Understanding disasters and disaster management
with special reference to Manipur
- Part 2 -

Laishram Sherjit Singh *

 TMap showing Earthquake zone in  locations in North-east India
Map showing Earthquake zone in locations in North-east India

Case Study: Manipur earthquake 2016

On 4th January 2016 an earthquake of Mw 6.7 occurred near the Noney village of Tamenglong district, 30 km WNW of Imphal, Manipur. The focal depth of the earthquake is 38km. This is the largest earthquake to have occurred in the region during last six decades.

The earthquake is of moderate MM intensity VII. As the epicentral zone is in forest area damage is less. Some 8 deaths are reported in India and some in Bangladesh. Some 165 houses collapsed in Imphal and a few partially collapsed at Guwahati and Silchar. Damage in Imphal is more as it is on a soft sedimentary basin and is close to the epicenter.

LANDSLIDES; landslides may be defined as failure of a slope, mainly under the action of its own weight. In another words, landslide is mass movement of slope forming materials composed of rock and soil. This movement takes place under gravity and is facilitated by moisture which acts as lubricating agent.

o Deforestation
o Jhum cultivation
o Intense or prolong cultivation
o Erosion by wind, water
o Excavation and quarrying
o Earthquake

o Loss of lives
o Serious problems in transportation
o Damages lines of communication and electricity
o Damage may occurs to buildings
o Destroy crop fields

o Providing drainage
o Constructing retaining walls
o Slope treatment
o Afforestation and reforestation
o Providing reinforcement by way of rock bolts or anchors

Case study: Joumol Landslide 2015

This is the worst landslide that hits Manipur since the massive landslide killed 20 people in the remote Joumol Village, Chandel district, Manipur. The whole village was buried on 1st August 2015. Many houses of neighboring villages- Hollenjang, Wayang and Tuitung village were also swept away.

The landslide is triggered by heavy rain. Due to the excessive rain roads had been cut off and many people rendered homeless.

BIOLOGICAL DISASTERS: A biological disaster is the disaster which causes sickness and fatalities in human beings, animals and plants at large scale due to micro-organisms such as bacteria, virus and fungi etc. Destruction of crops and plantations by pest are also falls in this category.

o Main causes is the contact with the pathogen
o Bio-terrorism
o Low public awareness
o Poor health and malnutrition
o Congestion in urban areas

o Loss of live and livelihood
o Post-traumatic stress disorder
o Laborers crisis
o Enhances vulnerability due to economic consequences and levels of poverty

o Ensure availability of vaccines and drugs
o Providing effective and timely treatment
o Mass awareness and reliable public information system
o Develop an effective network of surveillance systems to detect outbreak of epidemics/pandemics
o Maintaining high standards of hygiene and sanitation in the communities

BUILDING FIRE: Fires are largely man-made disasters caused by negligence, poor maintenance or sabotage. The fires in buildings could develop into major disasters.

o Electrical short-circuit
o Kitchen fires
o Careless smoking
o Riots and arson

o Loss of lives and property
o Carbon monoxide poisoning

o Good house keeping
o Use ashtrays when smoking
o Faulty electrical appliances should be repaired or replaced immediately
o Welding and cutting work should be carried under strict supervision
o Keep matches and crackers away from children
o Switches and fuses should conform to correct rating of circuit

FOREST FIRE: A forest fire is large, destructive fire that spreads over a forest or area of woodland. The origin of forest fire can be either natural or man-made. In India, most of the forest fireshave man-made origin.

o Careless burning of fields after harvesting
o Burning by local villagers for better growth of some plants and other minor forest product
o Camp fires by picnickers and trackers
o Careless throwing of burning cigarettes and matchsticks
o Sometimes hunters also burns forest

o Loss of valuable timber resources and other forest products
o Soil erosion
o Loss of lives and livestock
o Degradation of catchment area
o Loss of wildlife, habitat and biodiversity

o Making fire line
o Prevention of slash and burn agriculture
o mass awareness and making strict rules for forest conservation
o Peoples’ participation in forest (fire) management

AIR POLLUTION: Air pollution is basically the presence of foreign substances such as dust, fumes, gas, mist, smoke or vapor in the air which is sufficient to be injurious to human, plant and animal or to property.

Natural source
o Volcanic eruption
o Pollen grains
o Storm
o Forest fires

Anthropogenic source
o Automobiles and trains
o Industries

o Irritation of respiratory, eye or other system
o Smog formation
o Green house effects
o Los of agricultural productivity
o Acidification of soil and water through acid rain
o Mutagenic or carcinogenic actions

o Use public transport system
o Stop burning of crop residue after harvesting
o Replace fossil fuel with alternative renewable energy
o Improvement of combustion efficiency of solid household fuels

WATER POLLUTION: Water pollution may be defined as the presence of foreign substances in water that degrades the quality to constitute a hazard or impair its usefulness. In short, water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human and natural activities.

o Natural processes- decomposed vegetation, animal and weathered products
o Anthropogenic process- waste from industry, agriculture and domestic source

o Destruction of ecosystem
o Disease like cholera, typhoid, hepatitis etc.
o Affects the food chain when toxins and pollutants in the water are consumed by the aquatic animals
o Petrochemicals can cause cancers
o Pesticides can damage nervous system
o Lead can accumulate in the body and damage Central Nervous System

o Proper treatment of sewage
o Sanitary landfills instead of open dumps
o Minimize the use of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides
o Don’t dispose chemicals, paints and toxic substances in water supply and drains

DEFORESTATION: Clearing of forest across the earth in large scale has been occurring for many years. This process is called deforestation. It involves the cutting down, burning and damaging of forests. If the current rate of deforestation continuous,world’s rain forests will vanish within 100 years.

o Population growth and expansion of settlement area
o Logging
o Over grazing
o Shifting cultivation
o Building of Dams

o Loss of biodiversity and extinction of plant and animal species
o Affects global carbon cycle
o Affects hydrological cycle
o Soil erosion
o Can cause flooding

o Only way to ensure mitigation of deforestation is to stop destroying of forests. Since, it seems impractical, so only thing we can do is to use the forest products in moderation.
o Reforestation and afforestation
o Controlled land use planning
o Stop shifting cultivation

Concluded ....

* Laishram Sherjit Singh wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writer can be reached at sherjitlaishram(AT)gmail(DOT)com
This article was webcasted on July 24 2020 .

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Addressing the Zeliangrong question
  • COVID-19 Status 10 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Ramkashing, Sinneihoi, Aton: eMing
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Women plug food supply gap during lockdown
  • NGO Studies (MAINS) program in South Korea
  • Initiate inquiry for Hospital refusal
  • Love in the Hard Times :: Poem
  • From cluster to local transmission
  • Negative remarks on positive activities
  • MK PB Singh, 1st CM & Mizo agitation
  • COVID-19 Status 9 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Azolla: An organic farmer's friend
  • Corona Came Calling... :: Poem
  • Manipur gi sakkhangbidraba yelhoumee
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Thousand questions to life but.. one answer
  • Time to take all into confidence
  • Yaoshang Thabal Chongba #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 8 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Impact of Covid-19 on mobile phone users
  • International Day of Indigenous Peoples
  • A call against systematic inequalities
  • August Diary :: Poem
  • A tale of Friendships Unlocked !
  • A Nuclear Free Future
  • Stay positive on Northeast plan
  • Is MSPDCL taking advantage of COVID-19
  • Folk Dance @Republic Day #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 7 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Written obituary :: Poem
  • Truth unearth by COVID-19 pandemic
  • Clarification from SKY Hospital
  • COVID-19: Orders - 7 Aug: Govt of Manipur
  • Children's psychology & lockdown intervention
  • No confidence & godfather
  • Death in childbirth in the 21st century !
  • Need for a suitable pandemic model
  • Phuba Khuman in Senapati dist #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 6 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Thoubalphobia- Malemnganbi's Child Delivery
  • Why not establish veterinary college, Manipur
  • India-Myanmar Convergence :: Webinar
  • National Education Policy : A New Horizon
  • Wanted : Total figure of local transmission
  • Lets appreciates the thousands heroes
  • Become an Amateur Astronomer
  • COVID-19 Status 5 August: Govt of Manipur
  • BIG 17th call : Biotech Ignition Grant
  • Maya Kuki- 3 titles at IAWA India 2020
  • 2020 :: Poem
  • What is Intellectual Property Right (IPR)?
  • Art of running a coalition Govt
  • Traditional Raas Dance #3 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 4 August: Govt of Manipur
  • 2 from Manipur clear Civil Services Exam
  • Education Policy: Prospects & Way Forward
  • Appeal to stop Chromite mining
  • Agri-enterprises for Atmanirbhar North-East
  • Changes to make-up during COVID-19
  • Time to act sensibly
  • Barricading or brainstorming?
  • Tarao Laimanai, Chandel #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 3 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Ravi's take on China factor in NE Insurgency
  • Opportunities in post COVID days
  • Shifting of drug supply trend in Manipur
  • Hope in COVID Era !! :: Poem
  • Press Communique from NPF [3 Aug]
  • Stand on ST demand
  • Culturals @ Sangai Fest 2019 #3 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 2 August: Govt of Manipur
  • Misinterpretation of Naga Political Settlement
  • Home returnees, unemployment & ILPS
  • NEP to adversely affect future of North-east
  • Conflicts of laws on Child Marriage & POSCO
  • His Stoic Endurance :: Poem
  • 'Declare relatives working in Naga movement'
  • Rise from July 1 to August 1
  • 'Zehara' - Manipuri Movie :: eRang Classic
  • COVID-19 Status 1 August: Govt of Manipur
  • CCC @ Khongnangkhong [Aug 1]: Gallery
  • Where are the men in family planning ?
  • Asymptomatic & Rapid Antigen Testing
  • Cosmic Lover :: Poem
  • Incremental benefit of cleaning Nambul River
  • Why only 5 Kg of rice to cardholders?
  • Imphal View from Nongmai Ching #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 31 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Id-Ul-Azha celebrated by Meitei Pangal
  • COVID-19 & its detection strategy
  • Physical Education & Sports @ MU
  • Naming the COVID vaccine
  • Withdraw MoUs signed for mining
  • More deaths, more concern
  • Ailing Nambul River recovering
  • Dr TS Gangte: Pioneer of higher education
  • COVID-19 Status 30 July : Govt of Manipur
  • August Calendar for Year 2020 : Tools
  • Hand sanitizer @Kakching [Jul 29]: Gallery
  • The Killing Fields 2013-20 : News Timeline
  • Orders / Memo on 30 July : Govt of Manipur
  • National Education Policy 2020
  • A Golden Jubilee Reunion :: Poem
  • Employment options in Insurance Industry
  • The Political life of the State
  • Recording death tally at four
  • Hentak :: An indigenous Manipuri food
  • COVID-19 Status 29 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Enforcement of COVID-19 Guidelines
  • My Love :: Poem
  • LPG management and supply
  • International Faculty Development Program
  • High-end Forensic Geology in crime scenes
  • Covid-19: Impact in Manipur :: Photos/News..
  • Manipur on the map of COVID death
  • Checking corruption: greatest joke of the year
  • Imphal during lockdown [26 July] #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 28 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Plantation is no less a serious business
  • COVID-19 : Impact on mobility of women
  • Appeal to stop Mining in Ukhrul, Kamjong..
  • Making sense of lockdown
  • Non-Discrimination in combating COVID-19
  • Zeiladjang @ Makuai, Tamenglong : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 27 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Chassad & the Question of Justice
  • Online Training program for Police Officer
  • Proposal of Online Education: Its impact
  • The walls of Roman Londinium
  • Reminiscence of coming :: Book Review
  • Seeking to set house in order
  • The dawn of a new-normalcy
  • Imphal during lockdown [26 July] #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 26 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Delimitation amasung yelhoumee Meetei..
  • Investigative Journalism training conducted
  • Gas Balloons :: Poem
  • Career in insurance: Jobs for millions
  • Meet model teacher helping students
  • Understanding total figure of 2212
  • Manipur Art Fest 2019 #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 25 July : Govt of Manipur
  • PM calls for Vocal for Local to Manipur
  • Makhol_ Discussing Arts E2 with Astad Deboo
  • Society :: Poem
  • IQs & EQs of politicians
  • Living with COVID 19
  • 'Blood donors should be welcome'
  • Bracing for the worst
  • Princess & Political Agent launch #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 24 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Virus Fabrics Spray by Kakchingtambam Kiran
  • Tales from a conflict zone :: Poem
  • Why Manipur senior IPS officer shot himself
  • Anti Defection Law: Big Debate
  • COVID-19 vaccine : So near and yet so far
  • Central observers here after trip to Delhi
  • The limitation on Free Speech
  • Impact of COVID-19 on transgender
  • COVID-19 Status 23 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Love Story of Tonu Laijing Lembi
  • 29th NAMA Virtual Convention 2020
  • Understanding disasters & disaster mgmt #2
  • Seeking NHRC to intervent in Akhil Gogoi case
  • Impacts of COVID-19 on agriculture : Paper
  • Lockdown & opening doors to outsiders
  • In search of the elusive leader
  • Anti-Repression Day #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Race Apart ? :: Poem
  • Of political instability, COVID & war on drug
  • Preventing skin damage due to face masks
  • Issues raised by NPF Legislature Wing
  • Webninar : How to develop skills in writings
  • Nonsensical rush for fuel
  • When the virus starts attacking
  • Manipur & the Lushai Expedition, 1871-72 #3
  • COVID-19 Status 21 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Negatives turning positive, catastrophe in wait?
  • Environmental change : Uttarakhand : Rvw
  • Empathy Campaign at Imphal Airport
  • Rejoinder by Dr. Liezietsu [21 Jul]
  • Responsible conduct- Jiribam to Thoubal
  • BJP may be in trouble..
  • The Princess & Political Agent launch : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 20 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Governor & Maharani launch Binodini's Book
  • Mount Koubru: Its dying glory, & way forward
  • Govt expenditures on education in Manipur
  • 2nd Online Career counseling in IT
  • The last of the oaks :: Poem
  • Rising cases of infection
  • Manipur today is living on mercy of Delhi
  • HSE Toppers - Commerce stream : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2020 #3: Gallery
  • Loktak Lake: A gem perishing front of our eye
  • Man behind 'Save Nambul'
  • X-rays and applications
  • COVID-19 pandemic & existential crisis
  • Training programme on mushroom cultivation
  • Best result in last three years
  • HSE Toppers - Science stream : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 18 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Understanding disasters & disaster mgmt #1
  • Salam Sangita : NE Women Success Stories
  • Subconscious Mind in COVID Era :: Poem
  • In quest of leadership
  • 4 BJP Ministers' visit to Delhi
  • HSE Toppers - Arts stream : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 17 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Between hospitals and hope
  • War on drugs: A losing battle in Manipur
  • Rays of the Setting Sun :: Poem
  • What actually LOP meant & intended : NPF
  • Rejoinder by Dr. Shurhozelie Liezietsu
  • Posers over Delhi trip
  • The face of justice
  • Class XII Result : Highest Marks
  • Class XII Result : Science Toppers
  • Class XII Result : Arts Toppers
  • Class XII Result : Commerce Toppers
  • Class XII Result : District PC
  • Class XII Result : Science
  • Class XII Result : Arts
  • Class XII Result : Commerce
  • COVID-19 Status 16 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Training programme on mushroom : Gallery
  • Diplomacy in Power & Leadership
  • PPE distributed to Community Health Centre
  • Think population studies as career
  • Intensify agitations as Govt fails to act
  • The Jiribam and Thoubal experience
  • Discovery of Thangjing hill range waterfall
  • Anti-Repression Day #1 : Gallery
  • Accelerating rights of women, post-COVID
  • Heritage Park @ Sangai Festival : Gallery
  • EEVFAM Foundation day : Gallery
  • Mining MoUs & Concerns in Manipur
  • Licypriya low-cost 'Face Shields' : Gallery
  • Airlifting of organic Pineapples : Gallery
  • 9th Manipuri Film Awards (MANIFA) Result
  • Yaoshang Halankar @BijoyGovinda #2: Gallery
  • Manipur & the Lushai Expedition, 1871-72 #2
  • Barak waterfall @ Tamenglong #2 : Gallery
  • Kanglen Aarti katpa #2 : Gallery
  • Eikhoigi Puwarini Nambul Turel #2 : Gallery
  • Manipur & the Lushai Expedition, 1871-72 #1
  • Takhelchangbam Kunjabihari : Wari Liba
  • I Rise :: Film Scenes : eRang
  • Class X (HSLC) Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Merit List
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Result Sheet
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Subject Toppers
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Statistics Abstract
  • Motsillaba Mingsel :: eRang Photos
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script