TODAY -

Organic seed production - Issues and strategies
- Part 5 -

L Meghachandra Singh *



CONCLUSION

The first International Conference on Organic Seeds, Rome, 2004 concluded with the flowing recommendations:
1. Networking to provide training, workshops and materials to integrate seed production in ecological whole-farm systems.
2. Establishment of demonstration seed for school and community food gardens with seed saving and activities.
3 Enhance, biodiversity of land races of food crops through seed banks seed exchange and farmers' seed crops, and on-farm biodiversity ofnativeplant habitats for beneficial insect pollinators and predators of insect pest.
4. Support participatory on-farm breeding to select and improve native, locally adapted varieties for desirable traits, such as resistance to local disease and pest, flavour and nutrition.
5. Collect, document and share indigenousknowledge of organic seed treatments.
6. Disseminate activities in an annual conference and on a linked website.

Organic culture is not new to mankind. Some cultural practices have already been reported by different authorities for organic seed production but full proof specific packages for different varieties/crops need to be standardized for the region, incorporating all the available indigenoustechnologies/practices as well as information. In the north east context, it requires to properly identify and assess which crops are to be prioritized for organic production and for which purpose (based on demand groups: whether for local market or for export).

For the local markets there may not be very strict requirements as per IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Farming), and conventional or traditional seeds and planting materials could be used. But in those commodities, which we want to export particularly low volume high value commodities, organic production has to be strictly as per requirements of IFOAM and the seeds to be used could also have to be organically certified. Thus, development of organic varieties (which requires less Organic Rice Seed Production

Soil type

Alluvial Soil, Sandy clay and Clayey soil types are suitable for paddy cultivation

Seed Rate

The quantities of organic rice seeds required for one hectare of land under different situations are as given below.
o Short duration variety (90-110 days) transplanted -60-70 kg
o Medium duration variety (110-125 days) transplanted -40-60 kg
o Long duration variety (above 125 days) transplanted -30-40 kg
o Dry and rain fed sowing -90-100 kg

Seed Treatment

o Separation of good quality seeds: Unviable/unfilled seeds can be separated by floating the seeds in water. Salt or eggs may be used to increase the water density. This could be avoided if Certified seed is used.
o Seed treatment with Pseudomonas: 750g of pseudomonas can be mixed with one litre of cooled rice gruel. The sprouted seeds are spread on a cemented floor. Pseudomonas extract can be sprinkled over the sprouted seeds and mixed well.

Preparation of Nursery

Nursery area of 700-800 sq.m is required for cultivating in one hectare of land. The land should be ploughed 6-8 times and neem leaves/Artemesia/Vitex should be applied as basal manure. For high yielding varieties, 2.5 kg of neem cake should be applied for as basal manure. For high yielding varieties, 2.5 kg of neem cake should be applied per cent of nursery. Then, the sprouted seeds should be strewn in the nursery. 45-50 kg of gypsum should be applied to the nursery before uprooting the seedlings to avoid any damage caused to the roots.

Preparation of Main Field

Green manure seeds should be sown on the main field. The green manure plants should be ploughed into the soil when they are 45-60 days old. The main field should be ploughed well for 6-8 times and leveled.

Basal Manure

i) Farmyard manure : 12-15 tonnes/ha
ii) Poultry waste : 5 tonnes/ha
iii) Vermicompost : 5 tonnes/ha
Anyone of the above mentioned manure should be applied during the last ploughing.
iv) 100-120 kg of neem cake should be applied as a basal manure.
v) 10% Amirthakaraisal should be sprayed before transplanting. Otherwise for 1ha of land, 800-1200 litres of Amirthakaraisal should be mixed with water and irrigated

Application of Biofertilizers

5 kg of Azospirillum or 5 kg of phosphobacteria should be mixed with 75 kg of sand or compost and strewn on the field.

Transportation

o 1-3 seedlings should be planted per hill.

Spacing

Short duration variety : 5 x 10 cm
Medium duration variety : 20 x 10 cm
Long duration variety : 20 x 15 cm

Growing of Azolla or Blue Green Algae

Azolla or Blue Green Algae should be strewn on the field 5-10 days after transplanting. After 25 days and 45-50 days of strewing, the field should be drained and the algae should be stamped into the soil.

Top Dressing

After weeding, 25 kg of neem cake or groundnut cake should be applied as top dressing 120-150 kg of vermicompost or 120 kg of bone meal can be applied as top dressing. For medium and long duration varieties, 75 kg of groundnut cake should be applied as top dressing after 50-60 days after transplanting.

Spraying of Panchakavya

For coarse varieties, one spray of 3% panchakavya should be given during tillering and booting stage. For fine varieties, one spray of 3% panchakavya should be given during the booting stage.

Pest and Disease Management

Proper management measures should be taken for specific pest and disease attacks.

Keeping Neem cake bags in Irrigation Canals

Neem cake bags can be placed in the irrigation canal. This should be kept until the crop attains the milky stage.

Placing Bird Perches

Once the crop develops a dark green colour, about 25-27 bird perches should be placed per ha of the field. The bird perch should be 2-3 feet above the level of the crop. The perches should be removed once the crop attains the tillering stage.

Tying of Trichogramma Cards

The egg card of the parasitoid Trichogramma japonicum should be tied to the crop from the 25th day after transplanting. This should be done thrice at 15 days interval (ie. On 25th, 40th and 55th day).

Using Pheromone Traps

The male adult moths of yellow stem borer can be attracted and trapped using pheromone traps. About 3 pheromone traps should be placed in one acre of the field. This trap should be 2 ft above the crop level.

Using Light Traps

Once the crop develops a dark green colour, about 8 light traps should be placed in one acre of the field. The light trap should be 2-3 feet above the level of the crop.

Water Management

Paddy crop requires continuous irrigation. At least one-inch level of water should stagnate in the field.

Harvest

The grains should be harvested once they turn yellow.

Storage of organic seeds

Besides the organic ways of seed production, the seeds need to be properly stored and handled only organically without any chemical treatments or fumigants. Proper drying below 12% moisture before and during storage, treatments with locally available botanicals like Artemesia, Vitex fumigants of combined Goniothalamus and Plectranthus are found useful. If neem products are available, seeds can be mixed with neem seed kernel/leaf powders before storage. Time to time inspection drying, cleaning etc. are to be carried out regularly during storage.

ORGANIC SEED PRODUCTION IN OTHER CROPS

In general, the production packages of organic seeds in many crops, though are yet to be established (except in few crops), could be almost similar with that of conventional seeds, except, the restriction in usage of inorganic chemicals (fertilizers/pesticides), GM seeds, hybrids with male sterility. Of this, plant protection is the most crucial component in quality seed production.


Concluded ....


* L Meghachandra Singh wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on December 09 2022.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • My Memories of Imphal #8 : Download
  • MaolKeki Foundation celebrates 5th Anniv
  • COVID-19 Status 28 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • As a war rages...
  • Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose #2
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Wakhal Eronba (Leela) #2 :: Gallery
  • Echoes of Higher Education in Manipur
  • COVID-19 Status 27 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • National Tourism Day 2023
  • Multi-State Cooperative Seed Society
  • The Mute Tree :: Poem
  • Artificial Intelligence Weapons, World at risk
  • Axe falls on 5 as anti-drug drive intensifies
  • Imphal-Ukhrul road stretch
  • Barak Festival & Dam Plans: Contradictions
  • Sangai Fest: Thang Ta :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 26 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Metamorphosis: 2023, Naga CM not need ...
  • History of Diabetes
  • Green Chemistry, for a sustainable world #2
  • Mr Imphal East Body Building :: Gallery
  • Taibang Keithel (2018) :: Review
  • Seiboi Singsit: Top achiever in Forest Dept
  • A Legal Discussion on "Frontier Nagaland"
  • Netaji & Dattatreya Hosabale
  • Thirukkural, the universal scripture
  • Perennial boundary row
  • Growing traffic congestion in Imphal
  • Support of all essential to win war on drugs
  • NH-102, part of Indo-Burma Road :: Gallery
  • Transforming education for Govt schools
  • COVID-19 Status 24 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Crying foul of officials of Forest Dept
  • Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose #1
  • Fish stock manipulation techniques #2
  • Workplace mental health matters
  • Education : Outside Manipur, why ?
  • Hand over case to CBI demand
  • Ibudhou Thangjing Lai Haraoba #7 :: Gallery
  • Swiss Artist in Manipur
  • Deepika Mayanglambam: Netaji Bose Award
  • COVID-19 Status 23 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Yes to: "Nagas Are Moving Ahead"
  • 4th Plenary Session of World Meetei Council
  • Tips for preventing cold weather acne
  • No time for verbal spat over drug issue
  • Louroi Festival @ Khurai #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Green Chemistry, for a sustainable world #1
  • Avatar of God :: Poem
  • ABHM appoints President for Northeast
  • A journey towards knowing ourselves
  • Follow up action - dismissal from service
  • More than half a century of Statehood
  • My Memories of Imphal #7 : Download
  • Tanthapolis Cinema at Sanakeithel
  • Nagas are moving ahead : A Commentary
  • COVID-19 Status 21 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Vermi with aquaculture for farmer's income
  • The shameful game behind the games
  • Sangai Fest: Basanta Raas #1 :: Gallery
  • My fear for Manipuri Khorirol
  • COVID-19 Status 20 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • 50 years of NS films to be observed
  • Time to use election to defeat Status quoists
  • Courage Begets Crown :: Poem
  • RSS, Mohan Bhagwat's mind
  • Healthcare sector in hills on Govt radar
  • Bringing home the spirit of the WC
  • Tributes to Oja Naba Wareppa :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Mishti Doi : Kolkata Diary
  • Fish stock manipulation techniques #1
  • Vibrant border villages: A 'game changer'
  • Keep your hands soft and smooth this winter
  • Success tale of Phalee village
  • Drugs and poppy in dry Manipur
  • Fish Fair @Hapta Kangjeibung #2 :: Gallery
  • The Sangai Film Festival, 2022
  • COVID-19 Status 18 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Missionaries left enduring righteousness
  • Transaction of budget & financial business
  • Reliance Foundation Youth Sports concluded
  • Improved highways perilous for rule resisters
  • An unlikely ally for ATSUM
  • Nupilan & its impact in Manipuri society
  • Romi Meitei's Eikhoigi Yum :: Review
  • COVID-19 Status 17 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Selected Screen Projects for Screen Lab
  • Moirang & Port Blair in freedom struggle #2
  • National Lok Adalat at Lamphelpat
  • 33rd Phek Area Sports Association Meet
  • Indian Army as a career choice
  • Multiple hurdles in battling drug menace
  • A process dating back to 1997
  • Louroi Festival @ Khurai #1 :: Gallery
  • South East Asian in performing art
  • COVID-19 Status 16 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • BINER 2.0 @Manipur Tech Innovation hub
  • Frontier Nagaland- Marching toward Solution
  • Are our life predetermined by a higher power
  • The 108 Divya Desam Temples
  • Water crisis here to stay
  • Beyond arresting the 5 cops
  • 29th Imphal Book Fair Jan 15 2023 :: Gallery
  • 'Yumpham yaodaba / khudam leitaba wafamni'
  • Capacity Building program at Moreh
  • Health Technology : Can it solve health issues
  • A Sternly Life :: Poem
  • Sukrunye, festival of Chakhesang at Phek
  • Empowering through sex education #2
  • 'War on drugs' campaign winnable...
  • Second edition of the War on Drugs
  • My Memories of Imphal #6 : Download
  • Huidrom Nageshwar: Expedition to Antarctica
  • NNPG and NSCN joint statement
  • COVID-19 Status 14 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • The Village Playground :: Poem
  • Diabetes treatment beyond medications
  • TN CM Stalin out to prove good politics...
  • Yaoshang Thabal competition #3 :: Gallery
  • 'Champions of Film Heritage Award'
  • COVID-19 Status 13 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • BIG grant, Ideation to Proof of concept
  • Amit Shah poses teasers for Naga leaders
  • State delimitation & gerrymandering
  • Nail care in Winters
  • Half-hearted upgrade of DM University
  • Prohibition lifted, now what ?
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #2 :: Gallery
  • Around the famous Loktak Lake!
  • Moirang & Port Blair in freedom struggle #1
  • COVID-19 Status 12 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • NE India Launchpad 2.0 program
  • L Tonthoi: Best Female Actor @ GIFC
  • World Climate 2022, an overview
  • Drying up of Singda dam water fallout...
  • Shiv Sena: Hitting the right button
  • Nupilal Ningshing Lamjel #4 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 11 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Frontier Nagaland Movement- a better world
  • An introduction to Manipuri Vaishnavism #2
  • Buried Deep :: Poem
  • Empowering through sex education #1
  • Robert Memorial Badminton at Senapati
  • Firearms in the hands of reckless denizen
  • Lessons from the past
  • State Level Gaan Ngai #2 :: Gallery
  • Ima Savitri - Documentary film : Review
  • COVID-19 Status 10 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • 'Chahi Taret Khuntakpa' at Cachar
  • Emerging Manipur peace, prosperity @growth
  • State of the States 2022: Manipur on top
  • War on Drugs mission far from being over
  • Of Leikhom, Leinang & Uphul, Waiphul
  • New Year picnic @Singda #2 :: Gallery
  • Sangai Festival: Sangai Dance :: Gallery
  • Indo-Naga Talks (2012-) :: News Timeline
  • COVID-19 Status 09 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • 50th years of Manipuri Cinema celebration !
  • Nations wished to no more have war
  • Emerging career options
  • Spike in vehicle sale: Traffic chaos imminent
  • Cong making the right noises
  • Tupul Landslide site construction :: Gallery
  • Addressing skill aspirations among adolescent
  • COVID-19 Status 08 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Military Tattoo & Tribal Dance Festival
  • Protest: Residential proof cancel to Chakma
  • Dont give up :: Poem
  • Octave 2023 : North East cultural in Chennai
  • Trigger-happy cops devil in protector's cloak
  • Inputs on road safety for all
  • My Memories of Imphal #5 : Download
  • Act East & Railway Network in Imphal
  • COVID-19 Status 07 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • How to deal with smartphone addiction
  • e-Services Manipur: Digital India Award 2022
  • The catapult of motivation
  • The coolest winter foot care tips
  • Shumang Leela Kumhei #1 :: Gallery
  • An introduction to Manipuri Vaishnavism #1
  • Report: Lecture on Indo-Pacific Development
  • Inking peace pact by Zeliangrong group
  • The Buck Stops Here :: Poem
  • Scrutinize Licensed Gun Issuance
  • India's strategy to low-carbon development
  • Manipur Fashion Extravaganza #4 :: Gallery
  • Folk and spiritual music from SIYOM
  • Wellness for prosperous New Year 2023
  • COVID-19 Status 05 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Lecture: Development in Indo-Pacific Region
  • Work like Hiraba's son
  • Effect of Frontier Nagaland demand in NE
  • Greater Lim versus Frontier Nagaland
  • State Level Gaan Ngai #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 04 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Manipur : most improved Small State
  • The New Year Resolution :: Poem
  • New year traditions and beliefs
  • India's G20 Presidency: Addressing the 4Ds
  • Limestone Cave of Andamans
  • Aquaculture policy must for supply demand
  • Influence of football greats on the game
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #1 :: Gallery
  • Gaan-Ngai festival : Read all about it
  • COVID-19 Status 03 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Welcome New Year 2023
  • 4th January is the World Braille Day
  • Listen to the wind :: Poem
  • Headless human rights' body
  • Global spike of Covid cases
  • New Year picnic @Singda #1 :: Gallery
  • A Hymn for Goddess Emoinu
  • COVID-19 Status 02 Jan : Govt of Manipur
  • Project Associate @ SAIRAM, Patsoi
  • The portrait of a young man :: Poem
  • Attraversiamo
  • Festival tourism lends boost to Meghalaya
  • New Year filled with high hopes
  • Bye 2022, hello 2023
  • MANITEX 2022 @ Nilakuthi #2 :: Gallery
  • The Mother of All :: Poem
  • Rakhine State of Myanmar
  • Bamboo for precast structures in road
  • India can guide in fighting Covid reemergence
  • The two sides of a window
  • My Memories of Imphal #4 : Download
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2022 #6: Gallery
  • Happy New Year 2023 :: Poem
  • Saphu rescued and set-free
  • The Question of Frontier Nagaland
  • Goat farming & management
  • Adapting the Right Way
  • Likon Sanaba @ Ningthoukhong #1 :: Gallery
  • Impact of global warming on traditional farming
  • 17th Annual Art Exhibition 2022 #3 :: Gallery
  • January Calendar for Year 2023 : Tools
  • Mobile food stall @ Imphal #2 :: Gallery
  • Yumjao Lairemma Haraoba #2 :: Gallery
  • Nupilal Ningshing Lamjel #3 :: Gallery
  • View of Kabow Valley :: Gallery
  • Eikhoigi Yum wins awards at IFFK Kerala
  • Manipur Journalist Awards #2 :: Gallery
  • Dr Savitadidi N Mehta Museum :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 10: Closing #2 :: Gallery
  • Ningol Chakkouba @ Pune :: Gallery
  • Linthoi Chanambam- Judo Player :: Gallery
  • Olympians & National awardees of Manipur
  • Downloadable Manipuri Calendar for 2023