Tobacco and heart disease

Dr Ksh. Kala Singh *

"Tobacco In Any Form” “other Than Advanced Age, Smoking Remains The Single Most Important Risk Factor For Coronary Artery Disease

Smoking is a major cause of cardiovascular Disease and causes one of every three deaths from cardiovascular Disease. Every 8 seconds an Indian dies due to tobacco related diseases. India is the second largest consumer of tobacco products in the world. Types of Tobacco products use in India are:

(A)Smokeless forms: Khaini, Gutkhas, Betel quid with tobacco (paan), Zarda, Paan masala with tobacco, Mawa, Mishri, Gul, Bajjar, Snus, Snuff. Toothpowder with tobacco, Tuibur (tobacco water in use in Mizoram and Manipur).

Smoking forms: Bidis, Cigarettes, Hukka, Cigars, Cheroot, Chutta, Hukli Dhumti& Pipes. Tobacco is derived from the plant NICOTINA TOBACCUM. The leaves of this plant are use to make smoking and smokeless tobacco products. Processed tobacco contains atleast 2550 chemicals. There are more than 7000 chemicals in tobacco smokes. At least 69 of these chemicals are known carcinogens or chemicals that cause Cancer.


Some of the important harmfull contains of tobacco are
Nicotine, Tar, Benzopyrene, Carbone Monoxide, Arsenic, Cadmium, Ammonia, Turpentine, Methoprene Acetone, Lead, Propylene Glycol etc.

NICOTINE: The most important is that Nicotine which is highly toxic, addictive and lethal substance. Also Nicotine is a drug more addictive than marijuana, cocaine, heroin, morphine and bhang. Within seconds of inhalling smoke from a cigarette, the nicotine reaches to the brain, stimulating the nervous system, thereby increasing heart rate, raising blood pressure and constricting small blood vessels under the skin.

CARBON MONOXIDE: Carbon monoxide is a chemical contained in tobacco smoke which is produced as a result of the burning of tobacco. It reduces the ability of red blood cells to deliver oxygen to tissues causing the greatest potential damage to the heart, brain and skeletal muscles (tissues that have the highest demand for oxygen). There are many harmful effects of chronic tobacco use on the cardiovascular system.

(A) Harmful effects of tobacco use on the newborn babiesheart are:
Congenital Defects of the Heart. Pregnant women with smokers will cause defect in developing heart of the Foetus, particularly in the formation of the septum of the heart thereby causing holes of the Septum (Atrial Septum Defect, Venticular Septum defect (Tetralogy of Fallot) & PDA (Patent DuctusArteriosus) are found in those pregnant women of chronic smokers.

(ii) Dead foetus: It may be due to the side effect of the carbon monoxide & Nicotine to the cardiovascular system of the foetus through the placental circulation.

(iii) Pre-term baby: Delivery before the full term may occur in those mothers who are chronic smokers and tobacco users due to delayed development in different organs of the foetus.

(iv) Low birth weight baby: Due to improper Development of Lung & Cardiovascular system.


Chronic use of Tobacco Causes:
Raise triglycerides (a type of fat in blood) & decreases high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC-C) levels.
(ii) Make blood sticky and more likely to clot, which can block blood blow to the heart and brain.
(iii) Damage cells that line the blood Vessels and initiated endothelial dysfunction.
(iv) Increased the buildup of plaque (fat,cholesterol, Calcium and other substances) in blood vessels& increased thrombgenesis.
(v) Cause thickening and narrowing of blood Vessels.

As aresult of these effects Atheroscclerosis (Thickening & Stiffness of Vessels), Hypertension (High Blood pressure), Heart attack (coronary artery disease), Stroke (bleeding in the brain), Aneurysm (weakening, dilatation & enlargement of blood-vessels), Peripheral Vascular disease (Buerger’s disease), Heart failure (when the Heart cannot pump enough blood & oxygen to support other organs), Arrhythmia (when the heart beats too fast,too slow or irregular) and other disorders of the cardiovascular systemetc. will occur to the chronic tobacco users causing heart disease actually result in more death per year than smoking caused lung cancer.

Thirty percent of heart disease deaths are caused by cigarette smoking. Also smoking is the single largest preventable cause of heart disease in the United States.


Usually occurs in large vessels but it may occur in the Blood Vessels of the Heart, and other parts of the body. The plaque formed by fat, cholesterol, calcium and other Substances in the blood vessel will decrease or block the blood flow to the organs and extremities of the body. Smoking also causes damaging blood vessels, so Atherosclerosis is accelerated and threatens life.


It is also known as silent killer because without any symptom patient may die. Average blood pressure is 120/ 80 mmHg. When our age is above 40yrs, better to keep below140/90mmHg. Uncontrolled Hypertension may cause stroke (Cerebral Haemorrhage), Retinal Haemorrhage, Heart attack, Kidney failure etc. It is difficult to control Blood Pressure in chronic smokers.


Decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries due to the above reasons will cause Heart attack causing severe chest pain, low blood pressure, shock & death. Usually occurs after early morning activity

STROKE : cked or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts, causing brain tissue to die. Cigarette smoking is a major cause of stroke by increasing clotting factors in the blood, decreasing HDL cholesterol levels, increasing triglyceride levels and damaging the lining of blood vessels. The risk for stroke increases as the number of cigarettes smoked increases. Stroke can cause disability (Such as paralysis, muscle weakness, trouble speaking, memory loss) or death.


Usually occurs particularly in the Abdominal Vessels, Cerebral Vessels & Renal Vessels. These vesselsare dilated with thinning of the walls, may cause tear and rupture of the vessels at my time. Blood vessels of the Heart may have the same problem in chronic smokers.


Particularly of the lower limbs, upper limbs etc. Due to chronic decrease of blood flow to the distal parts will develop gangre and amputation of the limb to be done to save life. Buerger’sdisease of the lower limb are very common in male chronic smokers. Doctors ask the patient during the treatment, select any one either the cigarette or the limb not the both.


Smokers often have irregularity of heart rate, it may be too fast with palpitation, vertigo and chest pain or too slow causing difficulty in respiration and syncope. It may be associated with coronary artery disease. Women incur similar increases in the relative risk for coronary heart disease. Smoking acts synergistically with oral contraceptive agents, placing younger women taking these agents at even higher relative risk.

Because of adverse synergy with oral contraceptives, young female smokers who take oral contraceptives have particularly elevated risks for premature coronary artery disease and stroke. Smoking is especially hazardous for women with diabetes.

Secondhand smoke: It is a much greater problem than many people realize. Secondhand smoke is a combination of the smoke given off by the burning end of a cigarette, Pipe, or Cigar and the smoke exhaled from the lungs of smokers. It is estimated that 37,000 Coronary heart disease deaths per year are cause by exposure to secondhand smoke in the United States. Nonsmokers who breath secondhand smoke at home or at work increase their risk of developing heart disease by 25-30%.

Secondhand smoke increase the risk for stroke by 20-30%. Quit smoking Today people who quit smoking dramatically reduce their risk of dying from heart disease. The body begins to repair itself almost immediately. Quitting can help people who already have heart disease. People who quit smoking can cut their risk of having another hearth attack or dying of heart disease in half.

When a smoker quits the risk of heart disease death begins to fall almost immediately, but it takes ten years for the risk to approach that of a nonsmoker.


* Dr Ksh. Kala Singh, M Ch , wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writer is president of Manipur Heart Care Society
This article was posted on June 07, 2018.

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Contribution of Rani Gaidinliu
  • Police Day Marathon #2: Gallery
  • Kayada Ningthijaba Eseino :: Review
  • Stop religious encroachment of Kangla
  • Cry of a Dying River - 50 :: Poem
  • Money- laundering and juveniles
  • To drive or to be driven
  • The barricade cordoning CMO
  • October 31 rally : Manipur is a reality !
  • Mera Chaorel Houba #2 : Gallery
  • Anglo-Kuki War 1917-19 : Gallery
  • Tribes, Castes & Development :: Book
  • Durga Puja celebration in Manipur
  • Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
  • Life did put me into darkness :: Poem
  • Matrimonial sites: Dangerous proposals
  • Absentee in history
  • Of KTC and demand of UMLA
  • Pari Imom (Film Scenes) #1 :: eRang
  • Chunglenyanba, Awa Leima :: eMing
  • Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947 #1
  • 7th anniversary of PCRM
  • Funding TB response is smart investment
  • The Broken Stone:: Poem
  • 15 Ceremonial Horses handed to Myanmar
  • Needs for realizing the truth
  • Time to put education on track
  • Bor khoiramba @Hiyangthang #1 : Gallery
  • Kuki Black Day: desperation to Nagas #2
  • Finance knowledge to make better decision
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Bunglawn Remembers Dr Kalam's Visit
  • No baab tree :: Poem
  • Official website of Sangai Photo Festival
  • Beauty care with natural ingredients
  • Deportation of Rohingya against intl law
  • Noting efforts to put MU on track
  • MU: Teachers/students released : Gallery
  • Death Anniv - Bhagyachandra #3 : Gallery
  • Ithai Barrage Impact on Environment
  • Rural development as career option
  • Put the kibosh on ochlocracy
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in women
  • India International Cherry Blossom Festival
  • Marketing Assistant @ PiCiDi, Canchipur
  • 'Ram Madhav is wrongly briefed' : NPF
  • Uniforms for school teacher: What purpose?
  • Marangwon at @Mt Khorung #3 : Gallery
  • Police Day Marathon #1: Gallery
  • I call it life :: Poem
  • International day for Disaster reduction
  • Contested territorial demands in Manipur
  • WhatsApp & mobile usage study results
  • Physics Programme in Nowgong College
  • Rejoinder to NDPP [15 October]
  • Stop bluffing Nagas
  • The state of the states
  • Gearing up for Oct 31 rally
  • Historical Evaluation of Puya Meithaba #4
  • MU: Student/police clash -10 Oct #2: Gallery
  • X-Jam -Extreme Sports & Music festival
  • Urban Local Govt in Mizoram :: Book
  • 3 perspectives in context of present Manipur
  • Figures in the Shadows :: Poem
  • To UNC, Zomi Council, Hmar Inpui on ST
  • HC acted in good faith for MU
  • Jarnail Singh @ MU : Gallery
  • Heikru Hidongba #3 : Gallery
  • The undeniable subtlety of Atingkok
  • Kuki Black Day: desperation to Nagas #1
  • Let me shower moonlight :: Poem
  • On allegations issued by NPF : NDPP
  • Challenges to the digital dreams
  • Eyes now on K Yugindro
  • Lamyanba Irabot- March Past #3: Gallery
  • Death Anniv - Bhagyachandra #2 : Gallery
  • Meetei Tribe wont grab land of Hill Tribes
  • Making a tangible difference
  • Contradicted journey of IPC Section 377
  • Free open defecation & open pee
  • Act East & Importance of Myanmar & NE
  • Vacancies at Multimind Software
  • Waiting for "Sorry"
  • Out Yugindro in Jarnail Singh
  • Mera Chaorel Houba #1 : Gallery
  • AMAND Pune: Cultural evening : Gallery
  • Management Convergence at Mizoram Univ
  • Observation of World Mental Health Day
  • Cry of a Dying River - 49 :: Poem
  • Buddhism is free from compulsion...
  • 7th AGM / Cultural evening of AMAND, Pune
  • Forsaken farmers - food for thought
  • Second police raid at MU
  • NESO opposes Indo-Nepal Treaty in NE
  • British Council, NEC sign MoU
  • MU: Student/police clash -10 Oct #1: Gallery
  • Death Anniv - Bhagyachandra #1 : Gallery
  • Anglo-Kuki War 1917-1919
  • University :: Poem
  • Remembering class boycott 2009-2010
  • Hair stylist as career option #2
  • Training of Trainers on Gender Justice
  • Manipur University fresh violence by police
  • MU Crisis- admissions and omissions
  • Issues besetting State before LS polls
  • Langban Heitha Leithaba #2 : Gallery
  • Sizo Festival @Saikot : Gallery
  • Opening of Moreh-Tamu Border Gate
  • Forest Cover of Nagaland :: Book Review
  • Ingocha Chingtham: Cycling from Mumbai ..
  • Blood Transfusion service- future in Manipur
  • IT Enabled Employment Generating Course
  • NDPP condemns statement of NPF
  • Beyond the reality
  • Need for MUTA to approach Court
  • Kang Tournament @Kongba #2: Gallery
  • Elangbam Sonamani : Sahityaratna 2017
  • Celebrating the rights of wildlife- Are we
  • The sky's gone wonderful :: Poem
  • Communal Harmony and Integration
  • Opportunity for India in Indo-Pacific Region
  • To be a good man
  • Education : Why no private players here ?
  • Tarpon Sonba : Gallery
  • mtM :: Seireng
  • MN Singh promoted as IG of CBI felicitated
  • Loktak from different perspectives #2
  • The Killing Fields 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • The Journey of Happiness :: Poem
  • A personal discourse of Manipuri people
  • Improper use of loud speakers in Manipur
  • Art Exhibition @Art College #3: Gallery
  • Sudip Kongbrailatpam -recording engineer
  • Dismantled 9th times & safer in 10th times
  • Remembering Irawat: Are we following ..
  • State Level Archery Championship 2018
  • Stop religious encroachment at Kangla
  • Navratri (festival) make up
  • khongjang changsinnaba sem sarey : ST
  • MU crisis: Emerging questions
  • Lining up five days blockade
  • Dhol Chollom @Sangai Fest: Gallery
  • A Road Trip to Myanmar #2
  • Maroi napakpi in Manipuri dishes
  • National Integration Tour Team
  • Cry of a Dying River - 48 :: Poem
  • Ending antimicobial resistance to #endTB
  • Condoles death of Pu Kaikhokam Kipgen
  • Rejoinder to NDPP (5th Oct) : NPF
  • Responsibility required - not restriction
  • After Thuingaleng Muivah who ?
  • Paddy dry up due to deficit rainfall
  • Lamyanba Irabot- March Past #2: Gallery
  • Binalakshmi Nepram : RAW in WAR Award
  • Agribusiness & Carbon Management : Book
  • Is Gandhi (ian) relevant today ?
  • Guidelines for Hostels for Children
  • ATM based frauds : Router compromise
  • 'Rio's announcement as just mockery'
  • Training Program on Mushroom Cultivation
  • 'Chadong' - the victim of development
  • Poles apart : Pandey and Singh
  • Manipuri Diaspora in Myanmar #2
  • Why has Egg become Danger for Manipur?
  • Speech by Atif Anik on Irabot Day 2018
  • Wounded tree :: Poem
  • Hair stylist as career option
  • Synopsis of Sizo Festival 2018
  • Traffic regulation still a Flop show
  • In the evening of his life : Th Muivah
  • Langban Heitha Leithaba : Gallery
  • World Bamboo Day #2: Gallery
  • Where have all the lights gone ?
  • Mahatma and non-violence
  • Detention of students/professors of MU
  • Gandhi Jayenti at Itanagar
  • IBSD cleans Imphal City
  • MU: Abide by wisdom of Sr citizens
  • Power of humility
  • Ghost of Pandey : Four teachers suspended
  • Lamyanba Irabot- March Past #1: Gallery
  • October Calendar for Year 2018 :: Tools
  • Looking at Loktak from perspectives #1
  • Morning - a Haiku :: Poem
  • R&V Art House curates 'Land of Polo'
  • Show for football fans at NEUFC Fan Park
  • Indigenous People: Stand against Fascist
  • Clarification on Tamei Residential School
  • Organic Farming Tour to Sikkim
  • System error- or is this real democracy
  • Autonomy for Naga- Stakeholders on board
  • Th. Muivah hospitalized
  • Lamyanba Irabot- Floral Tribute #1: Gallery
  • Choidev Chongba @Kang Fest : Gallery
  • A Road Trip to Myanmar #1
  • The day after Sahnit-Ni
  • Cry of a Dying River - 47 :: Poem
  • Observation of World Alzheimer's Day
  • Benefits of almond oil for the hair
  • NEUFC Fan to host musical performances
  • ..but Irabot may still shed tears in heaven
  • Heikru Hidongba #2 : Gallery
  • Lamyanba Hijam Irabot :: Read all about
  • Tingmila Doungel : Manipuri Boxer
  • Tarpon: Annual offerings to dead by living
  • Manipur: Past & Present (Vol.2) :: Book
  • Genesis of Naga-Kuki clash in early nineties
  • 9th Children's Cultural Meet 2018
  • Parakram Diwas : 2nd Anniversary
  • International Visitors Leadership Program
  • He calls state Govt as unrecognized..
  • Tough stand of Govt noted
  • Historical Evaluation of Puya Meithaba #3
  • MU: General Srtike [27 Sep] #2 :: Gallery
  • Tribute to Oja Nandiram with 'In Memoriam'
  • The resurgence of Hijam Irabot
  • Love for post of MU vice-chancellor
  • Condemns arrests of MU student/teachers
  • Spot Enquiry by MCPCR Team
  • Seriousness with sincerity matters
  • 48 hours bandh on, then what ?
  • MU: General Srtike [27 Sep] #1 :: Gallery
  • Hijam Irabot - Our 'Icon of Revolution'
  • Food preparation among Zeliangrong
  • Is it the final countdown to #endTB?
  • Let's give time a chance :: Poem
  • If Buddhism Is Not A Religion Or Philosophy
  • Using false identity to mislead
  • In response to CM's appeal
  • CM's call against bandh
  • MU: Hunger Strike[25 Sep] :: Gallery
  • Irabot's letter to Assembly :: 18 Oct 1948
  • Ringui Village, Ukhrul :: Gallery: Gallery
  • Front Page Photo 2018 #4: Gallery
  • Tuilha Kol waterfall #2: Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Kuki Black Day @CCpur : Gallery
  • Sit-In: Naga Peace Talk #2 : Gallery
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Jangou Rah : eRang Classic
  • Manglandasu Nang - OST :: e-pao Radio
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic