TODAY -

Management of acid soil in NE Hill region for sustainable crop production

P Debnath, SK Pattannaik, D Sah, AK Pandey *



In India, most of the acid soils are sedentary and are found in hilly terrains. Generally, these are common on hill tops, hill slopes, terrace and un-terraced uplands, medium lands and valley. The acid soils (pH < 6.5) in India occupy approximately 90 million ha of the geographical area. Acidic soils below pH 5.5 occupy around 25 million ha of arable land.

Such type of problematic soils is mainly concentrated in North Eastern region of India. In North East India more than 80 per cent of land is under hilly terrain having soil pH less than 5.5. The toxicity of soil Al has been recognized as one of the important factors for limiting the productivity of crops on acid soil. Low productivity of this soil has been attributed to low availability of P, Ca, Mg, and Mo and toxicity of Al, Fe, and Mn.

Acid soils are bases unsaturated and consequently do not sustain the crop productivity even with application of inorganic fertilizer. Therefore, satisfactory crop yield is not obtained unless these soils are properly amended with lime. Rock phosphate, FYM and vermicompost are main sources of nutrient for increasing the nutrient supply capacity in acid soils.

The farmers of the region in general are hill farmers, they have common apathy towards the use of inorganic fertilizer. High rainfall and climate situation augment to produce a huge amount of biomass. Conversion of these organic residues may lead to sustain the production in acid oils of this state.

Problems associated with acid soils

The acid soil has a pH of less than 5.6 and usually below pH 5.0. The low soil pH is associated with a number of soil chemical and biological characteristics that manifest themselves as the component of the problem of acid soil syndrome. These components may adversely affect plant growth. The following specific problems are associated with acid soil.

1. Aluminium toxicity
2. Manganese toxicity
3. Molybdenum deficiency
4. Legume nodulation failure
5. Heavy infestation of plant diseases
6. Calcium and magnesium deficiency
7. Reduction of soil biological activity
8. Reduction of phosphorus availability
9. Bacterial growth is inhibited by Al and Fe toxicity.

Liming

Liming improves the base status, inactivates Fe, Mn and Al in soil danger of toxicity of micronutrient. Liming stimulates microbiological activity in soil, helping mineralization of organic N and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Application of lime at 10 per cent of lime requirement every year placed in furrows has been found effective.

For the soils of East Khasi hills, addition of lime at 25 per cent of lime requirement was good enough from the economic point of view. Addition of lime at 25 percent of lime requirement neutralized the exchangeable Al of Alfisols, Inceptisols and Ultisols.

Despite the effectiveness of the naturally occurring calcitic and dolomitic limestone as amendments for acid soil, profitability of their use is often doubtful. This is so because lime requirement are high and leaching losses are also high.

Lime stone reserve of NE India
Sl. No. States Reserves (million tonnes)
1. Arunachal Pradesh 1503
2 Assam 135
3. Manipur 4.6
4 Meghalaya 4665
5 Nagaland 450
6 Sikkim 2.1

Quality characterization of liming materials

The quality of agriculture limestone in neutralizing soil acidity is to a large extend governed by its Ca and Mg content, particle size, moisture content, neutralizing value and cost, etc. Natural limestones must be crushed before they are mixed with the soil.

Limestones crushed to pass a 100 mesh sieve are almost as reactive as the oxide and hydroxide, while a limestone crushed to pass a 20 mesh can be taken considerably longer to exert its full effects on soil pH. This is because the reactivity of a liming material seen to be related to its active surface area.

Effectiveness of limestone

Sl. No. Limestone passing through Efficiency rating
1 60-100 mesh sieve 100
2 20-60 mesh sieve 60
3 8-10 mesh sieve 20
Source: Das, D.K. 2011

The chemical effectiveness of an agriculture limestone is evaluated on the basis of its CaCO3 equivalence. This is defined as the acid neutralizing capacity of the liming material expressed as weight percent of CaCo3.

The relative capacity of particular liming material to neutralize a certain amount of H+ in the soil is its neutralizing value. All the liming materials for this purpose are composed against pure CaCo3 which is known to have a neutralizing value of 100 (this is also its molecular weight). The smaller the materials required neutralizing a definite quantity of H+, the higher is its neutralizing value.

Relative neutralizing power of different forms of lime

Form of lime Molecular weight Neutralizing value percent Pound equivalent to 1 Ton of pure CaCo3
Calcium carbonate 100 100 2000
Magnesium carbonate 84 119 1680
Calcium hydroxide 74 135 1480
Magnesium hydroxide 58 172 1160
Calcium oxide 56 178 1120
Magnesium oxide 40 250 800
Source: Das, D.K. 2011

Technology of lime use
When to apply lime


Generally lime may be applied any time during the year. However, crop rotation, farming system and the form of lime used will be the deciding factors. When quick reacting hydrated lime is used, it should be added to low rate and may be applied at the time of planting.

In cereal legume rotation apply lime before cereal. When potato is taken in rotation, liming should follow it to keep the soil organism under control. If a farmer fails to set limestone applied before planting a crop, stop dressing of limestone should be considered as an emergency measure.

How to apply lime

The principal requirement of any method of applying lime is that it should be distributed evenly and should be thoroughly mixed with soil. The only way of mixing the lime thoroughly with the soil is by tillage operations. When large application are used, split application are recommended, half before ploughing and rest after ploughing, usually to 10-15 cm depth.

Frequency of liming

The residual effects of liming are usually expected to last for 5-7 years. An annual application of 200-500 kg lime/ha/year has been reported to be adequate to maintain the level of calcium and magnesium in the soil under continuous cropping while keeping a check on the release of exchangeable aluminium.

Lime requirement (ton per acre) for different pH targets

Measured pH of soil buffer suspension Lime requirement in to per acre of pure CaCO3 for different pH targets
pH 6.0 pH 6.4 pH 6.8
4.8 9.1 10.6 12.4
4.9 8.6 10.1 11.8
5.0 8.2 9.6 11.2
5.1 7.8 9.1 10.6
5.2 7.4 8.6 10.0
5.3 6.9 8.2 9.4
5.4 6.5 7.7 8.9
5.5 6.0 7.2 8.3
5.6 5.6 6.7 7.1
5.7 5.2 6.2 7.1
5.8 4.8 5.7 6.5
5.9 4.4 5.2 6.0
6.0 3.9 4.7 5.4
6.1 3.5 4.2 4.8
6.2 3.1 3.7 4.2
6.3 2.7 3.2 3.7
6.4 2.3 2.7 3.1
6.5 1.8 2.2 2.5
6.6 1.4 1.7 1.9
6.7 1.0 1.2 1.4

Industrial wastes as amendments for acid soil

The choice of amendment for acid soils very much depends on the availability of lime source and its cost. Industrial wastes such as steel mill slag, blast furnace slag, lime sludge from paper mills, cement kiln wastes, precipitated calcium carbonate etc., have been used as amendment. Lime sludge from paper mills contain 65-68% CaCo3, 2% R2O3 (sesquioxide), 1% free CaO and 1.5% free alkali.

The paper mills located in the acid soil regions of Assam, Nagaland, West Bengal, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh produce around 187000 tons of lime sludge annually which could be used for amending acid soils.

Good grade limestone suitable for industrial use cannot possibly be recommended as agricultural lime. Poor grade lime with comparative high silica content could be used as an amendment. But poor grade limestone are not marketed, thus, the only choice is to depend on the industrial wastes.

Since most acid soils are less productive due to low fertility, low water retentivity and poor physicochemical condition, the resource poor farmers of acid soil region cannot afford commercial limestone. Therefore, it is often said that soil acidity and poverty are synonymous.


For further details contact:-
Public Relation & Media Management Cell,
CAU, Imphal.
Email: prmmcell@gmail.com


* P Debnath, SK Pattannaik, D Sah, AK Pandey wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writers are from College of Horticulture and Forestry, CAU, Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh
This article was webcasted on February 05 2022.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Wakhom Leikai Lairembi Haraoba #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Shija celebrates 26 years of surgery
  • Webinar : "Computing Trends in AI"
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • New MAHUD for a new Imphal City
  • R&D initiatives of Ministry of Info Tech
  • PMFBY - Every cloud has a silver lining
  • Banking on Modi to eradicate plastic malaise
  • One step down from Greater Lim ?
  • Flood Watch: Nambul Turel [18 May] :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 18 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Ambassadors for Christ
  • "... where women are not respected"
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Nursing as a career choice
  • Conquest of the last frontier
  • Dry Manipur among top 5 liquor states!
  • Scoring high on liquor consumption
  • Flood Watch: Imphal Turel [17 May] :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 17 May : Govt of Manipur
  • World hypertension day : 17th May 2022
  • Taking advantage of dying sedition law
  • Market innovations & vertical integration
  • Soram Oscar: Mr India Intl Tourism 2022
  • Cyber Security Lecture at Tamenglong
  • Involve village chief in Save Singda Movement
  • Reaching out to SC Jamir
  • Jalakeli Offering @ Govindajiu :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 16 May : Govt of Manipur
  • On 200th Anniversary of MK Binodini Devi
  • East Timor : Licypriya Kangujam invited
  • Carbon Sequestration in Dailong Site #2
  • Semiotic interpretations of traffic policing
  • Citrus Marcoptera: Rare Citrus species in NE
  • Same old healthcare issues for new minister
  • Rain : Bringing out the dirt of Imphalites
  • Art Exhibition @Imphal Art #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 15 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2022 #2: Gallery
  • Soil rejuvenation through plants
  • Harrowing memories of a blast victim
  • Pristine Death :: Poem
  • Odisha File
  • Anti-poppy vows: Govt shouldnt be taken...
  • After more than 2 decades of talks
  • River & River Based Communities
  • COVID-19 Status 14 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Second National Lok Adalat
  • Manipur Cabinet: Blurry representation
  • Tips for summer party make up
  • Harvesting Fest of Tarao #4 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 13 May : Govt of Manipur
  • The USP of Churachandpur
  • Pranks unloaded: From fiction to mundanity
  • Radio comes to our rescue in pandemic
  • 3rd North-East Foodtech begins
  • Irreparable damage done to environment
  • Promotion of nurseries for plantation crop #2
  • Issues staring at the face of Manipur
  • Yaoshang Thabal Competition #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 12 May : Govt of Manipur
  • International Nurses Day 2022
  • Carbon Sequestration in Dailong Site #1
  • Various voices on reduced areas of AFSPA
  • IBSD, Imphal signed MoU with CSIR
  • Stay on sedition case smack on political elite
  • Identifying a district with one group ?
  • Kakwa Lairembi Haraoba #1 :: Gallery
  • Understanding Environmental Problem
  • Pre Recruitment Training at Keithelmanbi
  • Three rain catchers feted
  • How India is empowering women...
  • War-era bridges amid development rhetoric
  • Aerial route over heart of Imphal ?
  • SN Chand: The father of Manipuri cinema #1
  • COVID-19 Status 10 May : Govt of Manipur
  • NPF Kohima consultative meeting
  • Market creating innovation & business model
  • The element of surprise
  • 3rd North-East Foodtech at Guwahati
  • Growing support to 'war on drugs' mission
  • Backing the War on Drugs call
  • Mao-Imphal Market @ Kabo Leikai :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 09 May : Govt of Manipur
  • We live in the best of times to preach
  • Mixed Marriages & our Heritage !
  • Review Meeting on National Lok Adalat
  • Road blocking for everything
  • Promotion of nurseries for fruits & crop
  • Cong vigil essential to expose Govt
  • Thangjing Hill : Mischievous restrictions
  • Student appearing HSLC Exam #3 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 08 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Workshop with Vice-Chancellors of NE
  • BJP's major challenge in Nagaland - Church
  • Motherhood : A symbol of Love
  • Song of spring :: Poem
  • Mother's Day at Tamenglong
  • Stringent only means to deter poppy grower
  • Congress : Uncharacteristically quiet
  • 4th Documentor Imphal [7 May] :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 07 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Being a scapegoat for ages in this disaster
  • Entrepreneurs invest 8 lakhs to documentary
  • 12th Mahousa Ima Ningsing Tha
  • Float Festival of Tamil Nadu Temples
  • Yaoshang Thabal Competition #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 06 May : Govt of Manipur
  • On custodial death of Arambam Nanao
  • Placating Sharmila : The Iron Lady
  • Service Engineer @Info Trade, Imphal
  • Integrated farming- 2x farmers' income #3
  • Tree Plantation Programme at Kangla
  • Greed blinding rogue police elements
  • War on Drugs : Give it more teeth
  • Artisan Lourembam Bino Devi :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 05 May : Govt of Manipur
  • The Truth Alone Must Triumph
  • ICU bed facility launched in Tamenglong
  • World Hand Hygiene Day 2022
  • Workshop on Climate Change at Lilong
  • Water education for food security
  • Torpid tourism sector
  • Separate flag & constitution
  • Id-ul-Fitr @Hatta Golapati :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 04 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Lavish event management gone wrong
  • World Veterinary Day 2022
  • Condemnation on the killing of Nanao
  • Summer skin care tips for a natural glow
  • Centre's push for NSU commendable
  • Powerless power
  • Ole Wangkheimayum : Making a difference
  • COVID-19 Status 03 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Last surviving Naga regionalist- Shurhozelie
  • DoNER Minister visited NSU, Khuman Lampak
  • Market creating innovations & economic
  • Kuzholuzo takes charges as NPF Leader
  • Swachhata Pakhwada at IBSD Imphal
  • Jiribam Keithel #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 02 May : Govt of Manipur
  • Cheilaoba : A short story
  • A tribute to Asok Potsangbam
  • Id-ul-fitr :: From a book
  • Building India to be the world's master
  • Rapists don't deserve mercy
  • Taking the case to a higher Court
  • Cheirao-chingkaba #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 01 May : Govt of Manipur
  • May Calendar for Year 2022 : Tools
  • Nirupa Sanjenbam, Woman Achiever NE Fest
  • Student Centre for Excellence at Bishnupur
  • MPSC : Re-recruitment of MCS/MPS officers
  • Integrated farming- 2x farmers' income #2
  • Alangtakhou waterfall @Tml #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 30 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Blood Donation camp @Keisampat : Gallery
  • Appeal in High Court against Zou acquittal
  • Jubilee Celebration of Manipuri Cinema
  • Labour Day (May Day) -Chennai Connection
  • 24th - 30th April is World Immunization Week
  • Yaoshang Thabal @Mongshangei #4 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 29 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Foundation Day celebrated at IBSD Imphal
  • Alone but not lonely :: Poem
  • Gender balanced workforce
  • Govt North East plan: Repealing AFSPA
  • AFSPA repeal vow galore as NE enjoys peace
  • Promise of AFSPA free NE
  • The hike to the summit of Koubru
  • COVID-19 Status 28 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Documentor Lab concludes with Final Pitch
  • Interlocutor promises the impossible
  • Natural ways to maintain a Summer glow
  • 2024 polls: BJP eyeing to tighten grip
  • Manipur : A smuggling paradise
  • Lunghar in Ukhrul district #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 27 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Call for a face-lift for cross-border town Moreh
  • Project Coordinator for Shestrong Assn
  • Integrated farming- 2x farmers' income #1
  • 21 Lessons for the 21st Century:: Book
  • Inclusion of Chandel in aspirational district
  • No takers at Lamphel
  • Student appearing HSLC Exam #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 26 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • My 'Tragic Tryst' with politics & politicians !
  • Education embroiled in cultural nightmare
  • Creativity is must for Career Development
  • Is Mizoram smarter in promoting border trade?
  • Back in the examination hall
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #3 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 25 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Talk Series with Aribam Syam Sharma
  • Market Creating Innovations & Pull Strategy
  • Intl Conclave on Universal Happiness
  • Four Churches in one compound
  • Employees in dilemma over 'place of posting'
  • Delivering LPG at Rs 100 per cylinder
  • Tributes on Khongjom Day :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 24 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Documentor Imphal 4th edition begins
  • World Malaria Day 25 April 2022
  • Few more to CM's 100 days programme
  • Rongali Bihu at RGU Arunachal Pradesh
  • Telangana midwifery initiative,game changer
  • Waithou encroachment affront to anti-graft
  • Stand to boycott Government news
  • Surbala Laishram : Mixed Martial Arts star
  • Tongjei Maril (Old Cachar Road) :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 23 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Autumn: Sentiment & the 'Maangang'
  • Drug-resistant TB: Are we converting ...
  • Hassled advantage 'Babudom' holds
  • Painting Competition on 'Tribal' #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Battle of Khongjom & Manipur's fighting spirit
  • World Earth Day at Tamenglong
  • Techniche, IIT Guwahati's Half Marathon
  • Meaning of life at Spring season
  • Khongjom Day amid outrage over Hindi policy
  • Need to look beyond 'No parking' sign
  • Floral tributes @ Cheiraoching #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 21 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Ima Machet Icha Tangkhai - A Film Review
  • Diploma in Photography Course at Imphal
  • Patent Filing Support from KIIT-TBI
  • Call for Regional Start-up Network
  • Decoding Hills-Valley improved relations
  • Body donation: Exemplary decision by Imas
  • Palpable inner contradiction: Stand of NNPGs
  • Cheirao-chingkaba #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 20 Apr : Govt of Manipur
  • Manipuri Cinema can leap forward if ...
  • Hindi subject compulsory= economic sanction
  • Genomics of medicinal plants of NER
  • Summer with Mangoes :: Poem
  • Revival of sericulture sector must for state
  • Why no follow up on drug seizures ?
  • Yaoshang Sports @Bamon Leikai :: Gallery
  • Policies and the implementation gap!
  • Recycling of Agro-forest wastes- Mushroom
  • Listen to Silence
  • Digital content creator as a career choice
  • Fight against corruption, drugs
  • Move to decongest commercial areas
  • Rules of English Pronunciation : Download
  • Response to pandemics missing medicine
  • Presidency College, Motbung
  • Women Entrepreneur Network launched
  • World Heritage Day at Tamenglong
  • Armed thugs feasting as Govt plays peace
  • Covid is down, but it is not out
  • Mega Export Conclave #2 :: Gallery
  • Yaoshang Thabal (Day-time) #3 :: Gallery
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa [Apr 14] :: Gallery
  • Shajibu Cheiraoba @Pune :: Gallery
  • Cheirao-chingkaba @Singjamei #2 :: Gallery
  • Yaoshang @Bengaluru #2 :: Gallery
  • Boro Saheb Ongbi Sanatombi (MM) :: Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #2 :: Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Shopping :: Gallery
  • Sub-Syllables in English : Book Download
  • Learn English pronunciation: Book Download
  • Learning calculating skills : Download Book