TODAY -

Test for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in women

Geeta Chanu Chongtham *



Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and is the most common cancer in women from the low-income countries, which account for more than 80% of the total cases. Despite the fact that the cancer of the cervix is one of the most pr eventable forms of cancer, it continues to kill women in low-income countries at very young age when they still raising families.

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is considered the main cause behind the malignant transformation of cervical cells, with certain high-risk HPV types now labelled as the first-ever identified, indisputable, solely infectious cause of cervical cancer.

HPV is one of the most common sexually-transmitted infections.Theability to identify and type the exact HPV present, whether it is a high-risk or a low-risk type, allows a healthcare provider to significantly improve patient management and reduce the patient’s anxiety when an abnormality is detected.

Low-risk and high-risk HPV types: Low-risk HPV types are associated with benign genital warts and benign cervical lesions with no serious oncogenic potential. The low-risk types have been identified as HPV 6 and 11. On the other hand, certain HPV types, most notably, 16, 18, 31 and 45 are considered the high-risk types for the development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions.

There are other types considered medium-to-high-risk but their occurrence are limited as compared to the mentioned genotypes. Among these again, the HPV types 16 and 18 are regarded as the genotypes most closely associated with progression to cervical cancer.

How common are HPV infections? HPV infections are so common that nearly all men and women will get at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives. Most people do not know that they have been infected and may give HPV to a partner without knowing it.

How do people get HPV infection?

HPV is transmitted through the sexual route. A person may get HPV even if the partner does not have any symptoms of HPV infection. In fact, most people do not realise that they have been infected. They also do not know that they could pass HPV to their partners. One person may have more than one type of HPV.

What problems does HPV infection cause?

It is a fact that most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or other health complications. Further, most HPV infections go away by themselves within two years.

When HPV infections last longer, the virus could cause certain cancers and other diseases like:
o Cancers of the cervix and vagina.
o Cancers of penis in men, and
o Cancers of the anus and back of the throat.

Why is HPV testing done?

The HPV test is primarily done to screen for cervical cancer and/or identify women who may be at increased risk for cervical cancer. The test determines whether a woman’s cervical cells are infected with a high-risk type of human papilloma virus. HPV testing has now become an essential part of women’s health screening in many countries.

The HPV testing is used:
o As a part of a Pap/HPV co-test in women 30 years and older.
o When a Pap test is unclear, to see if HPV is present.

How serious is HPV infection?

In most people, the HPV virus is harmless and causes no symptoms and will not develop into warts, pre-cancer or cancer. In a few people, HPV causes genital warts, which is not a serious infection, has treatment options, and usually disappears on its own. However, some types of HPV (mentioned earlier) can cause cervical, vaginal, anal, head, throat and penile cancers

HPV test by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) – The advantages

HPV PCR test allows detection of presence of any individual high-risk HPV. The PCR technique detects one or more of the oncogenic genotypes as well as other so-called low-risk types. The test is more sensitive than other tests like hybrid capture assay which does not have an amplification step.

A unique aspect of this method is the near-elimination of false-negative results. The advantage of a PCR-based assay, unlike other conventional assays is that it is able to report the actual genotype detected, rather than issue a general report that says “a risk type detected”.

Preparation for the test: Before an HPV test, the client is asked to refrain from using tampons, sprays or vaginal medications for at least 48 hours before the test. The client is also asked to empty the bladder just before the test to lessen the slight discomfort one may feel during the procedure.

What affects the test?

Reasons why the client may not be able to take the test or why the results may not be helpful include:
o Use of douches, tampons, and vaginal creams or medications within 48 hours before the test.
o A cervical cell sample that is too small.

Conclusion: HPV test results and Pap test results go hand-in-hand when determining a woman’s risk for cervical cancer. Co-testing with an HPV test and Pap smear can determine whether cervical cells are infected with a high-risk type of HPV and identify abnormal changes in cervical cells.


* Geeta Chanu Chongtham wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writer is Junior Microbiologist, BABINA Diagnostics, Imphal
This article was posted on May 02, 2018.


* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Ras Leela @JNMDA Day : Gallery
  • School Girls Basketball #1 : Gallery
  • Rooftop solar power generation in Manipur
  • North-East Immigrants in Delhi
  • Vision, mission, values
  • Khangminashi - III (Lecture) : Report
  • Has countrymen forgotten the preamble
  • Keeping tight vigil at border areas
  • HSLC 208 Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • HSLC 2018 :: Toppers Listing
  • HSLC 2018 :: Check Result
  • HSLC :: Statistical/Subject Topper
  • HSLC 2018 :: External
  • Voices from beyond Kangleipak Ema :: Poem
  • Ethnic responses to merger
  • The unforgettable training
  • Cancer: A preventable & curable disease
  • Discussion : Identifying Colonial Settlers
  • Technology redefines unity
  • Paukhanmung, Siipuni :: eMing
  • Veterans Football Tournament #1 : Gallery
  • Sovereignty Struggles in Northeast #1
  • Naturopathy as career option #2
  • Multiple jobs @ R-Square Design
  • Cry of a Dying River - 30 :: Poem
  • Check fee structures of Private school
  • Hill-valley disparity in education
  • Climate change from Christian perspectives
  • Karuna- Please kindly read the message
  • International Nurses Week #2
  • Changing Perspectives :: Poem
  • Single Window Clearance System (SWCS)
  • Civil Engineer @ R-Square Design
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Cleaning river bank an awaited measures..
  • Manipur, a destination for immigrants ?
  • Poumai Purul Hiimai Paoki #2 : Gallery
  • Himalayan newt: Biodiversity Day concern
  • On Academics, Intellectuals & Activists
  • An untold story :: Poem
  • International Day for Biological Diversity
  • Families for inclusive societies
  • What happens in Karnataka ?
  • Why common man fails to show courage..
  • Looking at Mizoram & 2019 : BJP's agenda
  • ANSF wants ceasefire in entire Naga area
  • Kakching Garden :: 360 Panorama View
  • Folk Dance Festival #5 : Gallery
  • Kailam Sanctuary threaten to displace tribes
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Kuki-Zomi Insurgency in Manipur #3
  • Prof L Janmejay: Reminiscence as teacher
  • In The Annals of Time :: Poem
  • 128th Birth Anniversary of Ho Chi Minh
  • Challenges to Digital India initiatives
  • Pressing issues before the Govt
  • Aerial view from Chingmeirong : Gallery
  • Governor's Taekwondo Cup: Gallery
  • Entrepreneurship in the context of Manipur
  • Face scrubs to avoid dirt this summer
  • Ah, me - Now Happy, Now Sad :: Poem
  • Rio assures of co-existence with neighbours
  • Nandeshwore- President, Manipur, RJSP
  • 'PDA Govt is functioning smoothly'
  • SC voices displeasure at defence ministry
  • Manipur NPF differs with Shurho over BJP
  • Khangkhui Cave, Ukhrul #2: Gallery
  • Identity crisis : @Somorendra Lecture
  • Reflection on Tour of Dubai & Abu Dhabi #2
  • Khangminashi - II : Report
  • Globalization & its impact on our culture
  • District Demand 2011-2018 :: Timeline
  • Dishonouring the Constitution of India
  • From EVM to floor test Onus on BJP
  • Curtain Raising- Sangai Fest 2017: Gallery
  • 4th MCA Plate Tournament : Gallery
  • International Nurses Week #1
  • Story of Silence : @Somorendra Lecture
  • Apiculture (bee-keeping) #2
  • Khangminashi - II : Invitation at Thoubal
  • IBSD-ILS Centre set up in Bhubaneswar
  • Of 3 Ws - Beware
  • Forming the Govt : Office of Governor
  • Lainingthou Lai Lam thopka #2 : Gallery
  • Manipur Fight League Season 1 : Gallery
  • Prison Diary of Lamyanba NK Sanajaoba #3
  • Rights of indigenous people & merger
  • Manipur's tryst for a native Chief Secretary
  • Marxji, Modiji & Birenji
  • Reasoning without disparities
  • Regulate movement of auto rickshaws
  • Healing Touch: A case of still to outreach
  • Re-visiting Khangkhui caves in Ukhrul
  • Sandrembi Cheishra :: Book Review
  • Homecoming & Other Stories :: Review
  • Kuki-Zomi Insurgency in Manipur #2
  • Cry of a Dying River - 29 :: Poem
  • Shija Hospitals MOU for RBSK Nagaland
  • Are we waiting for the "Go-dot"
  • Understanding with KSO : Reaching to all
  • Garlic Festival @ Ukhrul #3 : Gallery
  • Dr. Cesarczyk drizzled harmonics in the rain
  • Tlanglhungbung Leikol - Tourist destination
  • Manipulative skill pays in usurping power
  • Khonzel TV : New Manipuri Streaming TV
  • Naturopathy as career option
  • Free Eye Camp at Wangoo
  • Khongjom Day: OK to observe on Apr 23, but
  • Outside Manipur after Class XII
  • TRAU Vs Langsning FC : Gallery
  • Ngasepam Nalini : State Akademi Award
  • Construction of Ima Keithel
  • Dreaming :: Poem
  • Test for dengue fever
  • Home Coming & other Stories : Book [upd]
  • Eco Tourism as alternative to Timber Trade
  • Go to Village - boon .. but a scourge for PRI
  • Citizenship Bill ... on basis of religion!
  • Gardening @Ema Keithel #2: Gallery
  • Front Page Photo 2018 #2: Gallery
  • Course in Book Publishing at IGNTU, Kpi
  • Reflection on Tour of Dubai & Abu Dhabi #1
  • Gurudev :: Poem
  • Counseling to Delhi University Aspirants
  • Poumai Purul Hiimai Paoki #1 : Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Apiculture (bee-keeping) #1
  • Entrepreneur find ways to recycle plastic
  • Social impacts of Mapithel dam
  • Cyber crime defined: The Bhopal case
  • Timber banned but no ban on firewood
  • Traffic chaos : Regulate not ban entry !
  • Cheiraoba Thabal by LGBTQ #2 : Gallery
  • Culturals @Shirui Lily Fest : Gallery
  • Kuki-Zomi Insurgency in Manipur #1
  • Civil Service as a career option
  • The plight of education in Manipur
  • Appeal to Stop Oil Exploration
  • TechExpo at IIT Guwahati
  • Awaiting- a light at end of the tunnel
  • Wanted : Responses not reactions
  • Kabo Valley: A brief history
  • 'Autonomous Naga council'- a major hurdle
  • Cry of a Dying River - 28 :: Poem
  • Admission :: SAIRAM college at Patsoi
  • Khangminashi :: Lecture series at KKT
  • CASO conducted at Mantripukhri
  • PRI & the Mission- "Go to Village"
  • Final pact likely soon : Stand of CSOs
  • Pakhangba Cheng Hongba #2 : Gallery
  • Steelheart @ Shirock , Ukhrul #3 : Gallery
  • The Killing Fields - 2013-18 : News Timeline
  • A village "wall" a destruction for others
  • Thank you Mangaal Rural...
  • Lack of proper investigation- minor girl case
  • Nagaland Cong shelved plans to contest LS
  • Employment drive through Afforestation
  • Bid to attract the brightest
  • A. Halim Chowdhury: A Profile
  • Gardening @Ema Keithel #1: Gallery
  • Occupational hazards of journalists
  • Election: The greatest weapon of the people
  • Community Gardening in memory of Belinda
  • Politicians need a thorough headbanging
  • Beauty essentials for your holiday
  • NPF will not attend meeting..
  • A view on "Go to Village" Mission
  • Littering Shirui peak after Lily Fest
  • Khangkhui Cave, Ukhrul #1: Gallery
  • Dance competition @MANFETE #2 : Gallery
  • Bracing for monsoon madness
  • When I'm sick :: Poem
  • 1949: Story of India's Takover of Manipur
  • You can't defile a Judge like that
  • Legal provisions for misusing Social Media
  • Bill for non-local: Need to learn from 2015
  • Heart OPD Camp at Youth Club Brahmapur
  • Flood in Imphal [06 May ] : Gallery
  • Gudui Ngai @ Ragailong : Gallery
  • Ode to Inle (in Myanmar) #2
  • AFSPA Repeal from Meghalaya, Arunachal
  • Reclamation of eutrophicated water bodies
  • Hey smartphone! Free me from your spell
  • Job Positions at VITSOFTS, Canchipur
  • Lainingthou Lai Lam thopka #1 : Gallery
  • Phumdigi Tantha Dance Drama : Synopsis
  • Class XII Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • Pakhangba Cheng Hongba #1 : Gallery
  • Class XII Result : Science Toppers
  • Class XII Result : Arts Toppers
  • Class XII Result : Commerce Toppers
  • HSE Result 2018 : District Wise
  • HSE Result 2018 : Highest Marks
  • HSE Result 2018 : Science Stream
  • HSE Result 2018 : Arts Stream
  • HSE Result 2018 : Commerce Stream
  • Scholarship for Civil Aspirants : Gallery
  • Khongjom Day - April 23 #2 : Gallery
  • Haudonggi Lamchat :: Funga Wari
  • Kh Sanjita & Saikhom Mirabai :: Gallery
  • May Calendar for Year 2018 :: Tools
  • NE Guide to Thailand : Gallery
  • Paintings @Imphal Art Camp : Gallery
  • 'HUN' Thadou Cultural Festival #2 : Gallery
  • Naorem Kalimohon Singh : A Profile
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa [14 Apr] : Gallery
  • Md Awaysh Khan: Mr. India : Gallery
  • Mahesh Thounaojam #2 : eRang Photos
  • Mnipur Ima :: Seireng
  • Tributes to Khelen Thokchom : Gallery
  • Sanakhya Ebotombi Haorokcham: Biography
  • PM Narendra Modi @Imphal #2 : Gallery
  • Enakta Leiringei (Film) #2 :: eRang
  • Temples of Manipur : Gallery
  • Recipients of Akademi Awards for 2014
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic
  • SPONSORED ADS