TODAY -

History, pathology, clinical symptom and prophylaxis of rabies

Ronald Panmei *

Rabies apprehension at Churachandpur on  January 15 2015
Rabies apprehension at Churachandpur on January 15 2015 :: Pix - TSE



Rabies, also called Hydrophobia (Lyssa, Rage or Mad dog) is a deadly virus spread to people or another animal from bites of rabies infected animal. It is an acute viral encephalitis(inflammation of brain) which affects man and other warm blooded animals.The symptoms are characterized by signs of abnormal behavior, nervous disturbances, impairment of consciousness, ascending paralysis and death. Animals like dog, fox, wolf, jackal, skunk, mongoose, cat, rat, squirrels, vampire bat are extremely susceptible in tropical areas of the world.

Cattle, goat and sheep are moderately susceptible but Reptiles and birds don't get rabies. Rabies in animals exist in 2 epidemiological types Urban type i.e.transmission takes place through dogs (stray) and another type is Sylvatic type i.e through wildlife (e.g. fox, jackal, wolf, skunk, mongoose, vampire bat, hyena, etc.

HISTORY OF RABIES

Virus was 1st documented in Egypt before 2300 B.C. and in ancient Greece, where it was described by Aristotle but in India report of rabies was in 5000 years ago in Vedic period and The method of transmission of rabies was not recognized until 1804. India is a rabies endemic area estimated population of 5000 die every year. A scientific or experimental approach to rabies was delayed until 1793, when John Hunter published his very important paper, "Observations and heads of enquiry on canine madness".

Hunter suggested that the transmission of rabies should be studied by inoculating saliva from rabid animals and humans into dogs and that attempts should be made to inactivate the "poison" in the saliva. These ideas may have inspired the experiments by Zinke (1804) and Magendie and Breschet (1813). Zinke used a paintbrush to introduce saliva from rabid dogs into incisions made in the skin of dogs, cats, rabbits, and chickens, which duly developed signs of rabies.

In the same year Magendie and Breschet infected dogs with saliva from human patients with hydrophobia. Galtier (1879) was responsible for an important technical advance. He found that rabbits could be infected with rabies and were far more convenient experimental animals than dogs. Pasteur adopted the use of rabbits in his studies of rabies begin in 1880.He was the first to recognize that the major site of infection was the CNS.

Attenuation of the fixed virus was achieved by desiccation of rabbit spinal cord for up to 14 days. Pasteur was able to protect dogs from challenge by immunizing them with the desiccated material, and in 1885 he used his vaccine for the first time in Joseph Meister, a boy severely bitten by a rabid dog and was successful.Improvements in Pasteur's vaccine were achieved by Semple and Fermi, who killed the virus rather than attenuated it, and by Fuenzalida and Palacios developed a suckling mouse brain vaccine which carried a lower risk of neuroparalytic complications.

The use of passive immunization with equine hyperimmune serum has been vindicated by the famous natural experiment following an attack by a rabid wolf on 29 people in Iran in 1954. Usually rabies is transmitted in the saliva, when an infected animal bites another (virus in saliva 2 days before onset of signs). Less often, spread by any contact between infectious saliva or neurological tissues, & mucous membranes or breaks in skin.

Virus is not transmitted through intact skin. Rarely Aerosol transmission has been documented in laboratories and bat caves with a high density of aerosolized virus particles.It has also have documented that it has been transmitted by ingestion of laboratory animals.

The pathology condition is that virus enter via animal bite,then virus replicate in muscle at the sie of bite then virus infect the nerve in peripheral nervous system moves by retrograde transport then virus replicate in spinal cord to brain,brain got infected,virus travels from brain via nerve to other tissue such as eye kidney salivary gland.

Clinical sign in man : After several days, anxiety, confusion & agitation may appear, and progress to insomnia, abnormal behavior, hypersensitivity to light and sound, delirium, hallucinations, slight or partial paralysis, hypersalivation,difficulty swallowing, pharyngeal spasms upon exposure to liquids, and convulsions. Either an encephalitic (furious) form with hyperexcitability, autonomic dysfunction and hydrophobia, or a paralytic form characterized by generalized paralysis, may predominate.

Death usually occurs within 2 to 10 days; survival is extremely rare. Animals can display aggressive behavior, ataxia, irritability, anorexia, lethargy or excessive salivation. Cats are more likely to be aggressive than dogs.

Hydrophobia : Patient can't swallow because of violent jerky contraction of diaphragm and accessory muscles of inspiration when patient attempts to swallow liquid. Patients will be terrified during this reaction and may even experience this at the sight of water or if water touches their face. Aerophobia:an extreme fear of air in motion can be elicited from some patients. This can also cause violent muscle spasms in the neck and pharynx, hallucinations, seizures, ataxia, focal weakness and arrhythmias can occur.Other form is "dumb" or paralytic rabies. Management of rabies are of No effective treatment exists yet but Postexposure Prophylaxis/PEP are of 3 steps :

1. Wound care : immediate thorough washing with soap and water and a virucidal agent such as povidine-iodine or 1-2% benzalkonium chloride. Shown to be protective if performed within 3 hours of exposure. If puncture, swab deeply in wound and around edges.

2. Passive Immunization : Human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) 20 IU/kg ASAP, but not longer than 7 days after vaccine is given. Infiltrate entire dose around wound, any remaining IG inject IM at a site distant from the vaccine.

3. Human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV): 1 ml (deltoid) on days 0,3,7,14,28. Vaccine : Do not give in gluteal. If injected into fat, no antibodies formed. HRIG and HDCV: Give in different anatomical sites and never in the same syringe. Reactions : Itching, erythema, pain, swelling

Systemic : HA, myalgia, nausea.


* Ronald Panmei wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was posted on February 15, 2017.


* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Politicians & youths Interface : Gallery
  • Of Gifts and Talents
  • Unmissable chance to vote for real change
  • Countdown to the National Science Day
  • Preview : Mohammedan Vs Neroca
  • PM Modi Public Meeting at Langjing
  • Restrictions on Vehicles plying on NH-37
  • Festival of Ritual Narrative: Gallery
  • Angkor Wat @Cambodia #4: Gallery
  • Clouded leopard - in danger of extinction
  • WHO affirmed adventists' diet
  • Indo-Naga Talks 2017 :: News Timeline
  • The Onset of Spring :: Poem
  • Quality not maintained- Leimaram Road
  • 1st randomisation of EVMs
  • Not conducive for polls now stand ..
  • This election matters
  • Protest: Framework Content :: Gallery
  • Free Education for Orphans:: Gallery
  • Consequence of violence on children
  • Generate job with greater public investment
  • Danger of pushing for election ....
  • Cosmic love affair
  • Orphans Free Education in Private Schools
  • NTC on Rajnath's statement
  • Najima braves fatwa, bias to contest
  • Don't use FA for electoral gains : CSOs
  • Danger in dirty game
  • Laishram Sarita Vs Zsofia Bedo #5 :: Gallery
  • Indian democracy on the verge?
  • Naga women must be empowered : ZSUD
  • Undertaking journey of self-discovery
  • Who is Kailash Satyarthi
  • The Killing Fields :: News Timeline
  • International Mother Language Day
  • Condemns incident of rape in Hauz Khas
  • IndiGo takes off on Manipur mission
  • Sanjit father offered cash to drop case
  • No hidden agenda; stop playing games
  • Assuring piped water supply
  • Trade connection with Southeast Asia #1
  • Kidongam, Mangcha, Thangkholen :: eMing
  • Ballot Jam 2.0 #3: Gallery
  • Open letter to politicians #3
  • ...PM will have to answer the people
  • SVEEP campaign at TG Hr Secondary
  • 6th Major Bob Khathing Tournament kick-off
  • Tripura Web Media Forum launched
  • Pragjyoti Intl Dance Festival ends
  • Blockades choke Manipur's economy
  • Standing assurance from Rajnath: Politicize
  • Rajnath on Framework is sceptical
  • Travelling in Ukhrul Dist #1 :: Gallery
  • Shumang Leela Fest Award #2 :: Gallery
  • Satherjit Thiyam: Choreographer : Gallery
  • Much ado about Babu-dom
  • Puya Paba Tambagi Workshop begins
  • Poll theatrics in Manipur
  • Myanmar Meetei mou at temple
  • Sadar Hills District Demand :: Articles
  • 9th Pragjyoti Intl Dance Fest starts
  • Defeating administrative convenience
  • Biju Ningombam (Photos) #3 :: eRang
  • Framework agreeement protest:: Gallery
  • Ballot Jam 2.0 #2: Gallery
  • Tale of two voices- Inspired & the Unsung
  • Election & blockade & scare campaign
  • MU Seminar : NE India & South East Asia
  • Teaching the Teacher at NEHU, Shillong
  • Women Group formed in Ukhrul
  • Training on EVM/VVPAT for women
  • Laihui @Tanglei Music Festival :: Gallery
  • Pakhang No. 1- Lila Fest #2:: Gallery
  • Open letter to politicians #2
  • Aligarh Univ- place for Women Education
  • Political consciousness- self introspection
  • My torn shirt will cost millions 1 day
  • Sadar Hills Demand 2011-2017 : Timeline
  • Films by Ri-Mita Bolsabi with Phukan
  • Zeliangrong sentiment deeply hurt: ZB
  • 2017 not to be a repeat of 2012
  • Toying with the ultimate paradox
  • Ballot Jam 2.0 #1: Gallery
  • Laishram Sarita Vs Zsofia Bedo #4 :: Gallery
  • ESU, Wangkhei: Women League Winner
  • Women Reservation-Naga Customary Law
  • Last ray of hope
  • The Lamp Right up My Street :: Poem
  • Pragjyoti International Dance Festival
  • Foreigners defy visa rules in NE
  • Demand for ILP System :: News Timeline
  • Reopening the BT Road killing
  • Time to walk the talk
  • Landscape of Manipur #5: Wallpaper
  • U-17 football tournament: Gallery
  • Open letter to politicians #1
  • Ambassadors For Christ
  • Lonelier in love :: Poem
  • Political riddle - framework agreement
  • Playing with fire, a fear factor
  • ILP Demand from 2012 :: Photo Gallery
  • Khangkhui Cave @Ukhrul #2: Gallery
  • SSS MANIFA - Film Awards #4: Gallery
  • Lui-Ngai-Ni : Naga Seed Sowing Festival
  • Occupation of Schools by Security Forces
  • RISS: Innovative Park with Recycled Material
  • History, pathology, prophylaxis of rabies
  • Involve the States more in higher education
  • 14th Sentinel Cup, Equestrian concluded
  • War of words : Other important issues
  • The unheard Calls
  • Manipur Sangai Festival 2016 #1 : Ooba
  • AMUCO Foundation Day :: Gallery
  • For The Better Democracy
  • Call centre as career options
  • How to contest polls with Rs 3.1 lakh
  • Walk-in-interview at Mizoram University
  • Xenoh Corporate Football Challenge 2017
  • Powerful statement from RN Ravi
  • Using integrity issue as a tool in election..
  • Sagon Kangjei (Polo) #4
  • Northeast One (Robert Naorem) :: Gallery
  • 'Beating of the Retreat' #3 :: Gallery
  • Maharaj & Bizando poll chat, eavesdropped
  • River :: Poem
  • Indira Gandhi's one-minute function
  • United Naga Council Statement on Feb 12
  • Banning UNC not the answer: Half baked
  • Pakhang No. 1- Lila Fest #1:: Gallery
  • Pinky Jangra Vs Claudia :: Gallery
  • Bequeath good air to our next generation
  • Politics of economic blockade in Manipur
  • You're a mere Muslim woman!
  • Why humanity remember Gandhi
  • Blockade may impact Naga talk: Ravi
  • Trainers wanted at Ascend Studio
  • Why should only blockade be an issue ?
  • Singju Fest @Khangabok #3 :: Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Keep Thy Heart With All Diligence
  • Women's reservation to correct traditional...
  • Satherjit Thiyam: Choreographer :: eRang
  • Sihai Lotae @Ukhrul : Gallery
  • Manipuri language & its literary traditions
  • Mina Uthum Onkhiba :: Funga Wari
  • Gita-Govinda- Drama Fest #1: Gallery
  • Blockade-Looking for solution @wrong place
  • View from tribal language perspective #2
  • A Myanmar Meetei leisabi in Yangon
  • Sadar Hills District Demand :: Articles
  • Khoupum Valley & Cave #4 : Gallery
  • NEROCA Vs SS, Kolkata:: Gallery
  • Singju Fest @Khangabok #2 :: Gallery
  • UNC's Leaders @Imphal Airport:: Gallery
  • Tanglei Cup - opening day :: Gallery
  • Snowfall at Dzukou Valley #2 : Gallery
  • Wareppa Naba :: Profile of Theatre Actor
  • First floating School at Loktak :: Gallery
  • SSS MANIFA - Film Awards #2: Gallery
  • Indigenous Medicinal & its importance
  • Peace Rally- Imphal to Jiri:: Gallery
  • 'Carrying lives in hand' :: Gallery
  • Kabuliwallah @Dance Drama Fest:: Gallery
  • Republic Day @Kangla #2 : Gallery
  • Interpreting the Princess & the Frog
  • Keibul Lamjao- Drama Fest #2: Gallery
  • Manipur: Champion @ National Thang-Ta
  • Final Match :Women's Polo #2 : Gallery
  • Gaan Ngai @Moirangkhom #2: Gallery
  • Yotsinkhidoure - ILP Special Song : Ooba
  • Khangkhui Cave @Ukhrul #1: Gallery
  • Kachai Lemon Festival : Gallery
  • Kakching Lamkhai :: 360 View Panorama
  • Trekking to Dzukou Valley #1: Gallery
  • Meiteilon Folk & Tangkhul duet : Ooba
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #3: Gallery
  • HSE examination Schedule 2017
  • HSLC examination Schedule 2017
  • Sanamanbi Sanarei :: eRang Classic
  • Summary Of Electoral Rolls Released
  • Priyanka Rajkumari #2 (Photos) :: eRang
  • Khunung Eeshei/ Ema Emoinu #3 : Radio
  • 60th CC Meet Semifinal #2 : Gallery
  • 60th CC Meet Semifinal #1 : Gallery
  • Imas from Nupi Lan: Gallery
  • SPONSORED ADS