TODAY -

Aseismic Building Design in reference to Seismic Microzonation

Herojit Nongmaithem *



'Earthquake never kills; but the buildings do kill'.

Hope all can perceive the irony of the quote and is much in relevance with the present day. The process of globalization is at the peak throughout the world, and the best known impact is the present day urbanization which particularly for our state is seen agglomerated in and around the Imphal city.

Nevertheless, other parts of the state are on the boom of constructional phase. With the implementation of Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) and onset to launch Online Building Plan Approval System (OBPS), logical and scientific approach to the urban development needs to be sought or else will regret in the future.

Much insight needs to be considered for the interdisciplinary fields like social engineering and design sciences while focusing on urban planning. The primary concern is the public welfare, which includes considerations of efficiency, sanitation, protection and use of the environment, as well as effects on social and economic activities.

Although it predominantly concerns with the planning of settlements and communities, urban planning is also responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources, rural and agricultural land, parks and conserving areas of natural environmental significance. Practitioners of urban planning are concerned with research and analysis, strategic thinking, architecture, urban design, public consultation, policy recommendations, implementation and management.

Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) [IS 1893 (Part I): 2002], has grouped the country into four seismic zones, viz. Zone II, III, IV and V and the entire state of Manipur falls under the zone V which defines the maximum seismic hazardous scale. In this perplex seismicity and earthquake hazard have a vital role to play owing to the location of Imphal city.

Seismic knowledge can be explained in terms of three basics; Source, Path & Site Response. Source here implies the origin of the earthquake wave or the epicentre. It depends on the depth of the earthquake. Path indicates the route which will propagate the seismic waves; so to say the material of propagation of the wave.

Practically it's the medium of seismic wave transmission. Lastly Site Response collectively represents the spot where the intensity of the earthquake responds to the earthquake wave. For our state, findings suggest higher risk as the Path- the medium of the transmission of the seismic waves prone to disaster as the underlying rocks are soft sedimentary rocks. The entire Imphal valley has a thick alluvial cover which is highly susceptible to seismic waves and tends to magnify the earthquake intensity.

Thus the Site Response factor also predict to a more disastrous outcome. It's the Source factor which may be the protective reason withstanding from a gloomy earthquake disaster in our area where the depths of most of the earthquakes are either medium to deep seated earthquakes. So whenever shallow earthquakes do happen, the extent of damage can be manifold as the other factors are catalysed to hazard.

Questionable thoughts nowadays; Are the buildings and constructional projects obey building bylaws? Are the projects have written approval from the concerned authorities? How much of the public have awareness of the building bylaws? Are the concerned departments do faithful researches about the seismic hazard zonation?

The author beliefs all the answers are negative. Then most part of the state, or to specify the urban Manipur itself is exposed to the most dynamic disaster EARTHQUAKE. Manipur itself by nature is prone to seismic which should be minimised by technical combat against earthquake. Few simplified basics could prevent possible wraths of earthquake.

An earthquake-resistant building has four virtues in it, namely:
(a) Good Structural Configuration: Its size, shape and structural system carrying loads are such that they ensure a direct and smooth flow of inertia forces to the ground.

(b) Lateral Strength: The maximum lateral (horizontal) force that it can resist is such that the damage induced in it does not result in collapse.

(c) Adequate Stiffness: Its lateral load resisting system is such that the earthquake-induced deformations in it do not damage its contents under low-to moderate shaking.

(d) Good Ductility: Its capacity to undergo large deformations under severe earthquake shaking even after yielding is improved by favourable design and detailing strategies. BIS has prepared guidelines for retrofitting in existing structures.

A list of code books on construction practices of buildings and structures, to minimize the earthquake losses, is available. In addition to this, Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) & Building Materials & Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC) have also published guidelines and brochures for construction and retrofitting of buildings.

Loss of life and damage of property due to earthquakes could be considerably reduced through proper planning and implementation of pre- and post-disaster preparedness and management strategies by respective State and Central Government agencies in a coordinated manner following the above mentioned guidelines.

These studies involving preparation of geological, geomorphologic and land use maps followed by drilling, geological logging, standard penetration test and geophysical studies to demarcate the zones of least to most damage prone areas within the urban areas so as to helps the respective town and country planning agencies to formulate perspective planning within the overall earthquake impact minimization efforts.

Based on the above steps it is mandatory for all infrastructure/building/ development agencies (Public and Private) to design appropriate earthquake resistant building plans based on the relevant BIS Codes and other guidelines of BMTPC, HUDCO and NDMA for across the country.

Imphal Municipal Corporation Building Bye-laws (First Amendment) 2019 has incorporated all the 14 provisions of the Model Building Bye-Laws, 2016. However, only considering the provisions will not solve the issue. The reason is quite evident as symptomatic treatment will not cure this natural disaster. We need to diagnose the root cause of this disaster and pre channelize our efforts to minimize its impacts.

In the context, the scientific inputs about the seismically microzonated parts of Imphal city should be the base for any constructional projects. Recently concluded studies by GSI in 300 sq. km areas in and around Imphal City indicated 15.54 sq. km and 67 sq. km areas respectively as very high hazardous and high hazardous areas. Hencefort much technical rather strong administrative monitoring is vital to combat the menace of earthquake disaster.


* Herojit Nongmaithem wrote this article for Imphal Times
The writer is a Sr. Geologist at GSI, Imphal Office
This article was webcasted on January 24, 2020.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Manipur Legislative Assembly Building : Gallery
  • 71st Indian Republic Day #6 : Gallery
  • Rohan Philem : Cycle ride at Delhi
  • Career in food technology
  • Women Entrepreneurs from North east India
  • Workshop: High Energy Physics, IIT Guwahati
  • Nambul, Kongba in the list of infamous 60
  • Limitation of freedom sometime required
  • A remarkable journey of a Thang-Ta exponent
  • Day 4 : Sangai Fest #3 : Gallery
  • Education & Teachers in Manipur
  • Its all about learning
  • Manipur- 6 medals at NSG Fencing at Gujarat
  • Coronavirus - A grave threat
  • Class X examination has started !
  • Modi's romance with NE states
  • NE has 60 most polluted river stretches
  • Eepan Thaba -birth ceremony : Gallery
  • Changpombi, Aihong, Ajonah : eMing
  • Flood Light at Khuman Lampak : Gallery
  • List of nominees : Manipur Film Awards 2020
  • Extending ILP to Manipur Needs A Review
  • The great cosmic discovery - IX
  • 36th Central Conference of ICI at Jiribam
  • Festival with a significant message
  • Sirarakhong Hathei Phanit #2 : Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Understanding dementia #1
  • The Old Man in the Afternoon :: Poem
  • Nurturing Peace
  • Historic Bodo Accord: Beginning of an era
  • Atrial Flutter treated with Radio Frequency
  • Condolence & prayer meeting held
  • Is accepting gift by newsperson unethical
  • Fashion Show @ Sangai Fest #2 : Gallery
  • 71st Indian Republic Day #5 : Gallery
  • Lui-Ngai-Ni - Naga Seed Sowing Fest
  • Revelation for the new decade
  • Beneath our hearts :: Poem
  • Makhol : Discussing Arts
  • Online for Inner Line Permit
  • Redefining mob violence
  • Wakching Thagi Sanarei #1 :: eRang
  • For the Love of Valentine
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand : Timeline
  • Teach a Topic : Online Competition
  • Valentine's Day beauty tips
  • Street Vendor Restriction: Violation of Art 21
  • Community Radio Awareness Workshop - NE
  • School Fagathansi Mission: on Govt school
  • Re-thinking of the serious wrong
  • Amur Falcon Fest @Tamenglong #1 : Gallery
  • Wetlands & biodiversity: Promote actions..
  • Sexual & reproductive health key to SDGs
  • Maddening power of Dili
  • Nagaland BJP leaders joined NPF
  • 2019 review: Ministry of Renewable Energy #2
  • Enacting a farce, MPP style: Comical caricature
  • The silence breaks
  • Dzukou Valley Landscape #2 : Gallery
  • Day 4 : Sangai Fest #2 : Gallery
  • Can we dream of achieving Vision-2020 ?
  • The Ant :: Poem
  • Pulok Mukherjee take charge as Director IBSD
  • The Bodo Accord and after
  • Reqts at Birla Emporiums, Khurai
  • Third time in office for the AAP
  • Govt should stop harassing media
  • Thang Ta at JNMDA #1 : Gallery
  • pNTOgi peraH :: Seireng
  • Bodo accord: A hope for peace and stability
  • Endangered Legal Systems #2
  • A Wintery Song :: Poem
  • Career options in textile industry
  • Weekly Mao Market at Imphal
  • Education should eradicates superstition
  • Sirarakhong Village, Ukhrul : Gallery
  • National Master Athletics : Gallery
  • Dramas in Higher Education
  • Has Govt overlooked Bipartite Settlement?
  • RIST Talk -43 : Nobel Prize in Physics 2019
  • Cannabis in Parkinson's disease
  • Heed appeal of Chairman of COHSEM
  • Accord after IM cadres return from Myanmar
  • Nongmadi : Synopsis of the Shumang Leela
  • 71st Indian Republic Day #4 : Gallery
  • Investment on research & development
  • From Dawn till Dusk :: Poem
  • National Lok Adalat at Lamphel Court
  • India unites on wrong issues
  • Gandhari -Dance Drama #3 : Gallery
  • TwaI na_AosuM :: Seireng
  • Political will to solve climate crisis
  • Product Validation & Quality Control Training
  • Changemakers in Bio-Pharma : Lecture
  • Honey for radiant skin
  • NE ignored for many years stand of PM
  • The changing face of RIMS
  • Phisakol - Film Scenes #1 :: eRang
  • World Tourism Day at Noney #6 : Gallery
  • Dr Ng Brajachand - Reminiscence ...
  • The Strange Boy :: Poem
  • Reqts at PR Enterprises, Khurai
  • Interior Designer at Hatil Furniture
  • Need to restrict cross border interactions
  • The mental equation
  • Hentak - Indigenous Food Fest #2 : Gallery
  • Business Correspondent Model :: Book
  • Endangered Legal Systems #1
  • The great cosmic discovery - VIII
  • The Kaleidoscopic prism
  • Living in the age of nCoV & Swine Flu
  • Bloody battle for greed
  • Agaki Waterfall @ Tamei : Gallery
  • 71st Indian Republic Day #3 : Gallery
  • Community Policing in Manipur
  • Knitwear design as career option
  • Budget & wealth creation in Manipur
  • Visions sans missions & North East India
  • Free Speech & Expression in a Debacle
  • Apple Farm @ Kumbi : Gallery
  • Day 4 : Sangai Fest #1 : Gallery
  • World Wetlands Day 2020
  • Thounaojam Niranjoy breaks 'world record'
  • Discipline and students
  • 2019 review: Ministry of Renewable Energy #1
  • Academic activities paralyse in College
  • Yoga Instructor Training by MIT
  • FIR against MPSC
  • Manipur's Theatre is facing a dark time
  • NE festival to promote culture in Thailand
  • Highest priority accorded to NE in Budget
  • Maibam Nabakishore : Play-wright :: Profle
  • Right to die for people, terminally ill
  • Communities along Barak River #3: Gallery
  • Suresh Huidrom: Natl Architecture Award
  • The Chirp of a Sparrow :: Poem
  • India's last Governor-General
  • Vanishing wetlands: Anthropogenic pressures
  • Coronavirus prevention @ Moreh : Gallery
  • Tribute Rock Concert for (L) Hegin #3 : Gallery
  • Degradation of wetlands in Manipur
  • Tansen plays at Darbar
  • Water scarcity & stress
  • Computational Thinking (CT): Education
  • People have every right to know...
  • Maibi Jagoi @ JNMDA : Gallery
  • Novel Coronavirus outbreak : WHO
  • February Calendar for Year 2020 : Tools
  • Manipur : Champion at Vovinam National
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • CAT rank predictor: for an MBA aspirant
  • Delhi Fashion Club launched in Mumbai
  • MSAB Literary Meet at Benguluru
  • Sports- Making it to news for right reason
  • Judiciary on the rescue Indian Constitution
  • Mr. Khadang #1 :: eRang
  • 71st Indian Republic Day #2 : Gallery
  • Soraisam Keshoram : Natyabhusan (Drama)
  • Chasing a wonderland :: Poem
  • Manipur champion at 16th Sr Natl Jump Rope
  • Admission- Public Health Foundation of India
  • The Killing Fields 2013-20 : News Timeline
  • Padma Vibhushan for Mary Kom
  • The Changing face of Imphal Times
  • Conservation initiatives of Hornbills #2
  • Day 6 : Sangai Fest #2 : Gallery
  • Call for Proposal- Biotechnology Ignition
  • A Picnic by the Pond :: Poem
  • Year review: Min of Rural Development #2
  • Mumbai International Film Festival 2020
  • Nail care tips
  • Coronavirus: How prepared is Manipur ?
  • CMHT needs to be reviewed
  • 71st Indian Republic Day #1 : Gallery
  • Khangminashi - VI: Gallery
  • Custodial Death
  • Golden opportunity for a Speaker
  • Khangminashi - VI, Talk Series :: Report
  • 1000 trained in Fish Processing
  • Supports agitation call by CAF & PD Labourers
  • Medical camp at Thenjang, Churachandpur
  • Peace pact signed with the NDFB
  • A better and inclusive alternative
  • Gaan-Ngai at Kakhulong #2 : Gallery
  • Tribute Rock Concert for (L) Hegin #2 : Gallery
  • Mary Kom- Vibhushan, O Bembem- Bhushan
  • Felicitation of AMAND by Pune Municipal
  • Biotechnology Ignition Grant (only for NE)
  • Defence Academy & Naval Academy Exam
  • Condemn harassment of women IPS officer
  • On the assault of IPS Women Officer
  • Free Mock Interview Programme for UPSC
  • Replacing AR at check points
  • The way forward towards civility
  • Glass Painting by Khusbu: Gallery
  • Manipur Police Dog Squad : Gallery
  • Ethel's Wedding Journey :: Poem
  • India on 71st Republic Day
  • Supreme Court's ruling on Anti-Defection Law
  • Let the light lead to growth
  • Republic Day celebrated amid tight security
  • Angangdagi Mairen Onba :: Funga Wari
  • Day 6 : Sangai Fest #1 : Gallery
  • Public as leader in a Republic
  • 2020 :: Poem
  • Aung San Suu Kyi - 'The Lady with no Fear'
  • The endocannabinoid system in human body
  • Now CSOs started infringing to media freedom
  • Aerial- Imp to Tamenglong #2: Gallery
  • Pot Lannaba @ Houchongba #2 : Gallery
  • Chingda Satpi Engellei #4 :: eRang
  • 28th Imphal Book Fair #2 : Gallery
  • Hentak - Indigenous Food Festival #1 : Gallery
  • Tribute Rock Concert for (L) Hegin #1 : Gallery
  • AMWJU amends code of conduct- Jan 22 2020
  • Lalkansung - Natl Child Award for Achievement
  • Landscape of Purul, Senapati #2 : Gallery
  • Of bibliophile & Imphal Book Fair 2020
  • Constitutional protections to specific groups #2
  • Gaan-Ngai at Kakhulong #1 : Gallery
  • Children Adventure Sports Camp #2 : Gallery
  • Special Police Unit for NE in Delhi
  • Conservation initiatives of Hornbills #1
  • Day 3 : Sangai Fest #4 : Gallery
  • Statehood Women's Polo : Gallery
  • 28th Imphal Book Fair #1 : Gallery
  • Winter Relief Program @Patsoi: Gallery
  • Of our Responsibility and our Rights
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #2: Gallery
  • Gaan-Ngai @Chingkham Kabui Khul: Gallery
  • Cultural @ Shirui Lily Fest #4 : Gallery
  • Gaan-Ngai @ Ramji Kabui Khul : Gallery
  • Thong Nambonbi broke apart: Gallery
  • 'Nongju Ahing' :: eRang Classic Photos
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #1: Gallery
  • New Year picnic @Singda Dam : Gallery
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2019 #6: Gallery
  • Tolloi, Ukhrul :: 360 Panorama View
  • SPONSORED ADS