Sausage as a value added product
A concept for micro-food processing sector/entrepreuneurship in Manipur

Dr Angam Raleng / Dr Ng Joykumar / Dr Wanglar Chimwar / Saroj Kumar Behera *


Sausage is a food item which is stuffed with well-seasoned minced meat usually in a casing of prepared animal intestine or artificial sausage casing usually made from cellulose, collagen, and plastic and may always not be edible. Sausages are the best source of protein which is the power source of amino acids, healthy benefitting minerals, and the essential vitamins which is required for proper body functioning.

Sausages are classified into fresh sausage, fermented sausage, smoked sausage, emulsion-type sausage, and cooked sausage. Fresh sausages are made from fresh meats which are, as a rule, neither cured, smoked, fermented nor cooked. Fresh sausages must be kept under refrigeration prior to eating. They are heated by the consumer himself before serving. Fermented sausages are made from cured or uncured, fermented and often smoked meats but they are not heat processed, they are divided into semi-dry and dry sausages.

Smoked precooked sausages are mostly cured, non-fermented products; their shelf life is increased by heating due to partial reduction of their moisture content; they are usually finally cooked before consumption. Emulsion-type sausages comprise ready-to-eat products made from comminuted and well- homogenized cured meats, fatty tissue, water, and seasonings, usually smoked and slightly cooked.

In Europe, these sausages are known as “scalded” because they are only scalded (pasteurized) and not fully cooked. Cooked sausages are ready-to-serve products, basically made from previously cooked fresh or exceptionally cured raw materials, subjected to final cooking after stuffing, with or without additional smoking. A subgroup of these sausages consists of cooked or baked specialties that are not stuffed into casings but moulded and, therefore, not always considered as sausages.

Past, present, and future scenario of the sausage in Manipur

Sausages are available in supermarkets in big metropolitan cities in a number of varieties such as the pork sausages, chicken sausages, beef sausages etc. As we are living in a fast-changing world, the working people don’t get enough time for preparing their food and this type of food provides a quick, convenient, and ready-to-eat food item.

Also, in this present world, women as well started to work full time like men which eventually leads to insufficient time to cook. Andsausage provides an easy and quick food item for the kid’s tiffin as well for snacking during the lunch break in schools and also providing the necessary nutrients for the school going children. In order to increase the quality of the sausage and lower the price of the meat goods, non-meat ingredients are generally used.

The components in these meat products come from a variety of sources, including pulses, dairy, eggs, plants, and microorganisms, including probiotics. In order to improve the emulsified properties of the sausage product, starches could be used as “binders” which will bind and hold all the ingredients together so that the sausage doesn’t break down individually.Additionally, starches used in non-meat components can promote the production of higher-quality, better nutrition, and healthy sausage.

In Manipur, sausages were made traditionally from time immemorial specially the tribal communities of the state as a special dish which is eaten in certain special occasions, marriages and in feast when the whole pig is being slaughtered to feed the guest and the community as a whole present in the gathering. The sausages were traditionally made from the pork innards, blood along with the locally grown traditional herbs and spices which is properly mixed together and stuffed into the thoroughly washed and cleaned pork small intestine and sometimes large intestine.

The sausage is then boiled in clean water in a big vessel which is lined with banana leaves at the bottom of the vessel. The sausage is pricked with some pointed thin wooden pick or with the help of needle while the sausage is halfway boiled in order to release the air trapped inside the sausage casing thereby avoiding the cracking and bursting of the sausage.

After boiling the sausage is taken out of the vessel and put it aside for some time to cool off and thereafter it is cut into desired size or length and is ready to be consumed hot. The cut sausage is also pan fried with little oil and is consume with onion and green chillies, also the sausage can be boiled with ginger, garlic, green chillies, onions, salt, turmeric powder and seasoned with coriander leavesand eaten as a snack or it can also be servedalong with white rice.

Packaged sausages mainly pork, chicken, beef, fish sausages are also available commercially inmini supermarketsand general stores in Imphal mostly in frozen forms which is imported from others states or from other countries specially from South Asian Countries.

The sausages which is usually available in the market is added and mixed with non- meat ingredients such as soy protein powder, non-fat milk powder, potatoes starch etc., to impart flavour, lower bacterial growth, and increase the yield of the sausage production which ultimately leads to compromising the quality and eventually lowering the genuine meatytaste of the sausages.

In addition, the price is skyrocketed which makes lots of people to try these sausages for one-time basis on account of its blend taste, cut nutrition, and the high pricewhich doesn’t match with the price for which it is being sold in the market.

Local herbs in Manipur such as Wild coriander (Sa maroi) and Pricky winged leaf (Mukthrubi) are very popularly used in curry and also in condiments. Wild coriander (Eryngium foetidum L) exhibits anticonvulsant, antimicrobial and analgesic properties.

They are also rich in Vit A, Vit B1, Vit B2, Vit C, calcium, and iron.Pricky winged leaf (Zanthoxylumarmatum) is an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, nootropic and anti-fungal and anti-bacterial property. These two local herbs can also be incorporated and mixed with the other components of the sausage which will not only develop the local taste but also benefit in certain health and nutrition aspects.

Why is this new product required in Manipur?

In view of the limited sausages which is available in Manipur apart from the pork sausages which is locally made in some specific areas in tribal community, the lack of variety of the sausages which is available locally and atcheaper and affordable price, also considering the local tasteand nutritional aspects of the sausages along with the packaging and labelling considerations for the best shelf life, and as the chicken consumers here in the state is more as compared to the rest of the non-vegetable items available.

Lastly, the cost factor of the chicken is alsolower as compared to the other meat available here in the state.So, owing to the above-mentioned reasons, the new product i.e., chicken sausage will have more potential and demand as a ready-to-eat item if the method of preparation and production is standardized and is available for the consumers in the market.

Formulation and development of Chicken sausage

The main raw material for development of the sausage is the meat viz., chicken, pork, beef, fish etc. Other ingredients required in the development of the sausagesare onion, garlic, ginger, fat, egg, corn starch, salt, red chilli powder, vegetable oil, spices, along with the local herbs etc. The casing for filling or stuffing the sausage mixturecan be the natural intestine of the animals usually pork intestine which is used earlier in olden days.

The casing also comes in synthetic form which is artificial cellulose casings. The casing can also be of sheep intestine which is clean and processed and usually sold in dried form in bundles. This casing needs to be soaked in water for some hours or it can be soaked overnight prior to usage, which is very much easy to use and handle, doesn’t carry any odour as those in natural intestine casings, looks good and relatively cheaper as well.

The chicken breast is usually preferred as it contains more flesh and less bones for sausage making. The chicken skin is generally used in the form of fat which is essential in sausage making as it provides taste and also serves as a binding material for the sausage mixture. The chicken and the fat areclean and wash thoroughly withclean water two to three times.

The chicken is then deboned, cut into small cubes, and the skin slice into thin strandsor as per requirement. Then,theyare marinated in salt for some timeto flavour and tenderise the flesh. The marinated poultry is combined with the other ingredients such as, spices, corn starch, egg, chilli powder, turmeric powder, salt, herbs etc., mince and mix completely in a meat mincer or any food processor can also be used. With the aid of a correctly oiled funnel, the minced components are manually added, or automatic sausage filler can also be used if available.

To ensure correct removal of air bubbles and uniform filling distribution throughout the casing, the end of the casing is fastened to the bottom of the funnel, and the minced ingredients are stuffed from the top of the funnel. The sausage ends are then sealed and tied off at the desired/appropriate length. The sausage is then boiled or steamedwith clean water at 60-90ºC for 15-30 minutes followed by direct cooling in the tap water for some time.

After the water bath,the sausages are taken out from the water and is packed in normal hand sealer, or it can also bepacked in vacuum packaging machine for best storage results and shelf life. It is then stored in the deep freezer until consumption.

As far as the preparation or consuming pattern is concerned, the sausage is pan fried with a little oil smeared on the pan and cooks until the sausage turns into golden brown in colour. Then the sausage is ready to be consumed with some dipping’s or itto taste best with the local chutney which is prepared with red chilli, garlic, onion, salt, and coriander leaves.


The standardized formulation and development process of the sausage will open a new door formaking an indigenous chicken sausage which is enrich with different health benefits, taste, and aroma from the local herbs. This development will give a new horizon in the variety of sausages which is available in the local market that will give chicken lovers an all-new taste and at the same time add to the variety.

And the people will get to eat chicken sausages which is indigenous developed, and with a touch of the indigenous local herbs and spices at relatively much cheaper and affordable price. Also, the local micro-food processing sector, Self Help Groups (SHGs) and the food entrepreneurs will also get new ideas and technology which will enhance the growth, production, development, and income of their enterprises and local micro-food processing sector.

For further details contact: -
Public Relations& Media Management Cell,
CAU, Imphal.

* Dr Angam Raleng / Dr Ng Joykumar / Dr Wanglar Chimwar / Saroj Kumar Behera wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writers are from College of Food Technology, Lamphelpat, Central Agricultural University, Imphal

This article was webcasted on May 27 2023 .

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