook
  • Mapam Lamdam Chatnatha :: Poem
  • Absurd rebuttal of Shimray
  • Rebuttal to article "Meitei's exclusion"
  • Writing India's growth with logistics efficiency
  • A place of pride on the medals tally
  • Time for India to rethink on its balancing act
  • Promoting Chakhao : Manipur's Black Rice
  • Truly powerhouse of sports : Manipur
  • Scholarship for Nursing & Paramedical
  • Legal Services Day & Commendation
  • Cancer Awareness at MU
  • Digital Library for the benefit of students
  • Drop the two Ministers
  • The bane of prolonging internet shutdown
  • Interview with Shanglakpam Nilakanta
  • Successful fruiting of Thailand Yongchak
  • 5 selected to attend 54th Intl Film Fest
  • Know your pest : Spiralling Whitefly
  • Flagging off ceremony of Mobile Van
  • World food India 2023 & beyond
  • Disturbing writings on the wall
  • At odds with the SoO pact
  • Guard of honour: Anand Kumar #2 : Gallery
  • Relief Services @Serou : Gallery
  • 6th North East India Fashion Week
  • Know more about canine parvovirus
  • Preventing Exploitation of Environment in War
  • Missing : The thread that connects
  • The right way to deal with miscreants
  • Hope Fest, for people displaced #2 : Gallery
  • The Power of Poppy - 8 :: Poem
  • Tokhu Emong: Post Harvest Fest of Lotha
  • Indo-Naga Talks (From 2012) :: Timeline
  • Mizoram: AAP leaders from Nagaland ..
  • Theatre Workshop & Book Review
  • Hand-over Moreh to Army
  • Manipur needs to come to her senses
  • Capitalising on Manipur crisis
  • Mass rally demanding NRC #1 : Gallery
  • The Sentinelese, World's Lonely Tribe
  • Mental Health and our Environment
  • Condemns Committee's Highhandedness
  • Beauty tips for the perfect Diwali look
  • Lying for a lost cause
  • Is internet ban the answer ?
  • The descent of Radha-Krishna #10: Download
  • The last gaze- makes millions weep :: Poem
  • Which is responsible- greed or grievance
  • Felicitation of Awangbow Newmai
  • Let's safeguard our heritage through AV
  • Garo Language in Eighth Schedule
  • Mera Houchongba #2 : Gallery
  • Time's ceaseless voyage :: Poem
  • Vegetable/ fish IFS by using water tank
  • World Food India 2023
  • Leap for higher education in India
  • Defang the militants
  • Decoding objection to state force deployment
  • Guard of honour: Anand Kumar #1 : Gallery
  • Meira Paibis- between violence & narratives
  • Winter Relief Services : Gallery
  • Meetei ST Status: An artificial Controversy
  • The Human Mind Unravelled :: Review
  • Detecting illegal immigrants
  • Who is responsible for death of Moreh SDPO
  • Ayekpam Maipak (Sepak Takraw) : Gallery
  • Condemn cowardly killing of Moreh SDPO
  • SC Jamir recalls encounter with BK Nehru
  • Veganism- big way to save environmental
  • The essence of Rashtriya Ekta Diwas
  • Time to act with an iron fist
  • Dragging on for nearly 180 days
  • Water as cultural symbol of Meiteis
  • Condemn the brutal act at Moreh
  • The Power of Poppy - 7 :: Poem
  • Tuesday holiday not Friday !
  • Relief at Temporary Shelter Home
  • Ningthamtha changlakpagi relief camp
  • The politics of conflict : Why is AR here ?
  • Role of fringe elements in prolonging crisis
  • Chaga Ngee: Age-Old festival of Liangmai
  • November Calendar for Year 2023 : Tools
  • Kolkata, the Roshogolla City
  • Breast Cancer Awareness at Khwairamband
  • Career for women in police
  • What to do when your dog is poisoned
  • Ensuring rule of law matters more than ever
  • Mind your common sense: Carcass in Loktak
  • Bor khoiramba @Hiyangthang #2 : Gallery
  • When will we start caring for our caregivers?
  • For those who stood :: Poem
  • Meetei exclusion from ST- queer controversy
  • Visit to relief camps : Gallery
  • Signature campaign: Rectify UN press release
  • Winter Relief @ Kakching : Gallery
  • Tarpon chaklen @Andro #1 : Gallery
  • 4th Rongmei Freshers' Meet (Delhi)
  • Shanglakpam Nilakanta (Hockey) : Gallery
  • Rally against Narco-Terrorism #4 : Gallery
  • Students Murder Protest [Sep 27] #3 : Gallery
  • Students Murder Protest [Sep 26] #3 : Gallery
  • Help for injured students : Gallery
  • Collective fund for injured students
  • Students Murder Protest [Sep 27] #2 : Gallery
  • Students Murder Protest [Sep 26] #2 : Gallery
  • Students Murder Protest [Sep 27] #1 : Gallery
  • Protesters & AR @Pallel #2: Gallery
  • Rebuttal: EGI Fact-finding Mission Report
  • List of Kings of Manipur: 33 - 1984 AD
  • Model of Spelling-bee Competition
  • HSLC 2023 :: Top 25 Rank Holders
  • HSLC 2023 :: Subject Topper
  • HSLC 2023 :: Full Result
  • HSLC 2023 :: Compartmental Result
  • HSLC 2023 :: Pass % : Govt Schools
  • HSLC 2023 :: Pass % : Private Schools
  • HSLC 2023 :: Pass % : Aided Schools
  • HSE 2023 Toppers :: Science
  • HSE 2023 Toppers :: Arts
  • HSE 2023 Toppers :: Commerce
  • From May 3, 1993 to the present
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline