TODAY -

Use of drugs and precaution in Veterinary practise

Dr C Lalmuanthanga *



INTRODUCTION: In English, the noun "drug" is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly deriving from "droge (vate)" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry (barrels)", referring to medicinal plants preserved as dry matter in barrels. A drug is any substance that causes a change in an organism's physiology or psychology when consumed.

In pharmacology, a drug is a chemical substance, typically of known structure, which, when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect. A pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being.

Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis. Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.

USE OF DRUGS

Drugs are used for different purposes viz. medication, spiritual and religious use, smart drugs and designer drugs and recreational use.

1) Medication: A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition as a prophylactic or therapeutic.
2) Spiritual and religious use : Some religions are based completely on the use of certain drugs, known as entheogens, which are mostly hallucinogens-psyche-delics, dissociative, or deliriants.
3) Smart drugs and designer drugs: Nootropics, also commonly referred to as "smart drugs", are drugs that are claimed to improve human cognitive abilities. Other drugs known as designer drugs are produced eg LSD.
4). Recreational drug use : Some recreational drugs that are legal and accepted in many places include alcohol, tobacco, betel nut, and caffeine products, and in some areas of the world the legal use of drugs such as that is common.

PHARMACOTHERAPEUTIC CLASSI- FICATION OF DRUGS:

i) Drugs Acting on Digestive System, Example: Antacid, Purgative, Anti-ulcer
ii) Drugs Acting on Respiratory System, Examples: Diuretics, Antidiuretics, Antiseptic, Urinary acidifier, Urinary alkalizer.
iii) Drugs Acting on Urinary System, Examples: Bronchodilator, Antitussive, Expectorants, Decongestants.
iv) Drugs Acting on Reproductive System, Examples: Oxytocin, Toco- lytics, Abortifacients.
v) Drugs Acting on Heart and Circulatory system, Examples: Cardiac stimulants, Cardiac tonics, Antiarrhy-thmic drugs, Vaso- constrictor, Vasodila-tors, Anticoagulants.
vi) Drugs Acting on Nervous System, Examples: Cerebral stimulants, Cerebral depressants, Antipsy- chotics, Antidepressants etc.
vii) Drugs Acting on Autonomic Nervous System/Peripheral Nervous System, Examples : Para-sympathomimetric, Para- sympatholytic, Sympa-thomimetics, Sympatholytic.
viii) Drugs Acting on the Eye, Examples: Mydriatics, Miotics.
ix) Drugs Acting on the Skin and Mucous Membranes, Examples: Counter- irritants, Haemostatic, Detergents, Keratolytic.
x) Chemotherapeutic Agents, Examples: Antibiotic, Antiseptics, Anthelmintics.

DIFFERENT DRUGS GIVEN THROUGH DIFFERENT ROUTES:

Drugs Given by Mouth: Oral dosage forms (given by mouth) include liquids (solutions, suspensions and emulsions), semi-solids (pastes), and solids (tablets, capsules, powders, granules, premixes and medicated blocks).

Drugs Given as Injections or Implants : A drug that is given parenterally that is, by injection or as an implant does not go through the gastrointestinal system. These drugs may be formulated in several different ways for use in animals, including solutions, suspensions, emulsions, and as a dry powder that is mixed with a liquid to become a solution or a suspension immediately prior to injection. Dry powders are used for those drugs that are unstable in liquid form.

The majority of implants used in veterinary medicine are compressed tablets or dispersed matrix systems in which the drug is uniformly dispersed within a non-degradable polymer.

Drugs Applied to the Skin or Mucous Membranes: The dosage forms applied to the skin or mucous membranes that are available for treating animals include solids (dusting powders), semi-solids (creams, ointments, and pastes) and liquids (solutions, suspension concentrates, and emulsifiable concentrates).

These are known as topical drugs. Of special interest are transdermal delivery systems that work by carrying medications across the skin barrier to the bloodstream. Examples of these are transdermal gels and patches that are used in pets. There are also dosage forms that are unique to veterinary medicine, such as spot-on or pour-on formulations developed for the control of parasites.

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS IN ANIMALS

Different drugs are administered in the animals through various routes. There are different dosage formulations and delivery systems that are used to provide for the care and welfare of animals. But the most important is use of the drug at the correct dosage for effectiveness and safety.

In animal, use of drug can be complicated because of the variety of species and breeds treated, the wide range in body sizes, different animal rearing practices, seasonal variations, and the level of convenience, among other factors. Broadly, routes of drug administration may be classified as:

1. Enteral routes of administration: (i) Oral (per os or PO) (ii) Sublingual (iii) Rectal administration

2. Parenteral routes of administration: Most commonly employed parenteral routes are as follows (i) Intravenous (I/V; i.v.) (ii) Intraperitoneal (I/P or i.p.) (iii) Intramuscular (I/M or i.m.) (iv) Subcutaneous (S/C or s.c.)

3. Topical applications/Epicutaneous routes.

PRECAUTION TO BE TAKEN WHEN USING DRUGS:

Paracelsus stated that everything is poisonous depending on the dose. Hence, use of drug must be done with precaution and it should be used judiciously. Some of the important points to be noted when using drugs are;

1. Use only the drug that is prescribed by the registered veterinarian only. Do not try to prescribe or suggest what drugs to be given to the animals if you are not entitled.
2. Check the label of the drug properly: The name of the drug should be properly checked before use and the composition and recommended route of administration should be checked before use to avoid any mistake.
3. Give the drug to animals as per the intended formulation and delivery system.
4. Always observe the withdrawal period when using the drugs in food producing animals.
5. Avoid unnecessary use of drugs. Treating unknown fever, which may be due to virus, with antibiotics may lead to the development of microbial resistance organism.
6. Check the expiry of the drugs carefully. Otherwise, used of expired drugs may cause harm to the animals.
7. Perform hand hygiene. Whenever the drugs are to be administered into the animals, always observe good hygiene practice.
8. Do not combine the drugs that are incompatible. Wrong combination of two or more drugs in vitro or in vivo may results into production of ineffective drugs or unwanted effects of drugs.
9. You must know the mechanism of action and toxicity of those drugs that you are using.
10. Extra label use of drug should be done only under special circumstances as permissible by FDA only.
11. You must be aware about interaction of drug to be used with other substances such as food, chemical and other drugs.
12. Dose and dosage regimen of drug should be strictly followed. Too little or too large dose should be avoided. The dosage regimen should be properly followed to avoid drug resistance or toxicity.
13. Different factors such as physiological factor, genetic factor, pathological factor, environmental factor and therapeutic factor should be considered before using drug as they can influence the drug dosage and drug effect.

For further details contact: -
Public Relations & Media Management Cell,
CAU, Imphal.
Email: prmmcell@gmail.com


* Dr C Lalmuanthanga wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writer is Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology,
College of Veterinary Sciences & A.H., CAU(I)
Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram.
This article was webcasted on 04 May 2023

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Students Murder Protest [Sep 26] #2 : Gallery
  • Violence in Manipur 2023 :: News Timeline
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2023 #4: Gallery
  • Murder is not a solution
  • The Power of Poppy - 4 :: Poem
  • Scholarship Program for IAS Coaching
  • Eeconomic activities in animal husbandry
  • Manipur violence: War for Chin-Kuki State
  • Condoning worse than committing crime
  • Downloadable Manipuri Calendar for 2024
  • Ban the Bandhs- for a prosperous Manipur
  • Lamyanba Hijam Irawat Day: Visionary Leader
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri - Some Highlights
  • UAVs in Manipur's ethnic clash
  • Guwahati INIFD at New York Fashion Week
  • Even your God will despise this
  • Time to probe Zale'n-gam, Khalistani link
  • The descent of Radha-Krishna #7: Download
  • Is ST reservation a real issue for Manipur crisis
  • World Bamboo Day @Patsoi #3 : Gallery
  • Aribam Kumar: Writer of the Year Award
  • Condemnation of murder of two students
  • The pain behind her silent tears :: Poem
  • Meeting of Interfaith Forum at Guwahati
  • Solidarity Demonstration @Seoul : Gallery
  • October Calendar for Year 2023 : Tools
  • Manipur crisis & popular sentiment
  • Solidarity Demonstration on Manipur at Korea
  • Traumatic experiences: Kuki-Meitei clash #2
  • Students reach out to Historical sites
  • ADBU MoUs with Taiwan Universities
  • Knowing the ground reality
  • The writing on the wall
  • 'Laangban Chara Tamba' #3: Gallery
  • Naorem Roshibina: Silver, 19th Asian Games
  • Sit-in at United Nations in Geneva
  • FRA imbroglio in Manipur
  • Who feels brunt of Inept leadership
  • Cancer Awareness at Education (S), Imphal
  • Condemn brutal murder of innocent student
  • Kongthong, Meghalaya: Best Tourism Village
  • Time for Imphal to set the agenda
  • A diversionary war tactic & a bigger question
  • Students Murder Protest [Sep 27] #1 : Gallery
  • Silent Prayer demanding Justice : Gallery
  • Candlelight Vigil demanding Justice
  • Demands Justice for Murdered Meitei
  • CMESS to Moirang College Relief Camp
  • A decade for youth to make India #2
  • Nagaland to get first 5-star properties
  • Murder most foul
  • Not the time for CM to waste on trailers
  • Students Murder Protest [Sep 26] #1 : Gallery
  • Demand Justice for Hemjit & Linthoingambi
  • Karkinos: Top Honours at Arogya Manthan
  • NEIMUN 2023: Youth Leadership Conference
  • Brucellosis : zoonotic bacterial disease
  • State presidents for Nagaland & Meghalaya
  • Fixing responsible for the murder
  • Need of the hour: Bilateral disarmament
  • Protesters & SF @Kwakta #2: Gallery
  • Marina by Night
  • Seminar at "Oriental Theological College"
  • Indo-Naga Talks (From 2012) :: Timeline
  • Vote for me or my wife
  • Sohra International Half Marathon
  • State failure vis-a-vis ethnic cleansing
  • The blockade on the road to peace
  • World Bamboo Day @Patsoi #1: Gallery
  • The Meitei Nupi :: Poem
  • Traumatic experiences: Kuki-Meitei clash #1
  • Tifo unveiled during NE United game
  • Sign languages as Career
  • Torbung on May 3: Where it all started
  • The danger of Zalengam dream
  • The descent of Radha-Krishna #6: Download
  • Conflict in Manipur: Summary of issues
  • Chronological report on Manipur violence #5
  • Get to know more about Canine Distemper
  • The Power of Poppy - 3 :: Poem
  • Why Is Manipur Burning ?
  • Condemns Biased UN Side Event
  • Inpui Baptist Church celebrated Decadal
  • When the public relations fail #2
  • A decade for youth to make India #1
  • Tell the story to the outside world
  • Misleading the House of Commons
  • 'Laangban Chara Tamba' #2: Gallery
  • Village Volunteers: Protectors of the Nation
  • World Bamboo Day Painting Comp. results
  • Voluntary Blood Donation Camp
  • Improved potato varieties suited to Manipur
  • Autumn hair care: Tips for healthier hair
  • Manipur cannot go on like this
  • Shifting the theatre of war to Geneva
  • 1958: Kuki Chiefs' Memo to Union HM
  • Never too early never too late
  • Celebrities' approaches to Mental Health
  • International Day of Peace
  • Litter box training for cats
  • Trek leaders training programme
  • An indifferent Delhi
  • A good move with bad intention
  • Protesters & AR @Pallel #2: Gallery
  • Before the inflection point in our society !
  • Whither Naga Peace? Spl session of Parl
  • Lumpy Skin Disease
  • In total chaos since May 3 evening
  • Clutching at straws by drowning man
  • Winter Relief @ Mayang Imphal : Gallery
  • World Bamboo Day at Chandigarh
  • Will leaders walk the talk to end TB at UN
  • When the public relations fail #1
  • Chronological report on Manipur violence #4
  • Reimpose AFSPA call
  • Lesson to be learnt from SAFF boys
  • Breaches of International Humanitarian Law
  • Do we have a Government!
  • 'Birthday boy' glows, critics wonder...
  • Two Murals from Two Corners
  • Sir, a birthday treat for us
  • 'Laangban Chara Tamba' #1: Gallery
  • Student Council: Pillars of Governance
  • World Ozone Day observed at Imphal
  • Col N Hemachandra: Brigadier in Army
  • The Power of Poppy - 2 :: Poem
  • Manipur Crisis: You can bring Delhi to Imphal
  • Manipuri Kokyet finds space in Parliament
  • Relief materials at Moirang, Thoubal
  • Armed Forces' role in Manipur under scrutiny
  • India elevated G20 as 'premier forum'
  • 'Solution first, peace later' slogan
  • Hoping against hope
  • Candle light vigil @ Kangla #2: Gallery
  • DMCC met Defence Minister Rajnath Singh
  • The existential crisis - The Reality
  • Seriousness of legal proceedings
  • Role of Governor in summoning Assembly #2
  • One-sided reports vis-a-vis Manipur crisis
  • Death of a Sub-inspector
  • Raja Dumbragi Jeevan Charitra : Download
  • Dr Marjit: Academic Award at Malaysia
  • Interreligious Appeal to end violence
  • Gurkha War & diaspora in Manipur #3
  • Manipur Special Youth Assembly Session
  • From new districts to separate State
  • Looking for ally, desperately
  • Protesters & SF @Kwakta #1: Gallery
  • An Open Letter to President Joe Biden
  • Elephants in a Seed
  • Switzerland of India become a love lost State
  • Restoration of mining affected areas
  • Why did Army invite EGI : CJI
  • EGI invited by Army for objective assessment!
  • Note on Kuki-Hmar Trouble [1960]
  • Sober Thoughts
  • Weaving Looms presented at Relief Camp
  • A compassionate relief & cash payment
  • Sisters and brothers :: Poem
  • Coming to the negotiating table
  • The way forward
  • Protesters & AR @Pallel #1: Gallery
  • Romi Meitei : Best director @Kazan film fest
  • Success of Rahmani30 in Manipur NEET-UG
  • Modi, Biren, Shah exposes tragic series
  • Bharat is older than India
  • Mega Health Camp & Skill Development
  • Demand for ST tag by Meiteis
  • Internationalising the Kuki-Meitei conflict
  • The descent of Radha-Krishna #5: Download
  • Creating Hope Through Action
  • Ningthoujam Binoy: National Teachers' Award
  • The Power of Poppy - 1 :: Poem
  • Role of Governor in summoning Assembly #1
  • Gurkha War & diaspora in Manipur #2
  • Darkest Era of Meiteis
  • Robert Memorial Internship Awarded
  • Churachandpur Meiteis at the crossroads
  • Chronological report on Manipur violence #3
  • Meeting of Meitei Club, Burari
  • G20 call to action in agriculture
  • Silent on the remains at CCpur
  • The resolution to unite all CSOs
  • Rebuttal: EGI Fact-finding Mission Report
  • S Tiken (Thang-Ta) Fellowhsip Award
  • Manipuri or Meitei ?
  • Relief Distribution at Wakhong Pukao
  • Human-centric globalisation : Taking G20
  • Cancer Screening at SP Office, Imphal
  • Doing a disservice to Kuki-Chin cause
  • Epidemic threat at relief centres
  • The Chothes of Manipur
  • Communalism; A Dangerous Ism
  • Condemns the incident at Chalwa
  • Unity - need of the hour
  • International Day of Police Cooperation
  • 5,000 Scholarships for 1st year undergrad
  • Classic case of victimising the victims
  • 11 years in service and raring to go
  • Relief Work - August 2023 : Gallery
  • Krishna Leela
  • Gurkha War & diaspora in Manipur #1
  • Cancer Awareness at Imphal East
  • Training on cultivation of mushroom
  • Illegal immigrants & Manipur violence
  • Missing fact in EGI's fact-finding report
  • Is govt inviting a 3rd Nupi Lal ?
  • The Chieftaindom of Kukis
  • The role of teachers in society
  • Condolence Message
  • Framework for the future of work
  • Understanding Manipur crisis in four days!
  • The case of 'Meitei media'
  • List of Kings of Manipur: 33 - 1984 AD
  • Chronological report on Manipur violence #2
  • Winter Relief Services commenced
  • Special Session of Parliament
  • Advantage of simultaneous election in India
  • Fake Finding Committee ?
  • Poisoning the mind of Kuki-Chin people
  • Remedies to reduce hair growth on upper lip
  • Rally against Narco-Terrorism #3 : Gallery
  • On ethnic Nationalism & exclusive domains
  • Candle light vigil @ Kangla #1: Gallery
  • Patriots' Day @ Kangla: Gallery
  • Protesters with Army [Aug 03] #3 : Gallery
  • Indigenous Wrestling @ Purul : Gallery
  • Patriots' Day @ Thangal Temple: Gallery
  • Maram folklore & Meitei connection
  • 'Remove Assam Rifles' [Aug 07] #2 : Gallery
  • Patriots' Day @ Hicham Yaicham : Gallery
  • Model of Spelling-bee Competition
  • HSLC 2023 :: Top 25 Rank Holders
  • HSLC 2023 :: Subject Topper
  • HSLC 2023 :: Full Result
  • HSLC 2023 :: Compartmental Result
  • HSLC 2023 :: Pass % : Govt Schools
  • HSLC 2023 :: Pass % : Private Schools
  • HSLC 2023 :: Pass % : Aided Schools
  • HSE 2023 Toppers :: Science
  • HSE 2023 Toppers :: Arts
  • HSE 2023 Toppers :: Commerce
  • From May 3, 1993 to the present
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline