TODAY -

Climate smart water saving techniques for mitigation of climate change impacts in hill agriculture
- Part 2 -

GT Patle *



2) Drought tolerant crops and seeds
This is in principle of growing the right crop for regions which suffer from water shortages. Therefore, it is necessary to grow such crops which are more tolerant to drought. These include finger millet, pearl millet, guinea millet, cowpea, and sorghums.

3) Conservation agriculture
In conservation agriculture, reduce tillage and mulch cover results in less surface runoff and higher water infiltration than is the case with conventional tillage. In addition, the basins, furrows and rip lines collect runoff and this water becomes available to the crops. Mulching further in moisture conservation by shading the soil surface and reduces evaporation.

4) Water management through
a) Irrigation scheduling:
Irrigation scheduling implies when to apply and how much to apply. Well planned irrigation schedule is useful to reduce the water losses and increase the crop yield. Use of soil moisture sensors in irrigation systems is an important tool for water conservation. It not only prevents over-watering, but saves unnecessary pumping costs and helps prevent leaching of fertilizers.

Water can be conserved in a number of ways by using it more efficiently than most conventional practices. I. Water saving techniques for rice Rice is an important cereal crop grown in the northeast region.

Different water saving techniques for rice cultivation are in practice in many parts of the region. Achieving higher water use efficiency by using less water to obtain higher rice yield is very important in the context of climate change. Different water saving techniques are briefly explained here.

A) Alternative wetting and drying (AWD)

In this technique the irrigation water is applied to flood the field for a certain number of days after the disap-pearance of ponded water. Thus, the field is alternately wetted and dried for the certain period.

Research studies have re-ported enormous potential for saving water and increased productivity of rice grown using this method as compared with traditional flooded rice cultivation. In this method water saving up to 15-30% can be achieved compared to conven-tional methods of rice transplanting.

B) System of rice Intensification (SRI)

In this method the fields are kept un-flooded and the soil well aerated throughout the entire vegetative growth. Only a little water is kept on the field during the reproductive growth phase. This method is becoming popular among the smallholder farmers of hill regions. Using SRI methods of farming, farmers can get higher yields with fewer inputs.

C) Aerobic rice

In these techniques the rice is cultivated like wheat and maize crop as irrigated upland crop. Irrigation is applied to bring the soil water content in the root zone up to field capacity after it has reached a certain lower threshold. D) Saturated soil culture (SSC) The soil is kept as close to saturation as possible.

Studies have shown that using this technique, water input decreases by 5% to so% from the continuously flooded check basins with an average of 23%. This method has reported the reduction in yield about 6% on an average but the overall water productivity increases.

2) Drought tolerant crops and seeds

This is in principle of growing the right crop for regions which suffer from water shortages. Therefore, it is necessary, to grow such crops which are more tolerant to drought. These include finger millet pearl millet, guinea millet. coy/pea and sorghums.

3) Conservation agriculture

In conservation agriculture, reduce tillage and mulch cover results in less surface runoff and higher water infiltra-tion than is the case with conventional tillage. In addition, the basins, furrows and rip lines collect runoff and this water becomes available to the crops. Mulching further in moisture conservation by shading the soil surface and reduces evapo-ration.

4) Water management through a) Irrigation scheduling:

Irrigation scheduling implies when to apply and how much to apply. Well planned irrigation schedule is useful to reduce the water losses and increase the crop yield, Use of soil moisture sensors in irrigation systems is an important tool for water conservation. It not only prevents over-watering, but saves unnecessary pumping costs and helps prevent leaching of fertilizers.

b) Optimization of conventional irrigation methods:

Conventional irrigation methods like border check basin and furrow irrigation methods have been used by the farmers from very old times. Optimizing the design of con-ventional irrigation methods, water productivity of the different crops can be increased.

c) Use of organic and non-organic mulch: Mulches can reduce up to 25% water requirements considering the crop, soil and climatic conditions.

When drip irrigation is laid underneath the plastic film, it delivers water and fertilizer to the plants and evaporation is reduced. But, because there is no surface evaporation of water, it is easy to over-irrigate crops.

5) Use of modern irrigation techniques

i) Drip or Micro-Irrigation drip irrigation delivers water and fertilizer either on the soil surface or directly to the roots of plants through systems of plastic tubing and emitters. By distributing these inputs slowly and regularly, drip irrigation conserves 50 to 11:t% more water than traditional methods while increasing crop production by 20 to 96'..0,

The water and fertilizer are also more easily absorbed by the soil and plants, reducing the risks of erosion and nutrient depletion. Usually operated by gravity, drip irrigation saves both the time and labor that would otherwise be needed to water crops, leading to larger harvest yields.

ii) Subsurface Irrigation Systems: In subsurface irrigation method water is applied at the certain depth below the soil surface. Advantages of subsurface irrigation systems includes water savings, improved crop yields, no surface evaporation, no soil and nutrient runoff; less disease and fewer weeds, less labor and reduced amount of energy is required for pumping

iii) Deficit Irrigation

In deficit irrigation, major focus is to ohtain maxi-mum crop water productix it) rather than maximum field. In this method the little less water is applied to the crops than a crop's optimal full requirement. Doing this yield may reduce by 10%, but save 50% of the water.

Concluded...


For further details contact:-
Public Relation & Media Management Cell,
CAU, Imphal.
Email: prmmcell@gmail.com


* GT Patle wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on December 23 2021.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Phuba Thapham, Senapati #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 25 May : Govt of Manipur
  • War on Drugs and Alcohol (Ju)
  • CubeTen: Awarded at British Parliament
  • Advancements in TB science in spotlight
  • Why should people join politics ?
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Fisheries development in NE Region #2
  • Poor roadways denting prospect of tourism
  • From district level to State level
  • Ibudhou Thangjing Lam Thokpa #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 24 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Shirui Lily Festival 2022: Program Detail
  • The fruition of mass communication
  • Grow drumstick for good health
  • Political Stand of Naga People's Front
  • Medicinal Plants for Rural Livelihood in NE
  • Thangjing pact: Test ahead for signatories
  • From 2013 to charge hearing in 2022
  • Kwatha (Indo-Myanmar border) #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 23 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • NDPP's biggest challenge & opportunity
  • Languages soul of India & Hindi up to Ten
  • How Market Innovations made America great
  • Kahulong Primary School renovated
  • Conservation of wildlife need of the hour
  • Disturbing street brawl: Reflecting society
  • Licypriya speech at East Timor :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Licypriya delivers Speech at East Timor
  • Tobacco epidemic continues...
  • Dry Manipur still Wet and 'High'
  • Insects as feed for aquaculture
  • Inflation worries real but a passing phase
  • Dealing with suspected forest encroachers
  • Morphine to heroin to WY
  • English phonetic sounds :: Book download
  • COVID-19 Status 21 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Rs 2,80,000 assistance to 6 Journalists
  • Manipur Roads: A rainy season Nightmare
  • Workshop on "Research Ethics" at MU
  • Tacitly tacit
  • Gleanings from Buddhism
  • Thaopai Shithaine @ Phuba #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 20 May : Govt of Manipur
  • North-East Research (NER) Conclave
  • Fisheries development in NE Region #1
  • North East LSN Partners Meet 2022
  • Cold facial during Summer
  • Check gate closure: Boon or bane for driver
  • Covid free after 26 months: A brief look back
  • Wakhom Leikai Lairembi Haraoba #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Shija celebrates 26 years of surgery
  • International Webinar: Computing Trend in AI
  • New MAHUD for a new Imphal City
  • R&D initiatives of Ministry of Info Tech
  • PMFBY - Every cloud has a silver lining
  • Banking on Modi to eradicate plastic malaise
  • One step down from Greater Lim ?
  • Flood Watch: Nambul Turel [18 May] :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 18 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Ambassadors for Christ
  • "... where women are not respected"
  • Nursing as a career choice
  • Conquest of the last frontier
  • Dry Manipur among top 5 liquor states!
  • Scoring high on liquor consumption
  • Flood Watch: Imphal Turel [17 May] :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 17 May : Govt of Manipur
  • World hypertension day : 17th May 2022
  • Taking advantage of dying sedition law
  • Market innovations & vertical integration
  • Soram Oscar: Mr India Intl Tourism 2022
  • Cyber Security Lecture at Tamenglong
  • Involve village chief in Save Singda Movement
  • Reaching out to SC Jamir
  • Jalakeli Offering @ Govindajiu :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 16 May : Govt of Manipur
  • On 200th Anniversary of MK Binodini Devi
  • East Timor : Licypriya Kangujam invited
  • Carbon Sequestration in Dailong Site #2
  • Semiotic interpretations of traffic policing
  • Citrus Marcoptera: Rare Citrus species in NE
  • Same old healthcare issues for new minister
  • Rain : Bringing out the dirt of Imphalites
  • Art Exhibition @Imphal Art #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 15 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2022 #2: Gallery
  • Soil rejuvenation through plants
  • Harrowing memories of a blast victim
  • Pristine Death :: Poem
  • Odisha File
  • Anti-poppy vows: Govt shouldnt be taken...
  • After more than 2 decades of talks
  • River & River Based Communities
  • COVID-19 Status 14 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Second National Lok Adalat
  • Manipur Cabinet: Blurry representation
  • Tips for summer party make up
  • Harvesting Fest of Tarao #4 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 13 May : Govt of Manipur
  • The USP of Churachandpur
  • Pranks unloaded: From fiction to mundanity
  • Radio comes to our rescue in pandemic
  • 3rd North-East Foodtech begins
  • Irreparable damage done to environment
  • Promotion of nurseries for plantation crop #2
  • Issues staring at the face of Manipur
  • Yaoshang Thabal Competition #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 12 May : Govt of Manipur
  • International Nurses Day 2022
  • Carbon Sequestration in Dailong Site #1
  • Various voices on reduced areas of AFSPA
  • IBSD, Imphal signed MoU with CSIR
  • Stay on sedition case smack on political elite
  • Identifying a district with one group ?
  • Kakwa Lairembi Haraoba #1 :: Gallery
  • Understanding Environmental Problem
  • Pre Recruitment Training at Keithelmanbi
  • Three rain catchers feted
  • How India is empowering women...
  • War-era bridges amid development rhetoric
  • Aerial route over heart of Imphal ?
  • SN Chand: The father of Manipuri cinema #1
  • COVID-19 Status 10 May : Govt of Manipur
  • NPF Kohima consultative meeting
  • Market creating innovation & business model
  • The element of surprise
  • 3rd North-East Foodtech at Guwahati
  • Growing support to 'war on drugs' mission
  • Backing the War on Drugs call
  • Mao-Imphal Market @ Kabo Leikai :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 09 May : Govt of Manipur
  • We live in the best of times to preach
  • Mixed Marriages & our Heritage !
  • Review Meeting on National Lok Adalat
  • Road blocking for everything
  • Promotion of nurseries for fruits & crop
  • Cong vigil essential to expose Govt
  • Thangjing Hill : Mischievous restrictions
  • Student appearing HSLC Exam #3 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 08 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Workshop with Vice-Chancellors of NE
  • BJP's major challenge in Nagaland - Church
  • Motherhood : A symbol of Love
  • Song of spring :: Poem
  • Mother's Day at Tamenglong
  • Stringent only means to deter poppy grower
  • Congress : Uncharacteristically quiet
  • 4th Documentor Imphal [7 May] :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 07 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Being a scapegoat for ages in this disaster
  • Entrepreneurs invest 8 lakhs to documentary
  • 12th Mahousa Ima Ningsing Tha
  • Float Festival of Tamil Nadu Temples
  • Yaoshang Thabal Competition #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 06 May : Govt of Manipur
  • On custodial death of Arambam Nanao
  • Placating Sharmila : The Iron Lady
  • Service Engineer @Info Trade, Imphal
  • Integrated farming- 2x farmers' income #3
  • Tree Plantation Programme at Kangla
  • Greed blinding rogue police elements
  • War on Drugs : Give it more teeth
  • Artisan Lourembam Bino Devi :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 05 May : Govt of Manipur
  • The Truth Alone Must Triumph
  • ICU bed facility launched in Tamenglong
  • World Hand Hygiene Day 2022
  • Workshop on Climate Change at Lilong
  • Water education for food security
  • Torpid tourism sector
  • Separate flag & constitution
  • Id-ul-Fitr @Hatta Golapati :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 04 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Lavish event management gone wrong
  • World Veterinary Day 2022
  • Condemnation on the killing of Nanao
  • Summer skin care tips for a natural glow
  • Centre's push for NSU commendable
  • Powerless power
  • Ole Wangkheimayum : Making a difference
  • COVID-19 Status 03 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Last surviving Naga regionalist- Shurhozelie
  • DoNER Minister visited NSU, Khuman Lampak
  • Market creating innovations & economic
  • Kuzholuzo takes charges as NPF Leader
  • Swachhata Pakhwada at IBSD Imphal
  • Jiribam Keithel #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 02 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Cheilaoba : A short story
  • A tribute to Asok Potsangbam
  • Id-ul-fitr :: From a book
  • Building India to be the world's master
  • Rapists don't deserve mercy
  • Taking the case to a higher Court
  • Cheirao-chingkaba #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 01 May : Govt of Manipur
  • May Calendar for Year 2022 : Tools
  • Nirupa Sanjenbam, Woman Achiever NE Fest
  • Student Centre for Excellence at Bishnupur
  • MPSC : Re-recruitment of MCS/MPS officers
  • Integrated farming- 2x farmers' income #2
  • Alangtakhou waterfall @Tml #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 30 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Blood Donation camp @Keisampat : Gallery
  • Appeal in High Court against Zou acquittal
  • Jubilee Celebration of Manipuri Cinema
  • Labour Day (May Day) -Chennai Connection
  • 24th - 30th April is World Immunization Week
  • Yaoshang Thabal @Mongshangei #4 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 29 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Foundation Day celebrated at IBSD Imphal
  • Alone but not lonely :: Poem
  • Gender balanced workforce
  • Govt North East plan: Repealing AFSPA
  • AFSPA repeal vow galore as NE enjoys peace
  • Promise of AFSPA free NE
  • The hike to the summit of Koubru
  • Lunghar in Ukhrul district #2 :: Gallery
  • Student appearing HSLC Exam #2 :: Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #3 :: Gallery
  • Tributes on Khongjom Day :: Gallery
  • Tongjei Maril (Old Cachar Road) :: Gallery
  • Painting Competition on 'Tribal' #2 :: Gallery
  • Floral tributes @ Cheiraoching #2 :: Gallery
  • Yaoshang Sports @Bamon Leikai :: Gallery
  • Rules of English Pronunciation : Download
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa [Apr 14] :: Gallery
  • Shajibu Cheiraoba @Pune :: Gallery
  • Yaoshang @Bengaluru #2 :: Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Shopping :: Gallery
  • Sub-Syllables in English : Book Download
  • Learn English pronunciation: Book Download
  • Learning calculating skills : Download Book