Who are the Indigenous People of Manipur ?
- Part 4 -

Dr. Khomdon Lisam *

12.6. Are the Kukis the indigenous People of Manipur.

According to Sir James Johnstone, Political Agent (1877-86) ,the term "Kukis "were first heard in Manipur between 1830 and 1840. ( Col. James Johnston, - My Experience in Manipur and Naga Hills, 1896), ( M. Bhattarcharjee, Gazetteer of India: Manipur, Calcutta: GoI, 1963, p. 161). The term "Kukis" was invented by the British in the eighteen century to fulfil their Divide and Rule Policy, for their administrative convenience and to woo them to accept Christianity.

The Kukis arrived in Manipur in large numbers during the reign of King Nar Singh in 1830- 1840. They were driven out by more powerful groups in Burma ( now Myanmar) . They sought for shelter and land to live in from the Manipur King. The King entrusted the work of settling them to the Political Agent Mc. Culloch. The King allowed them shelter by giving land free of cost at the exposed frontiers. The King employed them in the Manipur army. Thus the Kukis became good subjects of Manipur. ( R.K. Jhalajit Singh, A Short History of Manipr, January, 1965, page 228).

The British regarded Manipur as an independent Asiatic Power in alliance with them. Manipur became a Protected State from the time of King Chandrakirti (1850-1886 ).. About 2000 Kukis entered Manipur during 1877 -78. They brought with them a large number of muskets and ammunition. The King settled them near Moirang The settlement of Kukis was expected to strengthen Manipur. (R.K. Jhalajit Singh, A Short History of Manipr, January, 1965, page-237).

The Manipur Kings tried their best to help and settled them at frontier areas. But they rebelled against the king during 1917-1919 (Kuki Rebellion) under instigation of Chingakham Sanachaoba Singh, cousins brother of Maharaja Churachand. The reason for a rebellion against the king was refusal of recruiting 1000 labour from among the Kukis for going to France under the British command during the first world war. (28 July 1914 - 11 November 1918)

Sir James Johnston, Political Agent (1877-86) mentioned that the Kukis were causing anxiety as they poured into the hill tracts of Manipur in such a number so as to drive away many of the earlier settlers. ( Shakespeare: The Lushai Kuki Clans, N. Delhi: Lancers, 1971). The British differentiate between the old Kukis tribes and new arrivals into "Old Kukis" and "New Kukis".

The term Old Kukis has long been applied to the tribes which suddenly appeared in Cachar about 1800 CE such as Aimol, Anal, Chothe, Chiru, Koireng, Kom, Lamkang, Purum, Tikhup, Moyon, Monsang, Gangte and Vaiphei, etc. who are now found in various parts of the hills bordering the Manipur valley. The new Kukis are Paite, Simte, Zou, Hmar and Thadou (Khongajais). The census of 1891 gave the total population of New Kukis as 17,204. ( EW Dun, Gazeteer of Manipur, First ed. 1886, Delhi: Manas publications, Reprint 1992, p. 32.) .

In accordance with the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Amendment) Act, 1976, the List of Scheduled Tribes .included for Manipur are -
1. Aimol 2. Anal 3. Angami 4. Chiru 5. Chothe 6. Gangte
7. Hmar 8. Kabui 9. Kacha Naga 10. Koirao 11. Koireng
12. Kom 13. Lamgang 14. Mao 15. Maram 16. Maring
17. Any Mizo (Lushei) tribes 18. Monsang 19. Moyon 20. Paite
21. Purum 22. Ralte 23. Sema 24. Simte 25. Suhte 26. Tangkhul
27. Thadou 28. Vaiphui 29.Zou.

The list was amended on 7 January, 2003 vide the Ministry of Law and Justice (Legislative Department) order 10 of 2003 as follows - " in Part X.-Manipur,~(I) for entry 28, substitute "28. Vaiphei";(m after entry.29, insert- 30. Poumai Naga 31. Tarao 32. Kharam 33. Any Kuki tribes. However, The list does not differentiate between Nagas and Kukis.

According to Isaiah 26.; 4, " Pathen Tonsot Songpi" the Kuki Scheduled Tribes are as follows:-
1. Aimol, 2. Anal, 3. Chothe, 4. Chiru,
5 Gangte, 6. Hmar, 7. Koirao 8. Koireng,
9. Kom, 10. Lamkang, 11. Lushei, 12. Maring
13. Monsang 14. Moyon, 15 Paite, 16. Purum
17. Ralte.18. Simte 19. Simte 20. Thadou
21. Vaiphei, 22. Zou

However, the Federation of Haomee (FOH) claimed that out of 22 Kukis Commmunities mentioned above, 11 Communities belonged to the Nagas. They are
1. Aimol, 2. Anal, 3. Chothe, 4. Chiru,
5. Koirao 6. Koireng 7. Kom 8. Lamkang
9. Maring 10. Monsang 11. Moyon .

The Chiefs of 11 Communities gave the FOH the names of their Yek Salai and their belongingness to the specific community in writing with valid documents. These 11 Communities are the descendants of the Naga Communities as they are having Yek Salais and therefore they are the indigenous people of Manipur.

The FOH claimed that the Federation comprises of 24 Communities havng Yek Salai system given by the King from the time of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba (33 CE) onwards . These 24 Communities are -
1. Aimol 2. Anal 3. Chiru 4. Chothe 5. Inpui
6. Kabui 7. Kharam 8. Koireng 9. Kom 10. Lamkang 11. Liangmei
12. Mao 13. Maram 14. Maring 15. Meitei 16. Moyon
17. Monshang 18. Paomai 19. Purum 20. Rongmei 21. Tarao 22. Thangal
23. Tankhul 24, Zemei.

The identity of these 24 communities are the Yek Salai . The descendants of the 24 communities mentioned above are the different communities of Nagas and they are Natives or Aboriginals, First Settlers and therefore Indigenous Peoples of Manipur.

12.6.1. The Kukis are trying to convert the small Naga communities into Kukis at gun point.

The Kukis are trying to convert the small Naga communities with a small population in scattered villages and isolated locations without security into Kukis at gun point. The Kukis do not have Yek Salai and the King did not give them Yek Salai on the assumption that they are nomadic, foreigners and refugees.

12.6.2.Some of the Kukis of Manipur are foreigners and Refugees

Now a question arises whether the Kukis in Manipur are foreigners and refugees. The people of Manipur should find out the truth. Truth is not decided by vote. The following official documents shows that the Kukis are foreigners and refugees .

Part-I Order No. 11 of 18th August, 1931-Read " The Kukis shall not be issued fire arms because of savagery nature against the Nagas".

Part-II The President of the Manipur State Darbar Order No, 9th September 1933 declaring that " Kuki village having 20 household shall pay house tax of Rs. 6 per annum". This means that the Kukis has no Ancestral Land or home land in Manipur. They were living as tenants in Manipur Declared that " they shall be granted firearms on loan for protection against wild animals." T.A Sharpe, President of the Manipur State Darbar issued a Standing order declaring that " Kukis in the Naga areas in Manipur are Aliens and Refugees". Order of of the PMSD (President of the Manipur State Darbar ) No. 2 of 23 th July, 1941 declared that " the Kukis shall obtain prior permission from the Chief of the Naga Village for settlement and pay house tax to the Naga Chief." The Government of India vide Memo no. P3/9/66 of Finance Ministry of Home Affaires (GOI) had agreed to the requisition of R. Suisa to grant the Kuki relief fund or refugee fund under Memo and payment was made to the Kukis by the State Government of Manipur vide Memo No. 01/R/RFL in four instalments

First Payment : 22 April 1957

2nd payment : 7 July 1959

3rd payment : 28 February 1966

4th payment - 18 July, 1968

Kukis are Indigenous People as Per Judgement of Supreme Court

The Judgement of the Supreme Court of India's on 5 January 2011 while dismissing the Criminal Appellate Jurisdiction arising out of Special Leave Petition (Crl) No. 10367 of 2010) (Kailas & Others. Appellant (s) -versus- State of Maharashtra) unequivocally asserted that "Scheduled Tribes are indigenous peoples of India". The Kukis are the Scheduled Tribes under Article 342 of Indian Constitution and therefore as per Supreme Court Judgement, the Kukis are the indigenous peoples of Manipur. Here either the State Government or the Civil Society Organisations may file a case with the Hon'ble Supreme Court to make the necessary corrections.

Kukis are manufacturing Fake History of Manipur.

There are many documents saying that the Kukis in Manipur are foreigners and refugees. The Kukis themselves claimed that they migrated from Burma (now Myanmar). They themselves are saying that they are nomadic tribes. One danger of the Kukis is that they are indulging in the manufacture of FAKE histories to distort , destroy and discredit more than 2000 years old history of Manipur. Mr. P.S. Haokip, President of Kuki National Organisation (KNO) is the master of manufacturing Fake History of Manipur.

He is the head of two Myanmar- based militant organisations namely Kuki National Organisation (KNO) and the United Peoples Front (UPF). He published books containing Fake histories of Manipur for private circulation to the authorities of the Indian Army, Assam Rifles, security Personnel, United Nations, Government of India etc. to create misunderstanding and give a distorted picture of Manipur. The books are not meant for sale but for private circulation only.

Kukis manoeuvred the internet web site of the Standing Order of President of the Manipur State Darbar.

Mr P.S Haokip might have used his influence in manoeuvring even the internet web site of the Standing Order of President of the Manipur State Darbar. The correct information is found in the internet web site- NagaByBlood/posts /2244680658901285 whereas the false information is found in the internet website-

This is very serious illegal action which may lead to even jail terms. But the internet website where false information is available was created in the name of Nagalim voice. There is a suspicion that this website might have been created under instruction from Mr. P.S Haokip as he originally belonged to Nagaland and migrated to Manipur to take up the Kuki issues in Manipur..

There are large number of documents which suggest that the Kukis are foreigners and refugees. Let us revisit some of the documents as cited below:-

Demand for Kuki Territorial Council out of Manipur territory

On 25 June, 2019, the ninth round of Tripartite Talk with the Kuki militant SoO (Suspension of Operation ) groups and the government of India was held at the Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi with the Centre's Interlocutor AB Mathur and the State Interlocutor Dr Ibomcha Singh representing the State Government along with India's internal intelligence agency Director AK Mishra. The SoO groups were represented by P.S Haokip, President KNO, Thanglianpau, President ZRO-UPF, Pu Kamkhanpau, President ZDV-UPF, ST Thangboi, president KNF and several other leaders from the two militant umbrella organisations.

The charter of demands placed by the groups for the creation of Kuki Territorial Council on the lines of Bodo Territorial Council was discussed for the first time, The meeting demands submission of the boundary lands which is to be included in the proposed Kuki Territorial Council. The Bodos are entitled to a Territorial Council because they are the indigenous people of Assam.. But the Kukis are not indigenous People of Manipur. Can foreigners demand their own territory in a foreign land ?

The truth about Kukis is that most of the Kukis are Foreigners and Refugees coming from Burma ( now Myanmar ) as stated above. They do not have ancestralland in Manipur. The Kukis themselves say that they are nomadic tribes coming from Myanmar. How can the demands of the foreigners and refugees for creating a separate Territorial Council. can be discussed and entertained by the Government of India and the State Government.

Further the question of Bodos having Territorial Council of their own can not be applied in the case of Kuki. Because the Kukis were declared as Foreigners and Refugees by the Manipur State Darbar The present Kuki militant Organisations are based in Myanmar and most of the members of the militant groups are foreigners and refugees coming from Myanmar. Kukis find a Paradise in Manipur . In Manipur, they can do anything because of dishonesty and selfishnes of the politicians whereas they have to face bullets in their own country.

They are not indigenous people of Manipur. They have no right to demand a separate Homeland, separate State or Territorial Council. They do not have the ancestral land in Manipur. The original Kukis population who have entered Manipur during 1840-1850 and were given land and employment by the king later on they are the citizens of Manipur . The Government of India may implement the National Register of Citizens (NRC) based on 1951 and the Foreigners Act-1946 to identify the foreigner and refugee Kukis and to send them home. The foreigners Kukis should be deported to Myanmar and then the genuine demands and grievances of the Kukis may be considered. The Government of India should discontinue the Kuki Peace Talk immediately.

Renaming of the Kuki Rebellion as the Anglo-Kuki War of 1917-1919 without authority

There was no Anglo-Kuki war in the history of Manipur. Probably , some section of Kukiis in Manipur want to rename the" Kuki Rebelllion or Kuki Uprising 1917-1919" as Anglo-Kuki War of 1917-1919 to impress the Government of India for creating a "Territorial Council " for the Kukis out of Manipur. They have been advertising a multi-coloured Map " of Kuki State or Kuki Homeland or Kuki "Territorial Council ".

The historical fact was that the Kuki Rebellion occurred in 1917 as result of protest by the Kuki Chiefs against the Manipur Government's decision for recruitment of another 2000 Kuki labours for the first world war in Egypt . Earlier they had raised the Manipur Labour Corps with 2000 Nagas and Kukis and there were sent in May, 1917 much against their will to France for digging trenches, carrying loads and building base camps.

This time, Maharaja Churachand proposed to recruit another labour corps comprising of mainly the Meiteies and Kukis to be commanded by himself for service in Egypt .The Kuki chiefs strongly objected to this . Driven by the urgency of the matter, the political agent , Mr. Higgins proceeded to the hills to meet the Kuki Chiefs and sort out the matter. Even after a prolonged discussion, the Kuki Chiefs declined to give the labour force but offered to give money instead.

Actually they paid Rs. 1500 , three gongs and one mithun as salam . They said that it was a custom for the Kukis to bring the head of the dead men they killed . Frustrated with the outcome of the meeting , the political agent threatened the Kuki chiefs either to give the labour force required or face punishment.

On the other hand, Ngulkhup, Chief of Mombi village sent around a message to all the Kuki villages that if they volunteer to send labour force, their villages would be burnt down and their women and children would be killed . Mr. Higgins took it as a question of prestige and he proceeded to Mombi to punish the Kuki Chief on 17 October, 1917 . He could not succeed with his mission , so he burnt down the Mombi village to the ground.

At this time , one Chingakham Sanachaoba Singh, allegedly elder brother of Churachand Maharaja incited the Kukis for a rebellion, Sanajaoba was believed to have possessed supernatural powers and who lived with his disciples at Kumbi spread a rumour that " the British Rule is coming to an end now and wanted its people to be killed with them at the same time. Churachand Maharaja will be dethroned and he will become the Maharaja of Manipur. If he becomes the Maharaja of Manipur, he will reduce the house tax from Rs. 3.00 to only Rs. one, This is the time to rebel and to strike". He incited the Kukis to rebel under his guidance, The Kuki Chiefs ere determined even to risk their lives and properties than to give recruits for a labour corps.

There was no war fought between two nations or countries in Manipur during 1917-1919. The Britsh never declared war against the Kukis. Re-naming the event of Kuki Rebelllion as " Anglo-Kuki War" will amount to wrong interpretation and creating a Fake History of Manipur. On 17 October, 2019 , the Kukis observed a centenary commemoration ceremony on completion of 100 years of the Kuki Rebellion , newly christened as the Anglo-Kuki war Commemoration of significant historical events is always welcome. The Kukis may express grievances for justice based truth and righteousness not through fake history and falsehood. They do not know that they are misguiding their own young generations towards a dark future.

To be continued .....

* Dr. Khomdon Lisam wrote this article for
The writer is MBBS, MHA(AIIMS), M.A (Leeds/UK), HSMC( IHF/London), CCAE( Chula/Bangkok) PDCE (UCLA/USA)
Former Medical Superintendent , JNIMS, Ex-Consultant, NACO, Ex-Project Director (MACS)
The writer can be reached at khomdon(DOT)lisam(AT)yahoo(DOT)com
This article was webcasted on January 03, 2020

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