Is Global Warming Natural or Anthropogenic?

Dr. Romio Khangemba *

The topic of Global Warming has always been a controversial issue among the scientific community worldwide right from day one when the first Agreement was signed in Kyoto, Japan in 1997. There are mainly two scientific communities who argue for and against the topic in the world. One group support the theory of human-caused global warming as the dominant factors for the changing climate worldwide and another group which reject the theory.

The first group of climate scientists/authors represented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been the driving force to bring a consensus on the issue of global warming among 195 member nations in September, 2015 in the famous 21st Conference of Parties, (COP21) in Paris. The scientific reports of the IPCC which is known as the Assessment Reports published by IPCC after every 5/6 years has played an important role in bringing a consensus among the member nations in the Paris Agreement.

The second group of scientific community although confined within America, got momentum for further protest against the Kyoto Climate Agreement when the then U.S. Vice President Al Gore started publicity campaigns in 2007 claiming “consensus” of scientists in favour of the hypothesis of human-caused global warming.

Further, the issue was escalated by Donald Trump in the election campaign of U.S.A. President in 2016. Here, it may be noted that altogether 31,487 University Science degree holders including 9029 PhDs in America signed the petition against the Paris Agreement. Surprisingly, the petition project was also supported and endorsed by Frederick Seitz past president, of National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. Taking advantage of the situation, Donald Trump used the card of Paris Agreement in the election campaign against the democratic candidate Barrack Obama.

He claimed that the ongoing political and media portrayal of global warming and climate change is totally false. The issue of global warming is a hoax and therefore the signing of Barrack Obama in the Paris Agreement, is a blunder which would result in losing 2.7 million jobs in U.S.A. thereby jeopardising the welfare and economic security of American citizens. The propaganda was so effective that Donald Trump easily got through the election and became the 45th President of America on 20th January, 2017 with thumping majority.

The followings are some of the points put forward by the scientific community who are in opposition to the Paris and other similar Agreements.

According to the scientific community who oppose the Kyoto and Paris climate Agreement, the present climate change is natural and it is not manmade as claimed by IPCC. The 0.8C increase in the average global temperature over the last 100 years is entirely consistent with well established long term natural climate trends which varied within a range of 3 degree centigrade. There is no scientific proof to define the current global warming is caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases emission.

These scientists are instead convinced that the human-caused global warming hypothesis is without scientific validity and that government action on the basis of this hypothesis would unnecessarily and counterproductively damage both human prosperity and the natural environment of the Earth. CO2 emission by man throughout human history constitute less than 0.00022 percent of the total naturally emitted from the mantle of the earth during geological history.

To them, temperatures of the Earth have often been warmer than now with higher CO2 levels throughout the Earth’s history. The phenomenon of rising sea level is not new. It has been going on since ice age some 10,000 years ago. It is myth that receding glaciers are proof of global warming as glaciers have been receding and growing cyclically for many centuries.

There is no scientific or statistical evidence whatsoever that global warming will cause more storms and extreme weather events. It is myth that CO2 is the most common greenhouse gas that is responsible for the present global warming because CO2 constitutes mere 0.037% of the total 3% greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is rather the sun which is responsible for the greater share of climate change.

To them, increase in atmospheric content of CO2 and relative increase in global warming is more beneficial to human beings than cold climate. Therefore, the proposed limits on greenhouse gases emissions by the IPCC would harm the environment, hinder the advancement of science and technology, and damage the health and welfare of mankind.

On the other hand, the other group of scientists is represented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). As we understand, IPCC is the only international body established for assessment of scientific information relevant to human induced climate change, its impact and options for adaptation and mitigation under the supervision of World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

It is also endorsed by the United Nations (UN). Although, IPCC does not carry out its own research, it operates on the basis of scientific papers and independently documented results from other scientific bodies worldwide. For example, the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of IPCC published in 2013-2014 was written by 830 climate authors/ experts from 85 countries selected from 3000 nominations over a period of 6 years.

Therefore, its Assessment Reports are regarded as the most authentic and scientific ones by the member nations. The Assessment Reports of the IPCC therefore are endorsed by more than 197 international scientific organisations including National Science Academies from 80 countries.

The followings are some of the points put forward by IPCC in favour of human-caused global warming; the dominant factors for present climate change.

According to IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), Earth’s climate is warming. Since the 1950s, the rate of global warming has been unprecedented compared to the previous decades and millennia. The average increase in the Earth’s temperature during the period has been 0.85 degrees Centigrade. IPCC finds the increase in the global temperature with 95% scientific certainty due to excessive release of greenhouse gases mainly CO2 by man during the period.

Secondly, IPCC have observed that global sea levels have risen faster than at any time during the previous two millennia. Thirdly, the Asia region as a whole have been observed the most weather and climate related disasters in the world between 2000 and 2017 due the changing behaviour of Asiatic Monsoon caused by changing rainfall, melting snow or ice worldwide.

IPCC have also observed receding of Himalayan Glaciers faster than in any part of the world. It also has observed that the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have been losing mass in the last two decades and that of the Arctic sea and Northern Hemisphere as well. Unequivocal Warming of the atmosphere and ocean system has been observed and sea level change is unprecedented since 1950.

It is extremely likely that anthropogenic influence has been the dominant cause of all the above observed warming since 1950. Lastly, IPCC have pointed out that the longer we wait to reduce our emissions, the more expensive it will become.

Projections by IPCC

o Further warming will continue if emissions of greenhouse gases continue.
o The global surface temperature increase by the end of the 21st century is likely to exceed 1.5 degree Celsius above the preindustrial level and is likely to exceed 2.0 degree Celsius for many scenarios.
o The oceans will continue to warm with heat extending to the deep ocean, affecting circulation patterns.
o The global water cycle will change with increases in disparity between wet and dry regions as well as wet and dry seasons, with some regional exceptions
o Further decreases are very likely in Arctic sea ice cover, Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover and global glacier volume.
o Global mean sea level will continue to rise at a rate very likely to exceed the rate of the past four decades.
o Increase in the rate of global CO2 production will increase uptake of CO2 by the oceans thereby increasing ocean acidification.
o Future surface temperature will be largely determined by cumulative CO2 which means climate change will continue even if CO2 emissions are stopped.

* Dr. Romio Khangemba wrote this article for
The writer is a Postdoctoral Fellow and can be reached at khangemba(AT)gmail(DOT)com
This article was posted on January 08, 2018.

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Northeast Indian Guide to Thailand
  • Interaction with Steelheart @Imphal: Gallery
  • Khongjom Numit: Last battle of Manipur
  • International Mother Earth Day
  • Selected Candidates to Global Shapers
  • Assam Rifles Ex-servicemen Rally
  • Paying tribute to our martyred forefathers
  • Death penalty for child rapists
  • TRAU Vs Bengaluru FC #1 : Gallery
  • Battle of Khongjhom :: Read about it
  • Ending Plastic Pollution- Earth Day 2018
  • Interaction with Steelheart in Imphal
  • Yet I have hopes and dreams - fancy
  • Seminar @ DM College : Atomic Energy ..
  • Lai Haraoba at Loktak Power Station
  • Teinem Luira Phanit #2: Gallery
  • Governor's Polo (Men) : Gallery
  • World Earth Day 2018
  • Edge of self determination #2
  • Save Meetei & other indigenous people
  • Nirmala Chongtham @ Bamboo Congress
  • Public Relations Day at Loktak
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Songs of the dark days
  • On cease work strike since March 22
  • Kang Amomgi Tentha : Funga Wari
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Piulong khul & Bunning Wildlife Sanctuary
  • The guy in the waiting list
  • Turmeric in beauty care
  • Crisis ahead; this is more dangerous
  • Gearing up for Shirui Lily Fest
  • Do not gag voice of opposition: NPF
  • Garlic Festival @ Ukhrul #1 : Gallery
  • Misplaced Agenda of our CSOs
  • Aribam Devabrata's Mime Play "Kangla Gate"
  • Edge of self determination #1
  • Vardhaman Mahaveer, his life & Jainism
  • Annual General Body meeting of STDCM
  • Land of thousand heroes
  • Present lull before the storm ?
  • Naorem Kalimohon Singh : A Profile
  • Floral tributes to PLA members #2 : Gallery
  • May I tie the knot with a Muslim woman ?
  • Quiz Competition at DM College
  • Cyber warfare: Estonia attack
  • Discussion : South China Sea Disputes
  • The Readers :: Book Discount @MU
  • Democracy: Is the countrymen listening?
  • From Nobap to the top stage
  • Cheiraoba Thabal by LGBTQ #1 : Gallery
  • Cheiraoba @ Kolkata : Gallery
  • Manipuri speaking diaspora in Assam
  • Mangginlian, Lalromawi :: eMing
  • Lomba: best garnish for Yongchak iromba
  • Modern civilisation in Manipur revisited
  • Earning the real good time
  • Meghalaya to consider implementation of ILP
  • NE girls held in Raipur for alleged sex trade
  • Pushing NH-37 to the back burner
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa [14 Apr] : Gallery
  • Brajabashimayum Gopal : Akademi Award
  • EEVFAM vs UoI case at Supreme Court
  • Litmus test for Mizoram
  • The present trend of our educational system
  • The rift between parents & children
  • Everything to know about Dermaplaning
  • A heady affair
  • Raped and defiled : India's shame
  • Leima Jagoi @ JNMDA Day: Gallery
  • Right to Religion is a fundamental right
  • Who are Meeteis
  • Meeting of Manipur photography Club
  • Dynamic Manipur's committee for 2018-20
  • BJP's Booth Level Training at Patsoi
  • Sexual violence against women
  • Yaoshang Halankar #2 : Gallery
  • TRAU Vs Mohammedan #2 : Gallery
  • Black sheep in ILPS movement #2
  • SC / HC verdict on Merger Agreement
  • How to practice homoeopathy
  • Sonowal's gesture to Assam journalists
  • Floral tributes to PLA members #1 : Gallery
  • Sikkim University Prospectus : Download
  • Schools are fine, colleges are not
  • The Deceptive Appearance :: Poem
  • Sports for peace and development
  • On organizing Thabal Chongba in Delhi
  • People's bishop gets Bharat Gaurav Award
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Banning the Bandh
  • A strong Opposition is healthy
  • Yangkhulen (57 Km from Maram) : Gallery
  • Statehood Women's Polo #2 : Gallery
  • An autobiography of MK Priyobarta
  • Lamkoi Shirui Camp 2.0 at Ukhrul
  • RIST Talk -35 @MU : Thermal plasma
  • Police Harassment of Human Rights Activist
  • Favouritism of PDA Govt is shameful
  • Where the mind is without fear
  • End authoritarian rule call of Cong
  • 'HUN' Thadou Cultural Festival #1 : Gallery
  • Kabui Dance @JNMDA : Gallery
  • Gangmei Aluna Kabuini : Nrityabhusan
  • Good & bad of Nung hawai consumption
  • Sadar Hills District Demand :: Timeline
  • Meitei - Scheduled Tribe ?
  • Career options after graduation
  • Food safety concerns
  • Response to Rijiju: Stand off on sovereignty
  • Two Princes :: Funga Wari
  • Yaoshang Sport @Bamon Leikai: Gallery
  • Armed Force (Special Power) Act 1958 #3
  • Cry of a Dying River - 25 :: Poem
  • Centre for Vietnam Studies, New Delhi
  • Leingakki Firem Handoktriphaoba..
  • Seeking report on Thoungamba's death
  • 3rd Northeast Fiesta 2018 : Event Report
  • Traffic: Still yet to find a lasting solution
  • From Go to Hills to Go to Village
  • Md Awaysh Khan: Mr. India : Gallery
  • Horizon : An Exhaustive Review
  • Is Delhi serious to resolve Naga issue?
  • JRF position wanted at Manipur University
  • Dams & hydropower push in Himalayas
  • Can satan encourage hard work ?
  • DGP distributed DG Commendation Discs
  • Of attack and threat to common men
  • Ruling out sovereignty, integration
  • Folk Dance @Retreat ceremony #4: Gallery
  • The entry of Gorkha in Manipur
  • Khelen Thokchom, some fond memories
  • The Singing Stones :: Poem
  • 109 Bn, CRPF celebrated 28th Raising day
  • Swarajya Magazine tender apology
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #2 : Gallery
  • Women Final: Governor Polo #2 : Gallery
  • Air pollution is an invisible killer
  • Manipur as part of India during Krishna
  • Global Shapers is calling for Application
  • Heart OPD & Free Echo Screening Camp
  • Winter School 2018 at NEHU concluded
  • On forged cheque issue: Pandora Box
  • Accounting for two of 4 won so far
  • Mahesh Thounaojam #2 : eRang Photos
  • TRAU Vs Mohammedan #1 : Gallery
  • Science of stink: Dealing with odour
  • Time lost cost in cyber crime: IGI Airport
  • BJP Patsoi : 38th Foundation Day
  • The making of sports powerhouse
  • Rape in the land of Meira Paibis
  • Kamo Hau Culturals @Kamjong: Gallery
  • Armed Force (Special Power) Act 1958 #2
  • Cry of a Dying River - 24 :: Poem
  • Tribute to Khelen Thokchom
  • Last of his ilk
  • Open letter to Jaideep Majumdar- Swarajya
  • Effort to make our leader understand
  • RIMS road heist : Daylight robbery
  • Major Bob Ralengnao Khathing
  • Pung Chollom @JNMDA : Gallery
  • Mnipur Ima :: Seireng
  • Kou-kha : Wetland tuber cash crop
  • Jobs at Don Bosco Tech Society
  • NPF replies to news portal report
  • The Killing Fields (2013-17) :: Timeline
  • Prohibition against peoples' will
  • Congress in its avatar as an Oppn
  • Mukna Khong Kangjei #2: Gallery
  • Partnerships should be based on solidarity
  • Volunteers for Green Khamasom (VGK)
  • Social media: Boon or medium to hurt..
  • A requiem for Ta Khelen
  • Northeast Fiesta 2018 at Jalandhar, Punjab
  • Jobs @ PR Enterprises, Khurai
  • Vegetables grown @Thanga #2: Gallery
  • Khaidem Tarubi :: Akademi Awards
  • Angaobi :: Poem
  • A cocktail of mythology, science & religion
  • Beauty benefits of tomatoes
  • Condolence message for Khelen Thokchom
  • Communal politics in social media
  • RIP Tamo Khelen .. always in our heart
  • Blank Editorial
  • Tributes to Khelen Thokchom : Gallery
  • Men Final: Governor Polo #1 : Gallery
  • Armed Force (Special Power) Act 1958 #1
  • Scientific Perspective: Biren's speech
  • Ukhrul Sanitary Movement & social evil
  • JFA express grief at Thokchom's demise
  • Yaoshang Nakatheng Chatpa #3 : Gallery
  • April Calendar for Year 2018 :: Tools
  • Thangjiyen: Culinary item during Cheiraoba
  • Nongthombam Biren hasn't a clue
  • Easter: A moment of reorganization
  • A Spark of My Poem :: Poem
  • Asian solidarity on the Rohingya crisis
  • The blunder in Indian Political system
  • Respecting the essence of Good Friday
  • Folk Dance @Retreat ceremony #3: Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Chingkaba #3: Gallery
  • Dr. Athouba honored Hindi Sevi Pracharak
  • Women Final: Governor Polo #1 : Gallery
  • Ringui Luira Phanit @Ukhrul : Gallery
  • Landscape from Koubru #1 : Gallery
  • Yaoshang Sport - Marathon #2: Gallery
  • PM at Science Congress @MU #2: Gallery
  • Lui-Ngai-Ni @Longmai (TML) #5 : Gallery
  • Sanakhya Ebotombi Haorokcham: Biography
  • PM Narendra Modi @Imphal #2 : Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Chingkaba #2: Gallery
  • Enakta Leiringei (Film) #2 :: eRang
  • Yaoshang Cooking Contest #2 : Gallery
  • Front Page Photo 2018 #1: Gallery
  • Temples of Manipur : Gallery
  • Recipients of Akademi Awards for 2014
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic