TODAY -

Electric vehicles for a cleaner environment and energy security

Oinam Nabakishore Singh *



What is electric vehicle(EV)? How is it different from vehicle running on diesel or petrol? Why the Government of India has set a target of sale of only new electric cars in the country from 2030, and complete ban of cars running of fossil fuels?

In order to answer these questions, let us understand the basic technology of vehicles running on fossil fuels like petrol or diesel and vehicles powered by electricity.

The heart of any vehicle is the engine. In case of vehicles on petrol or diesel, the engine is called internal combustion engine(ICE), where a mixture of petrol or diesel and air(oxygen) undergoes combustion intermittently to move pistons in the cylinders in linear motion. The linear motion is converted into rotatory motion by connecting rod and crankshaft, which in turn is transmitted to rotational motion of axles to move the wheels of the vehicle.

Exhaust from an internal combustion engine contains many harmful gases like carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, unburnt hydrocarbon and particulate matter, which are the causes of air pollution. According to World Health Organization(WHO) data of 2016, 14 cities of India figure in the top 20 most polluted cities in the world. Vehicular emission is main cause of air pollution in cities and health risk.

WHO has stated that by reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma. Therefore, it makes a complete sense to switch over to non-polluting fuels to drive vehicles.

Natural gas and LPG are much cleaner fuels for running vehicles. In some cities, where natural gas is available through pipelines or a cascade of cylinders as compressed natural gas(CNG), there is option of using natural gas as fuel for buses, passenger cars and auto-rickshaws. But the network of CNG stations is still limited even in Delhi.

While I was working in the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India from 1995 to early 2000, I worked hard to promote use of LPG as alternate auto fuel in India. I was looking after the LPG as a petroleum product and in that capacity, I had opportunity to attend the World LPG Forums in different cities in the world and Asia LPG Forum in Tokyo.

One of sessions of the Forum was on Automotive LPG and sharing of experiences of countries using LPG as auto fuel mainly for taxis. At that time, LPG was being used by some owners/drivers in a clandestine manner by retrofitting the engines and fixing LPG cylinders in the dicky of vehicle. Since retrofitting was done in local garages without following safety standards, there used to be accidents and fires on vehicles running on domestic LPG.

In order to promote LPG as auto fuel in OEM vehicles having option of running on petrol or LPG, we got necessary amendments made in Motor Vehicle Act. However, due to limited availability of LPG filling stations in cities, its use LPG as auto fuel did not take off on a large scale. Now, Government of India is promoting use of cleaner biofuels like bioethanol and biodiesel.

Till now, the target of blending 10% biofuel in petrol or diesel is yet to be achieved. Now, let us look at the feasibility of running vehicles on electricity. The source of power of an electric vehicle(EV) is a set of batteries, which may be kept at any convenient place in it.

In Tesla cars like Model S and Model 3, a large number of small lithium-ion batteries are packed together on the lower floor of the car for supply of direct current to an inverter in the vehicle. The inverter converts the direct current into alternating current, which is connected to an induction motor. The rotatory motion of rotor in the motor is directly transferred to the rear wheels of the vehicles to power the vehicle.

Depending on the requirement of power and performance, the number of motors is increased and rotatory motion is transferred to either rear or front or both wheels of the vehicle. The torque and speed of an EV can be changed by changing amplitude and frequency of alternating current.

In India, the government has laid on emphasis on complete shift to EVs. During the launch of two charging stations for EVs at the premises of NITI Ayog in February, 2018, Shri Nitin Gadhkari, Union Minister of Transport announced that sale of new cars from 2030 onwards shall be only EVs. This announcement rattled the manufacturers of passenger cars in India and they came out with arguments related to lack of infrastructure and fear of loss of present business. Nevertheless, they have to reluctantly accept the roadmap of switching over to EVs as laid down by Government and prepare themselves for the new opportunity.

In India, sale of electric cars is very much limited to about 2000 annually. Mahindra Electric is leading in making of EVs in passenger car segment with its electric cars, namely, Mahindra e2O Plus, a four seater hatchback, having a range of 140 Km. and price tag of Rs.7-12 lakhs, and Mahindra eVerito Electric Sedan with range of 140 Km. and price of Rs.9-11 lakhs. Other companies like TATA, Hyundai, Maruti, etc. are also trying to capture a slice of market share of EVs by engaging in research and development. However, various models of two wheelers and three wheelers are already running on electric battery.

China is the world leader in manufacture of electric vehicles and its sale. In 2017, China sold 777,000 new EVs against 199,000 by USA and 1,223,600 globally. It is estimated that in 2018, China will sell 1,000,000 new EVs, USA, 400,000 and global sale, 1,800,000. The biggest effort in making EVs in the world is by TESLA, promoted by Elon Musk and others. It started making stylish and fast SUV car, Model X, Sports car, Roadster, Sedans-Model S and Model 3, which are excellent in terms of performance and range.

Price of latest entry, Model 3 is about US$ 35,000, which is considered to be affordable in USA and European markets. Many people have booked Tesla cars by paying US$ 1000 and they are willing to wait upto two or three years before delivery. To meet the huge demand of battery to power the EVs, TESLA has set up the largest factory to make lithium-ion battery and power walls under the name and style of Gigafactory 1 in Nevada and Gigafactory 2 at Buffalo in New York.

Solar City, a sister concern of TESLA is setting up charging stations along the highways by using solar panels. TESLA has already set up 1332 Supercharger Stations along highways with 10,901 superchargers which can fully charge a car in about 30 minutes. The range of TESLA cars go upto 1000 KM. TESLA is trying to meet the entire needs of its car owners. It was reported that TESLA has overtaken well-established car companies, Ford and General Motors, in terms of market capitalization.

Use of electricity to run vehicles has a benign effect on both environment, energy security and balance of payments. There is no noise and vehicular emission from EVs which will help in mitigating pollution in cities. Only caution is that electricity for running EVs, if generated by polluting thermal power plants, the benefit of no pollution from Evs will be compromised. Therefore, there is a strong case for generation of electricity from renewables like solar, wind, hydel or biomass to meet the needs of electricity for vehicles.

In 2017-18, India imported 219.15 MT of oil for USD 87.725 billion (Rs 5.65 lakh crore), according to the latest data available from oil ministry’s Petroleum Planning and Analysis Cell (PPAC). The share of oil import was 80% of its requirement. With the depreciation of rupee against US dollar to about Rs.70 per dollar recently, the oil import bill will increase by US$26 billion in 2018-19.

With shift to electric vehicles for almost all modes of transport in the next 10-15 years, it is possible to bring down oil imports and improve balance of payments. Lower cost of transportation by use of electric vehicle including trucks on account of fast improvements in battery technology and reduction in cost will result in containing of inflation and higher economic growth.

In order to encourage and popularize EVs, Manipur may also look at two important infrastructure-renewable energy generation and setting up of a network of charging stations. It is in the interest of all to adopt the new technology as early as possible. It is the day of disruption. EVs will end the role of petrol and diesel as fuel to power vehicles, if not immediately now, but surely in the next 10-15 years.


Views expressed are personal.


* Oinam Nabakishore Singh wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on August 26, 2018.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • World Bamboo Day #1: Gallery
  • Financial aid to AMWJU member, K. Bipin
  • Meitei-Naga Relationship
  • The concept of Langban Tarpan
  • Today is Sunday :: Poem
  • Papaya and health
  • In tiger territory
  • NEUFC Fan Park at Sarusajai stadium
  • BSE, ANPSA donate to CMRF (Nagaland)
  • 45th AMWJU Foundation day : Gallery
  • Protest crackdown at MU: Gallery
  • Lai Lik Lei & their debut "Esei"
  • Diversity, Race & Gender-Based Violence
  • Cross Border Human Trafficking : Review
  • Imphal Municipal Council Bye Laws, 1998
  • Protest held against crackdown at MU
  • Stop Terrorising the MU Campus
  • Mob violence at Manipur University
  • Facts about Nagaland House at Kolkata
  • Midnight raid at MU
  • ..bridging cultures of Assam, Manipur
  • Tuilha Kol waterfall #2: Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Rally against Mob Lynching #2: Gallery
  • Beyond the tragedy of Tharoijam
  • Jarnail's tryst with Manipur :: Review
  • Who killed the looter? (Short Story)
  • Heart OPD & Echo Screening Mission
  • Call for protest against MU crackdown
  • The farce continues at MU
  • Heikru Hidongba #1 : Gallery
  • Heigru Hidongba (Boat Race)
  • Get down to business
  • The Eternal Moment :: Poem
  • Why is oiling good for the hair
  • Jobs at SKY Hospital
  • The Killing Fields 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • Creating Future Media Leaders in NE
  • Understanding Communist ideology
  • Suspended but drama not over yet
  • Arrested for molesting student in Mumbai
  • Manipuri Diaspora in Myanmar #1
  • Chingyainu, Chingnguremba :: eMing
  • Krishna Janma @Mahabali #2 : Gallery
  • Naga-Kuki Conflict: ..Kuki aggression
  • Tibeto-Burman Languages : Book
  • Indian Judiciary no more a caged bird
  • IGAR (S) calls on Governor of Manipur
  • Spirit of Irabot still runs in Journalists
  • Concern should be about mob mentality
  • Tribes, Art & Soul of India #1: Gallery
  • Rally against Mob Lynching #1: Gallery
  • 'Sahnit' an honour or a disgrace
  • Irabot : Socio-Political Challenges
  • Training employees for better governance
  • Blue Ocean :: Poem
  • Sextortion: Making money from shame
  • Condemn murder of Neiphretuo Metsie
  • Social lacunae
  • BJP on poll drive at Imphal, Kohima
  • Mary Kom lost 2 kg in 4 hours
  • Historical Evaluation of Puya Meithaba #2
  • Felicitation of Sportsperson: Gallery
  • ICJ: Investigation of Extrajudicial Killing
  • Legal profession as career option #2
  • Loktak Down Stream HE Project (2x33MW)
  • Protest against mob lynching at DU
  • Ripples of Music :: Poem
  • Memo submitted to CM over lynching
  • Poems of Peace, Resistance ...
  • Helicopter Schedule for Imphal-Jiri
  • Mirabai recommended for Khel Ratna
  • Martyrdom of Haipou Jadonang #3: Gallery
  • Manipur State is still winning..
  • Gazetteer of North-East India :: Book
  • Sunfeast Cup Football Tournament
  • Trip down memory lane
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Folk Song :: Poem
  • The Endureres at Dwarka Half Marathon
  • Main accused in cop slaying nabbed
  • Naga talks not confined to Nagaland..
  • Trekking to Dzukou Valley #1 : Gallery
  • Rest in Peace Humanity
  • Ph Banti's artwork 'Trafficking of children'
  • Cry of a Dying River - 45 :: Poem
  • Buddhism is not a religion
  • Jobs at R-Square Design
  • Candle Light at DU over lynching
  • Society as a reflection of govt
  • Mobocracy : Shame on Manipur
  • Kuki Black Day @CCpur : Gallery
  • miAoIbgi pNTuH :: Seireng
  • An opinion on Tharoijam killing
  • How Manipur lost internal autonomy, Kabaw
  • Admission for PhD at Tripura Univ
  • Meefam ST at Nambol, Khangabok
  • Importance of Forest & Environment
  • Deep social divide: Two different folks?
  • Kuki Black Day: Kukis Will never forget
  • R & V Art House's First Art Fest 2018
  • Celebrating International Literacy Day, 2018
  • Born a Kuki, die a Kuki :: Poem
  • History of North East India :: Book
  • Will SimpliciTB make TB treatment simpler
  • Meefam chathaduna ST gi issue..
  • Dipankar Talukdar- Mr Model of World Star
  • System error- who will fix Broken Window
  • Reshuffle Talks : Say No to Yes Me
  • India negotiating vehicle pact with Myanmar
  • Chalwa Village, Kangpokpi #2 : Gallery
  • Thien & its downfall in Zeliangrong #2
  • Is FA a self exposed daylight robbery?
  • Nation Needs Small Farmers
  • Who is programming you ?
  • Bandhs as dissent & survival of laziest
  • Looking for Raju :: Poem
  • The cry of the 2nd class citizen
  • Bharat Bandh in Imphal
  • Historical Evaluation of Puya Meithaba #1
  • Sit-In: Naga Peace Talk #2 : Gallery
  • Naga-Kuki conflict: Search for definitions
  • Mega Marathon Manipur : Download Form
  • Legal profession as career option
  • Guv felicitates 5 JAK RIF for flood relief
  • Stored Anger :: Book Review
  • On stepping into the 20th year of TSE
  • Sept - month which reinstated our courage
  • Krishna Janma @ISKCON #2 : Gallery
  • Empty :: Poem
  • Lets beat littering - plastics pollution
  • NEHU Seminar : Urbanization in India
  • Jobs at JCRE Skill Solutions
  • Declaration of Naga Collective Spirit [Sep 8]
  • Akanba Khongjangidamak Yathokpa Loire
  • Support for STDC from UMA, Assam
  • 'Deplorable power supply in Nagaland'
  • Tryst with destiny - Should we accept ?
  • Stand off at MU : Impact on LS Poll
  • Exploring the enthralling Tuilha Kol
  • Kamesh Salam : Outstanding Green Activist
  • The Valley Of Brahmaputra :: Book
  • Development of road database
  • The inner page story :: Poem
  • Kakching WW-II Memorial Run 2018
  • STDC public meeting at Langathel Keithel
  • Maibi Jagoi at Sangai Fest : Gallery
  • My poll without prejudice to anyone
  • MEETAC - Mission for streamlining TK
  • Conditions leading to Marxism
  • Heart Camp at Khelakhong, Thoubal
  • Cyber bully: Crime that follows you home
  • Bhupen Hazarika : Tribute at London
  • AEP & Importance of Myanmar & NE
  • Political pandemonium
  • Students central to MU issue
  • Landscape from Koubru #2 : Gallery
  • Leishangthem Robert for Mr. World 2018
  • Oinam Shilla Chanu at Mrs India Earth
  • North-east Frontier Of India :: Book
  • Thien & its downfall in Zeliangrong #1
  • Cry of a Dying River - 44 :: Poem
  • JRF Post at Mizoram University
  • Honours to Bamboo; a ubiquitous gift
  • Case of hunter now being huntedr
  • Chaklam Khongchat Numit #3 : Gallery
  • Women Empowerment & judicial Activism
  • Narin Chenggum - wild edible mushroom
  • Flying Star at your lips :: Poem
  • Out of the box thinking
  • Call centre fraud: Vicious vishing attack
  • Changing India & its impact on Manipur
  • MU stand off gets uglier
  • Tikendrajit : The Lion of Manipur #4
  • Krishna Janma @Mahabali #1 : Gallery
  • Eastern Frontier of India :: Book Review
  • Remembering Radhakrishnan ..
  • Moments to cherish :: Poem
  • Glimpse of the Buddha's teaching
  • NH7 Weekender Express Editions
  • Rejoinder to NDPP from NPF [05 Sep]
  • Mental equation
  • Are teachers teaching ? Apt, timely poser
  • Sirarakhong Hathei Phanit @Ukhrul : Gallery
  • Sit-In: Naga Peace Talk #1 : Gallery
  • Globalization, Act East Policy & Manipur
  • Review on anthology of Parthajit Borah
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Child Friendly Police Stations proposed
  • ADBU Goes Green with Solar Energy
  • Convocation of Assam Don Bosco
  • Fetal Echocardiography - Seminar held
  • Rejoinder to NPF from NDPP [04 Sep]
  • Divide, divert and rule will not work
  • FA, MU crisis : Issues before LS polls
  • Krishna Janma @ISKCON #1 : Gallery
  • Komrem Student Day @Bangalore : Gallery
  • September Calendar for Year 2018 :: Tools
  • The Coils of Pakhangba :: Book
  • Exhibition @ Art College #2: Gallery
  • AMWJU Sit-In-Protest : Gallery
  • Jangou Rah : eRang Classic
  • The Story of 40 Pineapple Suckers
  • Yumkhaibam Nanao Eramdam Yaourakhre
  • Ningol Chakkouba Celebration in Delhi
  • Martyrdom of Haipou Jadonang #2: Gallery
  • Chaklam Khongchat Numit #2 : Gallery
  • The World of Kuki People :: Book
  • Martyrdom of Haipou Jadonang #1: Gallery
  • Dolaithabi Dam , Senapati : Gallery
  • Eid-Ul-Adhaa Festival #2 : Gallery
  • Dr. Jodhachandra Sanasam : Sahitya
  • Shougrakpam Bijaya :: A Profile
  • Disputed Myanmar Border Pillar : Gallery
  • Front Page Photo 2018 #3: Gallery
  • Dzuko valley #4 :: 360 Panorama View
  • Manglandasu Nang - OST :: e-pao Radio
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic
  • SPONSORED ADS