World Diabetes Day 2021

Dr Ksh Kala Singh *

“In India one in five adults is diabetic”
“Every 10 Seconds. Otie Person in the world dies of Diabetic Complications”
India means. “Diabetes Capital of the World".

World Diabetes Day was created in 1991 by the International Diabetes Federation and WHO in response to growing concern about its escalating health threat posed by diabetes. And World Diabetes Day became an official United National Day in 2006, with the Passage of United Nation Resolution 61/225. It is marked every year on 14th November the birthday of Shri Frederik Banting, who Codiscovered insulin along with Charles best in 1922.

World Diabetes Day is Celebrated worldwide by over 230 members of the International Diabetes Federation in more than 160 countries and territories, all Member States of the United Nations as well as by other Association and Organisation, Companies, Health care professionals & people living with diabetes and their families.

The theme for 2021-23 is access to diabetes care. People with diabetes require ongding care and support to manage their condition and avoid complications. But millions of People with diabetes around the world cannot access the Care they need.

Globally, an estimated 500 million People are currently living with diabetes. It is a major Cause of blindness, Kidney failure, heart attack, Stroke and lower limb amputation. So a diabetic Care unit or Center will give remarkable counselling to a diabetic Patient to avoid these grave Complications.

Also moral advice and moral Support to be given to Patients for Healthy diet, Physical activity, maintaining normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use. It is mandatory to Register all the Patients with necessary mobile Phones, Whatsapp & e-mail for future Correspondence.

Medicine, technologies, support and Care to be made available to all people with diabetes that require them.

Diabetic Patients Should follow their instruction and other because,
i. Diabetes is a chronic disease.
ii. Requires a latge amount of money for the treatment causing financial losses.
iii. Requires a separate Diabetic Diet.
iv. Requires regular time for. taking food,
v. Required regular exercise.
vi. May transmit the disease to the next generation son or daughter. Diabetes is affected by genetics.
vii. Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally causing 2-1 million deaths per year.
viii. Women with type 2 diabetes are almost 10 times more likely to have coronary heart disease than women without the condition.
ix. May develop depression and stress during the course of the disease.

So, all the family members should educate or learn about this disease at the earliest time with the hope of promoting the complications of this disease. Unfortunately once it has developed diabetes does not go away and the threat of serious health problems never goes away. For this reason, a person who has diabetes may need the help and support of their family.

What is Diabetes

There are three main types of Diabetes
Type - 1 Diabetes :
* Usually diagnosed in children (Juvenile diabetes) and young adults.
* The body does not produce insulin.
* There is a destruction of insulin secreting cells (beta-cells) of pancreas in our body.
* The cause is immune-mediated or idiopathic.
'* Usually requires external insulin therapy hence known as insulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM).
* 5-10% of diabetes have Type -1 Diabetes.

Type - 2 Diabetes :
Affect 90-95% of diabetic patients. Also known as Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM).

Body does not produce enough insulin (Insulin Deficiency) or the body cells do not respond to insulin (Insulin Resistance) or both, asymptomatic for many years. Various risk factors include Family History, Age above 40 years, Sedentary Diet, overweight, History of gestational diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes displays high blood sugar level during pregnancy, usually occurs at around 28 week or Jater and affects about 4% of all pregnant women, usually goes away after pregnancy, raises mother's risk of getting Type - 2 diabetes for the rest of her life. Also raises the child's risk of being overweight and getting diabetes, Causes are unknown.

Sign & Symptoms of Diabetes:

Frequent urination, unexplained weight loss, excess thirst, Lack of energy, blur vision, extreme hunger, slow wound healing, frequent infection, very dry skin, tingling & numbness in hands & feet.

Risk factors for diabetes:

Family history, Age over 40 yrs, Sedentary lifestyle, overweight & gestational diabetes.

Complications of Diabetes:

It is a sweet killer and becomes foundation of many other' illness like Diabetic retinopathy causing blindness, diabetic nephropathy leading to failure of kidney, Nerve damage and neuropathy with erectile dysfunction, Heart attack account for at least 70% of all death in people with diabetes, stroke resulting from clogging of the arteries providing nutrition to the brain, lower limb infection causing gangrene & amputation.

The World Diabetes Day Campaign aims to:

To promote International Diabetic federation advocacy efforts throughout the year to promote the importance of taking diabetes as a critical global Health issue. The Campaign is represented by a blue circle Logo that was adopted in 2007 after the passage of the UN resolution on diabetes. The blue circle is the global symbol for diabetes awareness.

It signifies the unity of the global diabetes community in response to the epidemic. Activities organized each year include, Radio and Television Programmes, free screening for diabetes and its complications^ Poster and leaflet Campaigns, diabetes, workshop and exhibitions, press conferences, newspaper and magazine articles, walks and runs etc.

Management of Diabetes:

30 minutes of physical activity 5 days in a week. Maintain a healthy weight, eat less fat and salt, stop smoking, Eat more fibre containing food, Reduce alcohol consumption. Eat at least 3 different times throughout the day, Diet and lifestyle are considered to be the cornerstone of treatment of diabetes.

Diabetes is a sweet killer. So it is to be prevented at the earliest time. The more we delay the more damage to the vital organs. Prevention may be Primary, Secondary & Tertiary.

Primary Prevention:

Maintenance of normal body weight, physical exercise and good nutrition include adequate protein intake, a high intake of dietary fibre and avoidance of sweet foods. Alcohol should be avoided. Also avoid oral contraceptives.

Secondary Prevention:
(a) To maintain blood Sugar level by treatment
(b) To maintain ideal body weight.
(c) Testing glucose level every three years after the age of 45.

Tertiary Prevention:
(a) To organise specialized clinics (Diabetic clinics)
(b) To establish basic Clinical Research
(c) To establish epidemiological Research.
(d) To establish national registries for diabetes.

Life does not end with diabetes and there is still hope.

* Dr Ksh Kala Singh wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on November 16 2021.

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