TODAY -

Thangjiyen/Japanese Shiitake - A compulsory culinary item during Meitei/Meetei Cheiraoba feast

Dr N Irabanta Singh *

Cheiraoba Chak Katpa at entrance Gate of every house in Imphal :: March 18 2018
Cheiraoba Chak Katpa at entrance Gate of every house in Imphal on March 18 2018 :: Pix - Shankar Khangembam



Introduction

Thangjiyen/Japanese Shiitake (Lentinula edodes, Division - Basidiomycota, Class - Agaricomycetes, Order - Agaricales, Family - Marasmiaceae) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries.

It is also considered as a medicinal mushroom in some forms of traditional medicine. It is also commonly called "Sawtooth Oak mushroom" or "Oakwood mushroom".

Artificial Cultivation

Shiitake are now widely cultivated all over the world for commercial purpose and contributed about 25% of total yearly production of mushrooms. Commercially Shiitake mushrooms are grown in conditions similar to their natural environment on either artificial substrate or hardwood logs such as Oak (ooyung).

Nutritional value per 100g of Shiitake

Raw - It contains energy - 14/kj (34 k cal), carbohydrate - (6.8g, sugar - 2.4, dietary fiber - 2.5g); fat - 0.5g; protein - 2.2g; Vitamins (Thiamine B1, Riboflavin B2, Niacin B3, Panthothenic acid B5, Vitamin B6, Folate B9, Vitamin C, Vitamin D); minerals (Calcium - 2mg, Iron - 0.4mg, Magnesium - 20mg, Manganese - 0.2mg, Phosphorus - 112mg, Potassium - 304 mg, Sodium - 9mg, Zinc - 1.0mg). Other constituents include - water (89.7g), Selenium - 5.7g) (Source: USDA Database entry).

Dry - It contains energy - 1238 kj (296 k cal), carbohydrate 75.39g (sugars - 2.21g, dietary fibre - 11.5g); fat (0.99g); protein (9.58g); Vitamins (Thiamine B1 - 0.3mg, Riboflavin B2 - 1.27mg, Niacin B3 - 14.1mg, Panthothenic acid B5 - 21.879 mg, Vitamin B6 - 0.965mg, folate B9 - 163g, Vitamin C - 3.5mg, Vitamin D - 3.9mg); minerals (Calcium - 11mg, Iron - 1.72mg, Magnesium - 132mg, Manganese - 1.176 mg, Phosphorus - 294 mg, Phosphorus - 294 mg, Potassium - 153 mg, Sodium - 13 mg, Zinc - 7.66 mg) and other constituents (water - 9.5 g; Selenium 46 g) (Source: USDA database entry).

Discussion

In a 100g amount of raw Shiitake mushrooms provide 34 calories and are 90% water, 7% carbohydrate, 2% protein and less than 1% fat (table for raw mushroom). Raw Shiitake mushrooms are rich sources (20% or more of the daily value DV) of B. Vitamins and contain moderate levels of dietary minerals.

When dried to about 10 % water, the contents of numerous nutrients increase substantially. Shiitake also produce Vitamin D2 upon exposure of their internal ergosterol to ultraviolet B (UVB) rays from sunlight or broad band UVB fluorescent tubes.

The bioactive molecules present in Lentinula edodes include eritadenic lentinan, oxalic acid, ethanolic mycelia extracts (Active principal/constituents/extracts). The activity of L. edodes reported so far include antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, Immunotherapy, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal (Prasad et al., 2015).

Economics of Shiitake mushrooms

Japanese Shiitake fruiting bodies are collected fresh from the forest by the local tribal people and sold in the local market either in the fresh forms or dried forms only after pre-monsoon showers. This mushroom is found in the local market almost throughout the year in the dried forms.

The retail market value of Shiitake in Imphal market during Cheiraoba is Rs. 25/- per pareng (split bamboo raw). The raw forms are less costly than the dried forms. The road side vendor at Khwairamband market and also at Singjamei market side @ Rs. 150 per 1kg empty Amulspray tin.

Whereas the retail sale of dry and seasoned Thangjiyen at Khwairamband bazaar @ Rs. 1600/- per kg. The total production of Thangjiyen from the forest of Manipur is not clearly estimated. The demands are more than production. Hence, it fetches higher price in the local market.

Conclusion

The Meitei/Meetei feasted on Thangjiyen/Japanese Shiitake being cooked along with other vegetables such as cabbage, potato and Yongchak /tree bean on Cheiraoba lunch because of its taste and high nutritional value.




* Dr N Irabanta Singh wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writer is former Professor (Higher Academic Grade)/Life Sciences, Manipur University and former Dean, School of Life Sciences, Manipur University
This article was webcasted on April 01, 2018.



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