TODAY -

Water Pollution: Causes & Effects

Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh *



Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include lakes, rivers, oceans aquifers and ground water. Pollution results when contaminants are introduced into the natural environment. Introduction may be from releasing inadequately treated wastewater into natural water bodies which lead to degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

In turn, this can lead to public health problems for people living downstream. They may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation. Water pollution can be grouped into surface water pollution and ground water pollution. Sources of water pollution are either point sources or non-point sources.

Point sources have one identifiable cause of pollution, such as a storm drain, wastewater treatment plant or stream. Non-point sources are more diffuse, such as agricultural runoff. Pollution is the result of cumulative effect over time. Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants.

Due to these contaminants it either does not support a human use such as drinking water or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its biotic communities such as fish. Natural phenomena such as volcanos, algae blooms, storms and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water.

Water pollution is a major global problem. It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resources policy at all levels (International down to individual aquifers and wells).It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases.

Water pollution accounted for the death of 1.8 million people in 2015. India and China are two countries with high levels of water pollution. An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness (including waterborne diseases) every day. About 90% of the water in the cities of China is polluted. As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water.

In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, developed countries also continue to struggle with pollution problems. In a report on water quality in United States in 2009, 44% of assessed stream miles, 64% of assessed lake acres and 30% of assessed bays and estuaries square miles were classified as polluted.

Surface water pollution includes pollution of rivers, lakes and oceans. A sub set of surface water pollution is marine pollution. One common path of entry by contaminants to the sea are rivers and also directly discharging sewage and industrial waste into the ocean. Pollution such as this occurs particularly in developing nations.

In fact the ten largest emitters of oceanic plastic pollution worldwide are from the most to the least ,China, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria and Bangladesh largely through the rivers Yangtze, Indus, Yellow, Hai, Niles, Ganges, Pearl, Amur, Niger and Mekong and accounting for 90% of all the plastic that reach the world’s ocean.

Large gyres (vortexes) in the oceans trap floating plastic debris. Plastic debris can absorb toxic chemicals from ocean pollutions, potentially poisoning any creature that eats it. Many of these long lasting pieces end up in the stomach of marine birds and animals. This results obstruction of digestive pathways which leads to reduce appetite or even starvation.

Causes of ground water pollution include: naturally occurring (geogenic), on-site sanitation system, sewage, fertilizers, and pesticides, commercial and industrial leaks, hydraulic fracturing, and landfill leachate. Surface water seeps through the soil and become ground water. Conversely, ground water can also feed surface water source. The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens and physical changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration.

While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring (Calcium, Sodium, Iron, manganese etc.) the concentration usually determines what is a natural contaminants. High concentration of naturally occurring substances can have negative impacts on aquatic flora and fauna. Oxygen depleting substances may be natural materials such as plant matter (e.g. leaves and grasses) as well as man-made chemicals.

Other natural and anthropogenic substances may cause turbidity (cloudiness) which block light and disrupts plant growth and clogs the gills of some fish species. Pathogens or microorganisms found incontaminated surface water that have caused human health problems include: Burkholderia, Pseudo mallei, Cryptosporidium partum, Giardialamblia, Salmonella, Norovirus and other viruses ,parasitic worms including Schistosoma type.

Organic water pollutants include: Detergents, disinfection by –product, food processing waste, insecticides and herbicides, petroleumhydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, chlorinated solvents,perchlorate,various chemical compounds found in personal hygiene and cosmetic products, drug pollution involving pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites.

Inorganic water pollutants include: Sulphur dioxide from power plants, Ammonia from food processing waste, Chemical waste as industrial by-products, fertilizers containing nutrients-Nitrogen, Phosphates. Heavy metals from motor vehicle, secretion of cresol, preservative into the aquatic ecosystem, silt (sediments) in runoff from construction sites.

Some of the waterborne diseases are-typhoid, cholera, paratyphoid fever, dysentery, jaundice, ameobiasis and malaria. Chemicals in water also have negative effects on our health. Pesticides- can damage the nervous system and cause cancer because of the carbonates and organophosphates that they contains.

The main problem caused by water pollution is that it kills organisms that depends on these water bodies. Dead fish, crabs, birds and seagulls, dolphins and many other animals often wind up on beaches ,killed by pollutants in their habitats ( living environment). Water pollution disrupts the natural food chain as well.

Down to our tiny land log state Manipur; are our water bodies (may be rivers, lakes or public ponds) pollution free? I don’t think so. We all see the health condition of Nambul River which falls in Loktak Lake.

Then what can we say about the quality of water in Loktak Lake? Probably Loktak could have been badly polluted as seen from the health of Nambul River.

Not only Loktak Lake, lake like lamphel pat is also highly polluted by the bio-medical waste of RIMS and other Hospitals.

Very recently the problem of pollution in Kongba River was reported due to the medical waste from JNIMS.

Rejuvenation and conservation works of Nambul River began at Thong Nambonbi from 23rd May 2019 which was inaugurated by the Hon’ble Chief Minister before Parliament Election’s Model Code of Conduct was enforced but the progress of the initiated work is yet be seen and it looks like tiger on the paper.

Nambul River as such, is one of the most polluted river in the world. If we are to maintain a healthy Manipur, we need to make Loktak and our water bodies healthy which in turn need to keep Nambul River clean and our mindset clean. That’s the only solution else we are bound to extinct which no legality in this Universe can save us.


* Sanjenbam Jugeshwor Singh wrote this article for Imphal Times
The writer is a Faculty at NIELIT, Imphal and can be reached at sjugeshwor7(AT)gmail(DOT)com
This article was webcasted on December 30, 2019.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #2: Gallery
  • Gaan-Ngai @Chingkham Kabui Khul: Gallery
  • Condolence on demise of Mahima Khan
  • Coping with anxiety before laboratory test
  • The lonely Moon :: Poem
  • Natl Conference on chemicals sciences
  • Constitutional protections to specific groups #1
  • KASHISH, Indian LGBTQ short films
  • Drugs & manufacturing: Who are the kingpins?
  • Indigenous People must defend environment
  • Cultural @ Shirui Lily Fest #4 : Gallery
  • Children Adventure Sports Camp #1 : Gallery
  • Day 3 : Sangai Fest #3 : Gallery
  • The Killing Fields 2013-20 : News Timeline
  • Khangminashi VI, talk series : Food research
  • Can people of NE blame Centre alone for CAA
  • The City of Darkness :: Poem
  • Time for Nagas to build the future: Rio
  • Checking the statements of UG outfits
  • Restoring to the status of People's CM
  • Ibudhou Thangjing, Moirang :: 360 ø View
  • Phamsak collaboration in indigenous ambience
  • Why this relaxation of 12 yrs unless..
  • Being a chow-momo Indian; the fun side!
  • Monika Ingudam - Amb for India Volunteers
  • Petition to CM to dispose contract teachers
  • Call to curb favouritism and nepotism
  • For a better world - to our world leaders
  • Gaan-Ngai @ Ramji Kabui Khul : Gallery
  • Charoibi, Atom Naha : eMing
  • Niti Aayog must stop plan to privatise health
  • For the future :: Poem
  • Career in Fashion Communication
  • Jobs at LMP Technology, Canchipur
  • Too many festivals in a year observation
  • What ails Chief Minister gi Haksel gi Tengbang
  • Thong Nambonbi broke apart: Gallery
  • Who are Indigenous People of Manipur #6
  • Fit India Khelo India
  • The Car Washed Shampoo :: Poem
  • Economic development : Special focus on hills
  • Climate change : Biggest challenge in 2020s
  • MAYA trainer at MAAC Imphal center
  • How about the Salt Lake Manipur Bhavan?
  • Fashion Show @ Sangai Fest #1: Gallery
  • Youth and Nation
  • Lyrics of Departing Year :: Poem
  • Forgotten elixir for youths of Manipur
  • Banknotes for sale
  • ADBU - 'Engaged University of the Year'
  • Traffic chaos - a serious problem
  • 'Nongju Ahing' :: eRang Classic Photos
  • Day 1 : Sangai Fest #5 : Gallery
  • City lights :: Poem
  • How China impacts security dynamics in NE
  • Rhythms & Aromas of NE at Ukhrul
  • Lipstick mistakes to avoid
  • Giving a fresh push to the Lim debate?
  • Thong Nambonbi is a part of our history
  • Shumang Leela Ningtham Kumhei: Gallery
  • Death Anniv- Maharaj Gambhir Singh : Gallery
  • Go develop the Hills : A live case study
  • A canal to augment Imphal City, a must !
  • The present health of Loktak Lake
  • Meiraba- 3rd in Badminton World Federation
  • After effects of CAA in North East
  • Film Policy - awaiting action
  • Arambai Langba @Kangjeibung : Gallery
  • JNIMS - Untold story #2
  • CAA is a threat to indigenous communities
  • Ukhrul auditions for Rhythms & Aromas of NE
  • A Wintry Number :: Poem
  • Career in fashion industry
  • Suspension Order issued by NPF to Kenye
  • Web Developer / Trainee at Lamjing IT
  • Cabinet approves NE Gas Pipeline Grid
  • Claiming hands in attack at JNU
  • The changing concept of patriotism
  • IM on integration, Pan Naga Hoho & others
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #1: Gallery
  • Gaan-Ngai :: e-Pao Flash Presentation
  • Gaan-Ngai :: Read all about it
  • Asylum for select migrants.. madness ?
  • Who are Indigenous People of Manipur #5
  • Irom Roshan to exhibit humanoid robot IVALA
  • NPF Statement on CAA 2019
  • Time to focus on examinations
  • The taste of Indian democracy
  • Culturals @ Mera Houchongba #3: Gallery
  • Press Club Foundation Day: Gallery
  • A Hymn for Goddess Emoinu
  • Post-mortem of New Year Celebration
  • Shillong audition for Rhythm & Aromas of NE
  • Army Arrived at Lunch
  • Cocktail of CAB, CAA, NRC & NPR
  • A treatise on mind #3
  • Menamparampil for Journalism Award
  • Govt committed to protect indigenous people
  • Cabinet increase pension for retired journalist
  • Hiyangthau :: Funga Wari
  • Official Release of AMAND Calendar 2020
  • Happening and good cheer as career
  • Voices of the Stars :: Poem
  • Yaikhomba: Selected National Bravery Award
  • War against the English language
  • BJP : In Delhi & Manipur: Twain does not meet
  • Licypriya- Top 100 Child Prodigy: Gallery
  • A Critique of the Manipur ILP Guidelines
  • Licypriya- 100 Child Prodigies : Report
  • Critique of ILP Guidelines (Meiteilon)
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand : Timeline
  • Architectural Designer at R-Square
  • AutoCad Drafsman at R-Square
  • Crops production & Award for Manipur !
  • New Year picnic @Singda Dam : Gallery
  • Kairembikhok Women opted carpentry
  • RIST Talk -42 @MU : Mimicking nature
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Project Engineer at R-Square
  • Site Manager at R-Square
  • Research Officer at Amethyst
  • Jobs @ Birla Emporiums, Khurai
  • Assam looking at bygone years
  • Krishi Karman Award for Manipur !
  • Khusbu Sorokhaibam : Glass Painting
  • Who are Indigenous People of Manipur #4
  • CC Meet 2019 : Fixture (Semis & Final)
  • JNIMS - Untold story #1
  • About Failed 'Real Madrid' & Climate Change!
  • Manipur : Krishi Karman Award for foodgrain
  • Year end review: Department of Atomic Energy
  • Disturbed area status & improved law & order
  • The choice is yours Mr. Chief Minister
  • Dec 30 : Sangai Fest #1 : Gallery
  • Marriage rituals of Tais #2
  • Recovering compensation from CAA agitators
  • In The Name of Democracy
  • A treatise on mind #2
  • Nightingales in Winter :: Poem
  • Social Service at Ibudhou Thangjing campus
  • Manipur start issue of ILP permits
  • 386 arrested in 282 drug related cases : 2019
  • NIA files chargesheet in AR ambush case
  • 'Marketing' on New Year 2020 eve: Gallery
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2019 #6: Gallery
  • Meetei Today launches new website
  • Manipur : As I grew up in #3
  • Bye - Bye 2019 :: Poem
  • Stands in solidarity with the Workers
  • Peace or Pandora's Box in 2020 ?
  • X-Mas @Ukhrul, @Kpi #2 : Gallery
  • January Calendar for Year 2020 : Tools
  • Normal age forgetfulness vs Dementia
  • Who was afraid of NK Sanajaoba ?
  • Bidding farewell with a new hope
  • Hogenakkal - India's Niagara
  • Degrading environment vs activities
  • State of economy in the dark times
  • Landscape of Purul, Senapati #1 : Gallery
  • Understanding the lives of Trans community
  • New species: Trichodesma Kumareum
  • The Spear is born for the Zulu
  • Water Pollution: Causes & Effects
  • Year End Review 2019, Dept of Youth Affairs
  • Bridging disconnect & delving deeper
  • X-Mas @Ukhrul, @Kpi #1 : Gallery
  • Who are Indigenous People of Manipur #3
  • Demand to repeal AFSPA 1958
  • Scholarship test- Civil Service Aspirant
  • Auditions : Rhythms & Aromas of NE
  • Reality of the dark times ?
  • Day 3 : Sangai Fest #2 : Gallery
  • Marriage rituals of Tais #1
  • Arrogance of Centre prove costly for NE
  • U-19 Girls : Jeet Kune Do Champion
  • A treatise on mind #1
  • Heart Camp at Utlou Mayai Leikai
  • Construction activity over agricultural land
  • State of our state
  • Culturals @ Mera Houchongba #2: Gallery
  • Destination NE @ Vanarasi #5: Gallery
  • Manipur : As I grew up in #2
  • From Anti-CAB shut down to pro-CAA rally
  • Ministers & matrimonial alliances
  • Hidden Depths :: Poem
  • Ready to bid adieu to 2019
  • Songs of the dark times
  • Mister Manipur 2019 #3 : Gallery
  • Day 1 : Sangai Fest #4 : Gallery
  • NE: Improving journo-murder index
  • Tinkle Twinkles My Way
  • Emergence of vector borne - scrub typhus
  • Heart Camp at Haoreibi Leikai, Lilong
  • Aayush Sharma Begins Filming Kwatha
  • India needs national refugee policy: Pradyot
  • Piulong Valley, Tamenglong #1: Gallery
  • Christmas greetings
  • On the other side :: Poem
  • Medicines for children living with HIV
  • The great cosmic discovery - VI
  • Critical issues of Framework Agreement
  • From obscured to suppressed community
  • Call to regulate hostel: Deafening silence
  • Clans/Yek of Meitei & Hao tribes #2
  • Thang Ta at Sangai Fest #1: Gallery
  • Who are Indigenous People of Manipur #2
  • Adventure Reality Show : Mountain Warriors
  • Customer Success Manager as career
  • Can Citizenship Bill be taken for granted
  • Xmas Greetings by CM Nagaland
  • Land rights to indigenous folks
  • Chadong & its Church : Gallery
  • Diamond Jubilee @ Namdunglong: Gallery
  • nhaQ laQpda :: Seireng
  • Manipur : As I grew up in #1
  • Challenging CAA: Straight from the heart
  • Understanding depression
  • Supreme Court strengthens RTI Act
  • From NE to India ; Core issue of protests
  • Aerial- Imp to Tamenglong: Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Destination NE @ Vanarasi #4: Gallery
  • The promised Messiah is the saviour
  • CAA, 2019: A step towards Hindu Rashtra?
  • MPSC & re-conduct of MCSCC Exam 2016
  • Free medical camp at Churachandpur
  • ILP extension order ; How valid is it?
  • Tombi State Polo Tournament : Gallery
  • Day 4 : Sangai Fest #1 : Gallery
  • Constitutional Safeguard for Assam
  • CAB : An open letter to the people
  • Manipur no more very corrupt
  • Reshuffle Ministry demand
  • Tainted altruism
  • Nupi Lan Ningsing Lamjel #2: Gallery
  • Tales of Meitei Proverbs : Book Review
  • Miss Kut at Imphal #6: Gallery
  • Enemies turning out caring bedfellows
  • Panchayati Raj wins National Awards 2019
  • CAB: The Great Lotus 'Rope Trick' Unfold
  • A Pretty girl in the Ants' Nest : Poem
  • Show Cause Notice to Lorho Pfoze & Kenye
  • Effects of shutdown; Scarcity in Manipur
  • Journalism & activism in democracy
  • Urei Khonggumelei, Manipuri Orchid
  • Who are Indigenous People of Manipur #1
  • Inauguration: Sangai Fest #3: Gallery
  • Mister Manipur 2019 #2 : Gallery
  • Nupi Lan Ningsing Lamjel #1: Gallery
  • Nupi Lan Day (State): Gallery
  • Miss Kut at Imphal #5: Gallery
  • Brahmacharimayum Mahendra : Silpbhusan
  • Thanga Ningol to mapam #3 : Gallery
  • Leirum- used in Luhongba : Gallery
  • Mera Houchongba @Kangla #5: Gallery
  • Ningol Chakkouba @ Korea : Gallery
  • Tolloi, Ukhrul :: 360 Panorama View
  • SPONSORED ADS