Book review on "Aeromycology over Kachai lemon plantation in eastern Himalayan region"
- Part 1 -

BN Pande *

I have critically gone through the book
"Aeromycology over Kachai Lemon plantation in Himalaya region",
Its impact on Fungal Diseases and Management,
authored by authors – Prof N. Irabanta Singh et el., (2022)
published by LAP, LAMBERT Academic Publishing founded in Germany in 2002,
and now in Europe, Africa, Asia and South America,
subsequently got translated into six languages such as German, Russian, Spanish, Italian, French, and Portuguese.

Content of the book is divided into six sections. Except section sixth which includes 2 chapters, each section is with one chapter.

Section I is introduction,
Section II – disease assessment on aerial plant parts of Kachai lemon,
Section III – Fungal air spora over Kachai lemon plantation and its impact on pollination and fertilization,
Section IV - fungal diseases of Kachai lemon and their management
Section V - problems of socio economic upliftment, of growers by the horticultural cash crop and the
Section VI - fungal air spora over Citrus plantation field-Past and Present.
Summary, Conclusion including Recommendation is included in the chapter. At the end of book literature is cited.

Detailed Review:

Prof. N.I. Singh is senior author. As soon as he joined the Manipur University in 1984 started research work in aerobiology in plant pathology section, Life Sciences Department and had outlined research programs to be taken up in Manipur- "Aerobiology in Manipur", in "Recent Research in Ecology, Environment and pollution. Vol 3:97 – 108. 1989. Ed by S.T. Tilak. Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers, New Delhi. (India).

As a matter of fact, India has the unique character of being of being one of the earliest countries where Aerobiological studies in particular, were initiated by D.D, Cunningham in 1873.Aeromycological investigations take into account the identification of source, mode of release, dispersal , deposition, impacts on various living system (Tilak 2009, "Aeromycology" released by Prof. N.I. Singh, President, Indian Aerobiological Society at 15th National Conference on Aerobiology at Manipur University).

Baruah was pioneer to work in aerobiology among the Aerobiologists of Eastern Himalayan region, who worked in the Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Assam (India). As a matter of fact, Aerobiological research was 60years old. Air samplers used were of the Vaseline coated slides, and nutrient petri plates.

The climate of the Eastern Himalayas is of a tropical rain forest which is hot and wet all the year round, with no dry season, and chilly winters mainly in the hilly region. North East region of Himalaya comprising eight states with high physiographic variation. This region is one of the richest reservoirs of genetic variability and diversity in the region with at least 17 citrus species, their 52 cultivars from the Northeastern Himalaya.

The Indian wild orange C. limon, C.meduca,C. jamhuri etc. along with wild orange C. indica is found in the Naga hills and Meghalaya (Bhattacharya and Datta, 1955, classification of Citrus fruits of Assam ICAR monograph No. 20), The present book " Aermycology over Kachai Lemon – plantation in Eastern Himalaya region – Its impact on Fungal Diseases and Management" is the outcome of research work by the junior most author (SN) for her Ph.D. degree in Life Sciences, Manipur university under the supervision of the senior Author. (Prof. N.I. Singh).


In orders to understand the fungal components of airspora in relation to the concentration of spore loads and their relevance weather conditions with special emphasis on spore types and their correlation with disease incidence, were carried out over Kachai lemon plantation field in Ukhrul district, Manipur by using petri plate exposure method and Rotorod air sampler (Plate no. III(a) and Plate no III (b).

Analysis of the airspora over the lemon plantation field was carried out by Prof. N.I. Singh et al for three years employed Tilak rotorod air sampler and Petri plate exposure methods and recorded important pathogenic fungal spore types like Fusarium, Penicillium etc. and worked out on their correlation with their disease incidence.

SECTION – II: This section of the book included an important part of the work and that is "Assessment of Fungal Disease Incidence and Identification of Pathogenic Fungi Associated with Aerial Parts of Kachai Lemon. Author gave more emphasis on Assessment of Fungal Diseases with Aerial Plant Parts of Kachai Lemon.

They also focused their attention on incidence and Identification of pathogens to these diseases during the survey study with Aerial Plant Parts of Kachai Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush). Authors isolated three fungi species from the diseased plant parts of Kachai lemon. Pathogenicity tests showed isolated organisms pathogenic since they were re-inoculated. Fusarium semitectum, Phytophthora parasitica and Penicillium digitatum.

Authors have meticulously observed and reported prevalence of all the lemon orchards surveyed at different levels of infection initiated by fungi. Fusarium semitectum, Phytophthora parasitica and Penicillium digitatum.

The highest mean concentration of disease the authors recorded during 2016 with 19.67%. During these studies the authors recorded three pathogenic fungi of Kachai lemon identified as Fusarium semitectum Berk. And Ravenel, Phytophthora parasitica Dus. and Penicillium digitatum Sacc. Causing leaf wilt, gummosis, and fruit rot of lemon trees.

SECTION –III: This section author incorporated the chapter III – influence of airborne microorganisms on pollination and fertilization in Kachai lemon. The findings in summary form in this chapter as: histological studies on the stigmas of Kachai lemon indicate the possibility of the stigmatic surfaces being impacted upon by the airspora (Table 3.3.1).

Isolation of fungi from the pistils of Kachai lemon flower showed a high percentage of fungal invasion on stigma and style and it showed Fusarium sporotrichioides dominant species forming 30.95% of the total fungi taken from the stigmatic surface. Culture filtrate of Fusarium sporotrichioides inhibited pollen germination and growth of the pollen tube of Kachai lemon (Plate X a-d).

SECTION – IV: This section chapter 4th Management of fungal diseases of Kachai lemons through Phyto extracts and fungicides. In vitro evaluation on effect of different Phyto extracts on the radial growth of the Penicillium digitatum. (Table 4-4-,3 to 6: in book volume).

The summary of the study of section as under:

- Phyto extract of 10 medicinal plants showed different inhibitory effects on the three fungal pathogens of Kachai lemon.
- Phyto extracts of Curcuma longa showed highest antifungal activity against Fusarium sp. of Fusarium semitectum followed by Ageratumconyzoide and Zingiber officinale, respectively.
- Phytoextract of Curcuma longa showed maximum growth inhibition rate (%) on Phytophthora parasitica followed by Zingibr officinale, Tagetapetula and Centella asiatica respectively.
- The highest antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum was exhibited by Azadirachta indica.
- The phytoextract used in these experiments showed maximum growth infection at high concentrations.
- Among the four fungicides tested against Penicillium digitatum, Carbendazim 50% W.P. and Thiophanate Methyl 70% showed 100% inhibition in all the concentrations (0.05%), and 0.1%).
- Carbendazim controlled 85.59% growth rate of Phytophthora parasitica at the 0.1% concentration
- Under pot experiment, reduction in the incidences and severity of the wilt disease was observed in plants treated with the phytoextract and fungicides two days before inoculation with F. semitectum suggesting the extract would be more effective when applied as opposed to curatively.
- The study on socio economic upliftment of Kachai village revealed important constraints perceived by the lemon growers, marketing constraints due to poor road condition, high fluctuation in market price, lack of technical knowledge and high morbidity of plant during initial stages.

To be continued ....

* Shahnaz Husain wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The reviewer is Ex. Professor, Environmental Science, Dr B.A. Marathwada University, Aurangabad and
presently Professor of Eminence, MGM University, Aurangabad - 431003 (MS).
This article was webcasted on September 10 2022.

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