Use of locally available agri wastes as substrate for mass production of trichoderma harzanium

Pranab Dutta / BC Das *

Biocontrol offers safe, cheap and environmental friendly management of plant diseases and avoids or minimizes the usage of harmful fungicides. In biocontrol of plant diseases fungal antagonist like Trichoderma spp. Are extensively uses for control of several soil borne diseases and have also additional advantage of growth promoting effect. Many commercial formulations in solid form based on these antagonists have been developed worldwide.

Trichoderma is a genus of asexually reproducing fungi present in nearly all temperate and tropical soils. The genus is a strong saprophytic, fast grower, prolific producers of spore and powerful antibiotic producers. These properties make these fungi ecologically varied diversity and can be used to produce a wide range of product of commercial and ecological interest. Trichoderma has become a model biocontrol agent in the management of plant Disease as apart of IDM because of following characters:

o Produces high yield and high quality conidial biomass.
o Possess rhizosphere competence.
o Ability to thrive over a wide range of stress condition.
o Having mycoparasitic ability against large number of soil borne pathogens.
o Stimulate plant resistance and defence mechanism.
o Compatible with large numbers of pest.
o Easy to mass multiply.
o The final product has shelf life more than 6 months.


o Mycoparasitism through production of enzymes and coiling.
o Antibiosis through production of antibiotics.
o Competition for food ad space.


During last 19 years we have search for a suitable biocontrol agent to be used as seed treating and soil treating agent we successes in identifying a strain of T. harzianum (DPP-105). With this a formulation "Biogaurd" has been formulated to fulfil the demand of farmers.

The different process involved in the production of "Biogaurd" are
o Inoculam production
o Selection of culture medium
o Growth and mass multiplication
o Harvesting and drying
o Scaling up and
o Formulations

Three methods viz. solid fermentation, liquid fermentation and deep tank fermentation technology are followed for multiplication of Trichoderma. Out of these solid fermentation is easy, popular and widely used by the farmers.


Improved selective medias have been developed for cultivation of Trichoderma spp. Solid media are prepared comprising easily available organics such as wheat bran, saw dust, grain bran, wheat straw, rice straw, sorghum grain, banana leaves, banana peeled skin, farmyard manure (FYM). Presently, FYM and wheat bran-saw dust is extensively used to produce biocontrol agent of T. harzainum and T. viride.

Well decomposed powdered FYM mixed with 1% peptone and half parts water are autoclaved at 30 lbs pressure for 1 hour intermittently for 2 times and heaped in a clean shady place. The stock culture of Trichoderma spp. Multiplied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium for 15 days inoculated under aseptic conditions, 500 ml of homogenous spore suspension prepared in a mixer is used for 10 kg of FYM. Heaps are then covered with polythene sheets (to prevent loss of moisture) for 30 days. Heaps are mixed thoroughly at an interval of 7 days. After 30 days of incubation this preparation is ready for application.


This process involves production of large number of conidia mainly intended for seed treatment, soil application and foliar spray. The Trichoderma based liquid bioformulation developed at AAU i.e., Org-Trichojal with having shelf life of 16 months has found to be highly effective in farmers field for management of plant pathogens and enhance plant growth parameter and plant defence metabolite. The product has been commercialized through private entrepreneur.


This involves mass production of fungus. In this technique Trichoderma spp. Are mass cultured in commercially available inexpensive ingredients (molasses and brewer's yeast). The rapid mass production of antagonists for seed treatment formulation, the deep tank liquid fermentation mostly used.


The fermenter medium used to grow and mass multiply Trichoderma spp. Consists of Molasses (30 kg) + Brewers yeast (5 g) + 1 litre water (fermenter medium of above concentrations is used. Procedure for mass production of Trichoderma spp. Is given below:

o Autoclave both starter and fermented medium for 1 hour
o Inoculate starter medium with efficient strain of Trichoderma and shake on rotary shaker
o Inoculate fermented media with starter inoculam and supply regularly at for 10-15 days by shaking/bubbling
o Filter through cotton muslin using funnel
o Air dry or freeze dry the mat for 3 days find grind into powder this contain mycelium and chlamydospores
o Powder is diluted with different diluents and used as dusts, granules, pellets, wettable powders, emulsifiable concentration
o Produce is viable for 6 months, if stored at 50C and 3 months if stored at 200C
o Maximum biomass is obtained generally after 15 days of inoculation.


Different formulations are available and prepared for the usage as given below.
1. Powder formulation: It is done by mixing fermenter biomass with talcum powder as carrier.
2. Encapsulation in organic polymer like sodium alginate.
3. Pelleting biomass and bran with sodium alginate.
4. FYM, banana leaves, banana peeled skin, wheat bran for soil application.
5. Molasses enriched charcoal powder granules.
6. Liquid coating formulations bio-protectant as powder on which suspension of aqueous binder is sprayed on seeds to form 0.1 mm thick layer.
7. As spray form emulsifiable concentrations with 10 spores in all of the above formulations. It is necessary to maintain level of 1-10 cfu ml-1 or g.


1. Freshly isolated native Trichoderma harzianum pure culture
2. PDA media
3. Substrates
4. Distilled water
5. Poly propylene bags/saline bottle
6. Racks
7. Rubber bands
8. Laminar flow cabinet
9. Inoculating needle
10. Spirit lamp
11. Cotton (both absorbent and non absorbent)
12. Spirit lamp
13. Methylated spirit
14. Ethyl Alcohol
15. Petri plates
16. Cork borer
17. Measuring cylinder
18. Muslin cloth
19. Plastic Bucket and mugs
20. BOD incubator


The methods presently used for effective management of diseases includes the application of Trichoderma by any of these methods viz., broadcast application, furrow application, root zone application, seed coating or seed treatment, wound application.

a. Broadcasting
Broadcasting is used for soil application. The quantity required is high and varies from 125-250 kg ha -1. It is mixed with FYM and broadcasted on the soil and then incorporated into the soil through harrowing. It is used to control Sclerotinia rot of vegetables, damping off of vegetables, stem rot of soybean. Trichoderma is applied by this method at least 2 weeks before sowing of crops.

b. Furrow application
It is comparatively economical to broadcasting and is followed in nurseries. The quantity required 130-160 kg ha-1. It should be applied in the open furrows covered with the soil. Trichoderma is applied by this method 15 days before sowing of the seeds.

c. Root zone application
This is used in wide spaces crop such as plantation and fruit crops. It is done in peach and plum against silver leaf diseases.

d. Seed treatment
In this method of application, the seeds are first mixed with water 5-7 ml kg-1, so that the seed surface becomes moist. Take known quantity of seed formulation (Powder form) 4 g kg-1 seed, mix thoroughly by agitating the container so that the powder adheres to the seed surface. Then treated seeds should be dried I shade for two hours and sown immediately after treatment. This formulation can used to apply on and around the root zone.

This helps good seed germination, seedling emergence and finally good plant stands. It also gives protection in the rhizosphere against root rots, stem rot, seedling blight, damping off, collar rot, white mold, rhizome rot of various crops such as chick pea, cabbage, cauliflower, French bean, brinjal, chilli, cucumber, potato, ginger, rice, sunflower caused by Rhizoctoniasolani, Pyhiumapphanidermataum, Sclerotiniasclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme, Sclerotium rolfsii etc.


Cost of production (Excluding laboratory equipment) : Rs. 30 kg-1
Selling price : Rs. 60 kg-1


o Parasital activity takes place on different stages of insect ontogenesis.
o The fungus possesses the high speed of growth, huge reproductive ability and high specificity.
o It is able to remain for a long time in nature without the decline of infectivity.
o The effectiveness of this product depends very much on climatic condition (temp 25-280C and relative air humidity of 80-90%), the methods of application and doses.
o Easy to deliver.
o Improve plant growth, flowering and increases yield.
o Safe to the environment, human beings, animals.
o The no risk of development of resistance in pathogen.
o Compatible with biofertilizer like rhizobium, azospirrillium etc.


o Formulation must free of contamination.
o Store in cool and dark place, avoid direct sunlight.
o It uses for seed treatment, the treated seeds must be dried in shade at least for 6 hrs prior to sowing.
o Application must be done in cooler hrs of a day.
o Culture must be periodically re-isolate from the crop rhizosphere of phyllo sphere.
o Avoid direct contact on skin.

For further details contact: -
Public Relations& Media Management Cell,
CAU, Imphal.

* Pranab Dutta / BC Das wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writers are with College of PG studies in Agricultural Sciences, CAU, Imphal, Umiam 793103, Meghalaya and
Regional Rice Research Station, Titabar, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat
This article was webcasted on September 18 2022 .

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Sangai Day 6: Elowe: Dzuko Valley :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 5: Khunung Eshei :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 27 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Alligator weed: Indigenous fodder resource
  • Two lives :: Poem
  • People don't actually care !!
  • The beauty in tea
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Healthy response to Sangai Fest
  • Lessons from Japanese fans at WC
  • Sangai Day 5: Fashion parade :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Thangal Dance :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 26 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Masterclasses add value to 53rd IFFI at Goa
  • 7th Charuangc 2022 : Rongmei of Delhi-NCR
  • Miss India from Manipur
  • Startup Innovation Conclave 1.0
  • National Constitution Day at Lilong
  • Sangai Day 4: 3 Types Of Drums :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 3: Chothe Dance :: Gallery
  • Involuntary Displacement in Manipur
  • Forgotten feature Film comes alive at IFFI
  • Will we protect medicines that protect us
  • God gives us our daily bread...
  • NPF consultative meeting at Zunheboto
  • Lapses in education laid bare by student
  • Adding a new flavour to War on Drugs
  • Sangai Day 3: Polo International :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Tangkhul Dance :: Gallery
  • 1st L. Keivom Memorial Day
  • Eina Khankhiba Natte : Movie Review
  • COVID-19 Status 24 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Eight Meet of Astronomers concluded at MU
  • 'Manipuri films projecting Manipuri culture'
  • Condemn govts of Assam & Meghalaya
  • Corruption-free Manipur resolve under scrutiny
  • Asia at the World Cup
  • Sangai Day 2: Khutpak Chatkoi #1 :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 2: Tarao Dance :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 23 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Screening of Manipuri films at IFFI
  • Nagaland Govt has no economic policy: NPF
  • Organic seed production- Issue & strategy #2
  • Reinvent Northeast - Dimapur launched
  • Uneasy calm in northeast as border rows rage
  • FIFAWC and Sangai Festival : Splendid recipe
  • Ningol Chakkouba @ Pune :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Ningol Chakouba organized at Pune
  • Free mega health camp at Nagamapal
  • Outlaw glyphosate and its derivatives
  • Creators Meet of Tripura at Agartala
  • No respite from drug and tobacco threats
  • Manipur: Fountainhead of drugs ?
  • Sangai Day 1: Laihui Folk Music #1 :: Gallery
  • Sangai Day 1: Opening ceremony :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 21 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Copa Manipur at Buenos Aires, Argentina
  • South Asia's film market features Manipur
  • ST Demand: Decided by merits; not by poll
  • Ecotoxicology- needed to save living beings
  • 'Look East policy into Act East Policy'
  • Tourism promotional fest litmus test for state
  • Sangai & Pony, the twin face of Manipur
  • Tarpon Chaklen Katpa #2 :: Gallery
  • Sangai Festival 2022 :: Activities List
  • The Dream Kangleipak :: Book Review
  • COVID-19 Status 20 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • 53rd IFFI featuring Manipuri Cinema kicks off
  • World Toilet Day 2022
  • Pulicat Lagoon, Flamingos' haven
  • Amid substance abuse, thrust on open gym
  • FIFA World Cup 2022
  • 1st CM's Sagol Kangjei C'ship :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 19 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Sangai Fest as a way to Look East Policy
  • 1st Chief Minister's Sagol Kangjei C'ship
  • Organic seed production- Issue & strategy #1
  • For PM Modi, G20 has come at the right time
  • Rock band Arogya releases latest single
  • Community Ningol Chakouba #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 18 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Out of the heart comes the issues of life
  • NE Startup Showcase @ Manipur Tech Hub
  • Immortal Gallows :: Poem
  • Workshop on Amrita Meditation at RGU ArP
  • Skin Pigmentation in Winter
  • Influx issue headache for all indigenes
  • Wanted: Visionary leaders :: Follies of past
  • The changing idioms of Manipuri theatre
  • COVID-19 Status 17 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • DFC Shillong launched with Model workshop
  • Antimicrobial resistance... to reverse progress
  • 2nd North East Olympic Games closes
  • Unending quota system & National excellence
  • Solar energy can help India achieve net-zero
  • Sangai Festival as launch pad for tourism
  • All eyes on Qatar
  • Manipur Journalist Awards #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 16 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Delegates for IFFI, Goa
  • Intellectual Class- First Line of Defense
  • Who are ST in true spirit of Constitution
  • Journalism is a public good ...
  • Vaccine transported through Drones in ArP
  • Mass tree felling depreciates existence...
  • ST demand : Let Delhi have the say
  • 5th Kwatha Festival #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 15 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • This Eleventh Edition of Sangai Festival
  • The garden of Kew #2
  • NE International Fashion Week 2022
  • Housing system for sow & piglets
  • Doctors grieving relentlessly, Govt silent
  • Law catching up after 21 years
  • Leima Jagoi @ Nongshaba #1 :: Gallery
  • Manipur Technology innovation Hub
  • North East BJP Karyakartas Sammelan
  • Supreme Court call for revisit of reservation
  • Rural Immersion Camp at West Kameng
  • World Diabetes Day 2022
  • Undeserving PDS rice beneficiaries
  • Leaving the doors wide open
  • On author, research & publication #3
  • COVID-19 Status 13 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • MSAD : newly elected executives for 2022-23
  • 'Trust deficit' in Naga talks
  • Professor Bimola : A Life Fully Lived
  • Love's Twist :: Poem
  • Rani Gaidinliu Training Camp concluded
  • Job for all promise as unemployed rises
  • Presenting Manipur to the world
  • Manipur Fashion Extravaganza #3 :: Gallery
  • Seminar on Role of Women in Sports : Report
  • The great Asian Highway : Tokyo to Istanbul
  • Seminar : Reconstruction of Education
  • 4th National Lok Adalat for the year, 2022
  • Rishi Sunak .. is a pucca English Burra sahib
  • Ningol Chakkouba : Gift presents :: Gallery
  • Conference on Metallomics @ Manipur Univ
  • An awakening sprout in darkness :: Poem
  • Narration from a man who chase mountains
  • Jobs @ JCRE skill solutions, Thangmeiband
  • Masterclass on Social Photography kicks off
  • Training on mushroom cultivation
  • Probe into PMGSY project blot on graft-free
  • Opinion poll & quest for ST status
  • MANITEX @ Nilakuthi #1 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 10 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Consultation: Indigenous Rights in Manipur
  • Aphababu Oiragadi, Shokloidaba Oiragadi
  • Office Assistant @Horizon Studio, Gurgaon
  • Howrah Bridge- A bridge without nuts & bolts!
  • Pollution affects beauty
  • EV boost plan after failure of diesel-auto
  • Raining drugs and drug peddlers
  • Downloadable Manipuri Calendar for 2023
  • COVID-19 Status 09 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Golden Jubilee Manipuri Cinema at IFFI Goa
  • Legal Services Day Ceremony
  • Art of stopping bandhs & blockades
  • Seminar on Role of Women in Sports
  • No time for debate, but action
  • Taking ST campaign to Ministers' doors
  • Camping @Shirui Lily Fest #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 08 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Aku Zeliang : Young Talent of the Year Award
  • 'Soul search' a must for media
  • Safe and sustainable tourism
  • Preserving environment as a Career Choice
  • Manipur in UN's drug cartel map...
  • Manipur on the tourism map ?
  • Hiyang Tannaba @ Loktak #3 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 07 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Application: AgriEntrepreneur across Manipur
  • Sangai Festival 2022 :: Program & Venues
  • Ningol Chakouba at Bengaluru
  • Nightingale Award: 3 nurses from Manipur
  • Uneasy over ambiguous inter-district boundary
  • Prescription from Dr Sapam Ranjan
  • Linthoi Chanambam- Judo Player :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 06 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Will global family planning meet galvanise govt
  • Prohibition law vis-a-vis Manipur
  • Soil: Earth's skin is the environment cleaner
  • The future of students
  • Low conviction diluting object of POCSO
  • Shortage of teachers dating back to 2012
  • Indo-Naga Talks (2012-) :: News Timeline
  • Hari-Uthang Kang Chingba :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 05 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • The garden of Kew
  • Objectionable content have to be answered
  • Rising Sun Water Festival at Umiam Lake
  • Busting fake news a big challenge
  • Ningol on way to her mapam #2 :: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 04 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • 3rd Rongmei Freshers' meet in Delhi
  • Consultation on Climate Change in Manipur
  • Soil conservation measures for hill agriculture
  • Pulicat, trading centre since 1st century
  • Quixotically blaming media for blockade call
  • Mature handling of ST campaign
  • Kut Festival @ Churachandpur : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 03 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • 'Lack of Sports Infrastructure in Pherzawl'
  • Delegates wanted for participation at IFFI
  • Legal Awareness through Mobile Van
  • President Murmu's visit to Nagaland ...
  • Winter fruits for glowing skin
  • Protest imminent as Govt eyes Loktak drive
  • Pushes for an 'honourable solution'
  • Kut has become a global craze now
  • AMAND Pune: Cultural Program #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 02 Nov : Govt of Manipur
  • Requital :: Poem
  • Being Vegan- a big step to protect the Earth
  • Save Meetei and other indigenous people
  • Agniveer Recruitment Rally
  • Social media here to stay
  • Has AFSPA helped in bettering situation ?
  • Kangpat Khullen Primary School :: Gallery
  • On author, research and publication #2
  • Ningol Chakkouba Shopping #2 :: Gallery
  • November Calendar for Year 2022 : Tools
  • Lukanand Ksh : 1st runner up @Mister Intl
  • Chaga Ngee : Festival of the Liangmai
  • Lamyanba Irawat Birth Anniv #4 : Gallery
  • Ningol on way to her mapam #1 :: Gallery
  • Okram Kumar : Archaeological researcher
  • Mera Houchongba @ Kangla #2 :: Gallery
  • Olympians & National awardees of Manipur
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2022 #4: Gallery
  • Rules of English Pronunciation : Download
  • Sub-Syllables in English : Book Download