TODAY -

Manipur at a Glance - An Ethnic Dilemma
- Part 2 -

Khulakfam Altab Ali *

 Manipur at a Glance - An Ethnics Dilemm



*** Please scroll down to download the entire Article in PDF - 1.4 MB )

RISE OF PANGAL OUTFITS

Between the valley based ethnic groups, there is a chaos in 1993. On May 3rd, 1993, more than 100 lives, including women and children, were lost their life, which may be or may not be pre planed massacre. The rise of ideologically backed ethno groups of Meitei might be the cause of the massacre.

The exact factor of the massacre is still unclear. Pangals observed the day as "Black day" every year. Student bodies still remember the day as "Sahidee Memorial Day"

As a result of the massacre of Pangal by Meitei in 1993, the Pangals (Muslims of Manipur) raised militant outfits such as the Northeast Minority Front (NEMF), Islamic National Front (INF), Islamic Revolutionary Front (IRF), United Islamic Liberation Army (UILA), Islamic Liberation Front (ILF) and People's United Liberation Front (PULF) to counter the challenge on Pangal and to run a parallel economy and control of turf by being visible in the society.

The most prominent and long lasted among, was PULF that acted against any antisocial elements among Pangal which operate upto the early period of 21st century. All the Pangal outfits based in Manipur were extinct from the soil. The Pangal's massacre also showers the emergence of Civil Society Organisation and student organisation.

HUE AND CRY IN THE VALLEY

Apart from the many internal issue of time to time inside their respective ethnic lines, there's an occurrence of many issues between the hill and the valley. Divisive tendencies in a society are often caused by uneven distribution of opportunities. The Peace talk of Naga becomes a defensive tool for the Nagas but it severely hit the sentiment of the Valley based people as a question of state integrity.

In 2001, 18th June, 2001, 18 (Eighteen) lives were lost and many wounded while protest against the Ceasefire agreement. The Bangkok declaration, a ceasefire agreement "without territorial limits" signed between government of India and NSCN (IM) made the 2001 June, a horrendous month.

Assembly Hall was set to fire, Chief Minister's Secretariat was completely razed, four MLAs and the speaker of the time were injured. 15 Official residences of Legislators, Political party office, government vehicles were destroyed.

Peoples of Manipur pay tributes to the 18 soul every year, observing the day as "The Great June Uprising Day". The political figure was also totally break down in the state.

After the Pangal's Massacre, Direct violence has slowly been replaced by "structural and cultural violence". As per Paul Farmer, "structural violence" includes any violence or suffering caused by the structures and institutions of a society. People who suffer from structural violence cannot control the conditions that have caused their suffering.

That is exactly what is happening in Manipur. Sometimes, Polarization of wrong propaganda makes the Pangal to feel like a treat upon them.

In these few decades, after the Pangal's massacre, numbers of Pangal has been lynched to death in series at several Meitei constituent area which the Pangal confused the situation weather the situation is a threat to Pangal or any other reason behind.

Though this ethnic group has its own 400 years long history, the Ethnicity electoral system makes the Pangal helpless while entering the political arena which results in the failure of making a rational structure of the society. Pangal remains the most backward section in the society in all fields.

Besides the Internal issues, some national policies which triggered the ethnicity lines of Manipur also disturbed the environment. Citizenship Amendment bill 2016, that passed in Lok Sabha in 2018 is one of the recent issue. As the bill clearly mentions to provide citizenship of 6 (Six) migrants' sections from 3 (Three) neighboring countries of India based on the religion which totally threats the Ethnic identity of Manipur.

SCENARIO OF THE SOCIETY

Manipur being Multicultural society, all the ethnics groups developed their heritage parallelly under the respective ethno-social boundaries. The 'divide and rule policy' of the colonial administration in relation to administering the hills and plains of Manipur and the introduction of Christianity amongst the tribal groups of Naga and Kuki had further widened the cultural gap with Meitei.

Certain post independence developments deepened some prejudices leading to intercommunity ethnic clashes. These clashes also hastened the formation of various armed groups, civil society organizations, student organizations, which were affiliated to respective ethnic communities. Some of the bodies were not only waging struggle against the establishment, but were seen more as a necessity against the hegemony and violence perpetrated by rival communities.

A harmonious existence of the state is being threatened as the interests of one group clash with the other. This has given rise to assertion of group identity; inter group competition for resources, political instability, insecurity and underdevelopment. Mutual Emotional Integrity of all the Ethnic Group exists only in Paper and Dialogues.

Besides, the Manipur Land Revenue and Land Reform Act imposed in the state did not allowed the valley Meitei and Pangal groups to settle in the hills whereas the hill tribal's were allowed to settle in the valley. Besides, the armed cadres are being used as leverage by those who do not want the Manipur conflict to get resolved.

As long as the groups are allowed to retain their armed cadres and camps, Manipur will remain a dilemma for the state and a predicament of the North-Eastern region. Governments are sometimes nervous while coming to the resolution of Ethnic based issue and sometimes takes political advantages over the issue.

The central governments play a diplomatic role not only between Naga & Kuki but also between Hills & Valley. By treating conflicts involving ethnic minority groups as irregular, highly sensitive and nationally significant, it is likely that the government is creating greater insecurity by distorting public perceptions of ethnic relations and reinforcing negative predispositions when the Naga issue comes.

We must aware of the Cultural factors that define one ethnic by self and others, discrimination in political, social and economical dimension and consensuses.

CONCLUSION

The proposition that ethnic conflict has been one of the most significant impediments to modernization, development and growth in the state, considering that 'ethnicity' and 'ethnic diversity' in the Manipuri context are fundamentally elusive concepts.

Many scholars have tried to make sense of the complex interplay of ethnicity, conflict and development but too often from a singular rather than from a plural perspective. Any issue must not bring up if it will affect another ethnic group.

We should forward to those issue for the development of all. Now. it's mandatory to predict out the resolution to eliminate the tension of ethnicity.

REFERENCE OF THE STUDY

o The power of identity, 2nd ed. - Castells, Manuel. 2010

o 25 years after Naga-Kuki clashes in Manipur, reconciliation is still elusive - Arunabh Saikia

o Culture, Identity and Conflict in Asia and Southeast Asia - Aurel Croissant, Christoph Trinn

o Politics of Ethnic conflict in Manipur - Nehginpao Kipgen

o The causes of ethnic conflict in Multi-ethnic societies - Hossien Mohammadzadeh

o Manipur - At a Glance - A. Balasubramanian

o Govt. of Manipur- gazette Notification

o 7 new districts formed in Manipur amid opposition by Nagas Ethnic - India Today o Conflict and Harmonization: A Study of Manipur - Brig Sushil Kumar Sharma

o Manifesto of the Kuki National Organisation

o Statistical Report - Election Commission of India

o Contour of Conflict in Manipur - Narendra Kumar

Photo Courtesy :

o Scroll.in
o TwoCircle.net
o E-pao.net
o Institute for defense studies and analysis



Concluded ...


* Khulakfam Altab Ali wrote this article for e-pao.net
The writer can reached at altab(DOT)mailbox(AT)gmail(DOT)com
This article was webcasted on June 13 2019.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Food given @Blore, Kerala [Apr 8]: Gallery
  • Covid-19 Status 08 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • COVID-19 karamna lanthengnagani ?
  • Call for Proposal :: CAWACH
  • Food distributed in Bangalore, Kerala
  • Mental Health during pandemic
  • Front Line, Ireland on arbitrary arrest
  • PM's mantra : Keep all in the loop
  • COVID-19: A crisis that humankind can solve
  • Why PM want Leishemba to be RS MP #3
  • Covid-19 Status 07 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • How Manipur helped me survive the lockdown
  • Reproductive health services are essential..
  • 'Janata Curfew' Need of the hour :: Poem
  • Covid-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Importance of Online learning in lockdown
  • Condemns racist attacks on North-east people
  • Over 76 thousand dead & climbing
  • The few thousand heroes in Manipur
  • Bishnupur during Lockdown [Apr 5] : Gallery
  • Covid-19 Status 06 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Reality of Korean Pop or Hallyu Wave
  • Illegal detention of YFPHR members
  • Amidst Sorrows and Hopes :: Poem
  • Mentality matters to fight COVID-19
  • Plight of stranded north-east workers in city
  • Measures taken up to check COVID-19
  • Betel leaves traders should not be let free
  • Relief Camp @Chassad - Mar 17 : Gallery
  • Betel leaves seized @Imphal Apr 4 : Gallery
  • Covid-19 Status 05 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • During the invasion of Covid-19
  • Surviving in the time of COVID-19
  • PM's 9 pm diya deciphered
  • Disguise :: Poem
  • Switch off lights call of PM
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #2 : Gallery
  • Items distributed in Bengaluru : Gallery
  • Helpline Number for Students/ people from NE
  • Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic
  • His Call to the Nation
  • Enchanted Riches Land :: Poem
  • Fresh lease of life in NERAMAC
  • Naga Peoples Front Communique - [Apr 4]
  • Yes we can fight COVID-19 invasion
  • Chassad village Arson- Mar 17 : Gallery
  • Status Update 03 April : Govt of Manipur
  • A Panic-Stricken Crowd :: Poem
  • Covid-19: what ails one, ails us all
  • PM's Statement on COVID-19 [Apr 3]
  • Manipur BJP Statement [Apr 3]
  • Appeals to Prevent Forest Fires
  • FIR asisu handokkadabani
  • Message from Nagaland Opposition [Apr 3]
  • From Nationwide lockdown to what else ?
  • The virus respect no religion
  • Mr. Khadang - Film Scenes #2 :: eRang
  • Status Update 02 April: Medical Directorate
  • Thotsang, Chao Sai, Makanmi: eMing
  • Muslim- one of most misinterpreted community
  • Stop Xenophobia against North East People
  • Essential Commodities Shops - Bishenpur
  • Beneath all that Darkness :: Poem
  • 17 in Assam, two in Manipur
  • Ode to the silent angels
  • Shopping - 30 March #2 : Gallery
  • Status Update 01 April: Medical Directorate
  • Drug users during COVID-19 pandemic
  • Reflections in the shadow of Covid-19
  • An absolute sacrifice
  • Report Clarification : Govt of Manipur [Apr 1]
  • Schools to remain closed beyond 31st March
  • Construct Quarantine centre at Koirangei
  • Pledges Rs 50 crore to PM CARES Fund
  • Fresh hotspot in Delhi's Nizamuddin
  • New findings on character of Coronavirus
  • Wars, Devastation & events in Kakching #2
  • COVID: Janata Curfew -Mar 22 #2 : Gallery
  • Support to stay home and pray
  • Racial prejudice against NE people
  • 'Release prisoners on bail/ parole'
  • Music Video 'Live Your Life' released
  • Donation to CM's Covid-19 Relief Fund
  • Farmer Producer Companies to collect
  • Heed the lockdown call
  • Health Advisory needs to be reviewed
  • Shopping - 30 March #1 : Gallery
  • Status Update 30 March: Medical Directorate
  • Stop Hate in the Time of Corona
  • April Calendar for Year 2020 : Tools
  • Manipuris stranded in State : Nodal Officer
  • Mask distributed at Kumbi
  • Nothing spreads like fear
  • Letter to Prime Minister on Racial Attack
  • Lockdown : Ensuring food for all
  • Covid-19: Manipur Strategy to Prevent & Win
  • Status Update 29 March: Medical Directorate
  • Covid-19 or Racism, which one to fight first ?
  • MHA to Chief Secys of States [Mar 29]
  • Home Delivery- Imphal Dists [Mar 29]
  • Shop List opened - Bishenpur [March 29]
  • Violating anti-defection law
  • Why PM want Leishemba to be RS MP #2
  • Manipur Govt Orders [28 March] : Gallery
  • Status Update 28 March: Medical Directorate
  • Medical material airlifted from Delhi to Imphal
  • Coronavirus Combat; not just Govt's fight
  • Lack of availability of Medicines, Water..
  • Research to plug gaps in COVID-19 testing
  • RIMS areas disinfected - [March 26] : Gallery
  • Status Update 27 March: Medical Directorate
  • Manipur Govt Orders/Directives : 27 March
  • FEGOCTA donate 1 Day Salary to CM's Fund
  • Cure for COVID
  • What a respect to the caregivers !
  • Charity Mission Committee on COVID-19
  • NH7 Weekender : Online music festival
  • Lockdown amid curfew
  • PDS rice to CMHT excluded Keishamthong?
  • Curfew in Imphal - [March 24] : Gallery
  • COVID-19 helpline numbers in Manipur
  • Screening at Mao [Mar 20] : Gallery
  • COVID 19 & Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897
  • Decoding Tax Jargon through March Ending
  • NPF urged Nagaland Govt on COVID-19
  • Food items to Child Care Institutes
  • Hand rub bottles manufactured & distributed
  • Studying the total shutdown in Manipur
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #1 : Gallery
  • Social Distancing observed [Mar 25] : Gallery
  • An appeal to all on COVID19
  • What is love ? :: Poem
  • Career option in Geomagnetism
  • Kohima gets a brand new song
  • Communique on Covid-19 : Nagaland Oppn
  • CM Covid-19 Relief Fund created
  • 12 on board flight with patient quarantined
  • Quiet celebration of Cheiraoba
  • Quarantine started- Mao -Mar 24 : Gallery
  • Leikai Public curfew -Mar 24 : Gallery
  • Stop stigma of Covid 19 +Positive Friends
  • Media : Essential services during lockdown
  • Acts of Kindness, Unity among Communities
  • Racist attacks on people from North-east
  • A friend in need is a friend indeed
  • Enforce total lockdown in Nagaland :: NPCC
  • Ugly response to positive case of COVID-19
  • First Case in Manipur
  • Lamphel Nawa Kombirei at Cheiraoba
  • Woman returned from UK has Coronavirus
  • Screening at Mao - Mar 22 : Gallery
  • Why PM want Leishemba to be RS MP #1
  • Janata Curfew - 'Go corona' festival
  • Panacea for Economic Collapse: COVID-19
  • Total Lockdown till March 31st
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba - Meitei New Year Day
  • Giving racial twist to coronavirus
  • Need action to those mocking PM
  • COVID: Janata Curfew -Mar 22 #1 : Gallery
  • Manipur Govt Orders - Mar 22 : Gallery
  • Status Update 22 March: Medical Dir Lamphel
  • We will get by. We will survive.
  • Covid-19: Impact in Manipur :: Photos/News..
  • War against Corona
  • What ails Indian Railways
  • Appeal to Govt during COVID 19 crisis
  • Hats off to the men in white
  • COVID-19: Ima Keithel -March 21 : Gallery
  • Bandh on March 21 : Gallery
  • Social Justice & Democracy in Northeast
  • Sociology of Coronavirus
  • COCOMI extended help to victims of Chassad
  • The Omnipresent Fear :: Poem
  • MU Chemistry Dept makes hand sanitisers
  • COVID-19 : A blessing for Khwairamband
  • Wakching Thagi Sanarei #2 :: eRang
  • Who will rebuild Chahsat village ?
  • The untameable :: Poem
  • Importance of Fish & Fishery in Manipur
  • Challenges for female entrepreneur in India
  • The Killing Fields 2013-20 : News Timeline
  • How well prepared is Manipur?
  • More seriousness needed to fight COVID-19
  • Khongu NangGi Baasi :: Shumang Leela
  • Yaoshang Fancy Dress #1 : Gallery
  • Journalistic Challenges in Reporting Chassad
  • Paneer Our Daughter's Delight
  • Civil Site Engineer / Site Manager
  • Architectural Designer at R-Square
  • Research Officer - Financial at Amethyst
  • Chinky to Coronavirus: Racial profiling chain
  • Promises, prosperity, Rights & Responsibility
  • Wars, Devastation & events in Kakching #1
  • When Chassad Blazed Our Hearts Burnt
  • Nagas entering final phase of power struggle
  • Climate change & predator : Any link?
  • Restore Chassad village to normal condition
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand : Timeline
  • Yaoshang Sports Meet #2 : Gallery
  • Yaoshang Halankar #1 : Gallery
  • Yaoshang Marathon @ Singjamei : Gallery
  • Yaoshang Cheng Khaiba : Gallery
  • Saroi Khangba @ Khwairamband : Gallery
  • Intl Women's Day @ Bangalore : Gallery
  • Yaoshang Rock @Sagolband :: Gallery
  • MOU - Guest House at Mandalay :: Gallery
  • Yaoshang Mei Thaba :: Gallery
  • Yaoshang Mei Loukhatpa @ Kangla :: Gallery
  • Health Camp at Pune :: Gallery
  • Torch Rally: Journalist Sports: Gallery
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2020 #1: Gallery
  • Phisakol - Film Scenes #2 :: eRang
  • yeniHTa :: Seireng
  • World Meetei Convention @Cachar : Gallery
  • 13th Mega Marathon Manipur #3 : Gallery
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Wakching Thana Lakpada #2 :: eRang
  • Students @ Class XII Exam #2 : Gallery
  • Manipur Legislative Assembly Building : Gallery
  • Eepan Thaba -birth ceremony : Gallery
  • Coronavirus prevention @ Moreh : Gallery
  • SPONSORED ADS