TODAY -

A PRESERVE IN PROGRESS
A Personal Journey

L. Somi Roy *

In the Shelters at Heingang
In the Shelters at Heingang



I first heard of Samadon Ayangba from Pundit Ningthoukhongjam Khelchandra. That Pabung Khelchandra, then in his eighties, looked a bit like a better-humored Yoda with his lined face, wispy hair and large ears seemed appropriate for this great scholar. Dusting off a small folk clay figure of a winged pony that he took off a shelf in his living room, its four walls piled to the ceiling with bundles of crumbling brown Manipuri manuscripts that had invaded his living room from his library inside. He cracked a wide grin that lit up the room, taking his usual delight in giving me a tidbit from his great fount of knowledge. I had recently returned from New York after an absence from Manipur of fifteen years, yet I felt like a wide-eyed schoolboy from Hogwarts as this great wizard told me of how the fearsome winged beast, the creation and the mount of Ibudhou Lord Marjing, the deity of the Northeast, one of four guarding the land, was the ancestor of the Manipuri Pony.

When Pabung Khelchandra told me the shrine to Ibudhou Marjing and Samadon Ayangba was in Heingang Village, I called up my friend Nongthongbam Biren. He was then the Sports Minister, and I had gotten to know from my Major League Baseball coaching camps in Manipur. The shrine was in his constituency. Together we climbed past little figurines of ponies and an empty stable up to the hill that hugged the gleaming paddy fields of the village in the distance. Fading into the horizon was a green brushed with a haze of pink that I knew would be the summer lotuses that swathe Heingangpat, one of the many marshy lakes that prettily sequin the valley of Imphal.

Leaving after making our obeisance to the twin rocks that jut out of the face of the hill, in which as the representation of Ibudhou Marjing our forefathers had invested the sacred, we climbed up still further to a little man-made shrine, not much higher than three feet inside which a folk sculpture of a winged pony stood. On from of it a pair of wooden slippers, supposedly for Ibudhou Marjing to slip into as he dismounted, had been thoughtfully provided. As we descended, I asked the attendant why the stable was empty. Oh, there are three of them, gifts from worshippers. They have gone down to the lake for lunch, he said. They will be back late in the afternoon, their legs covered with leeches, he added helpfully.

It was then that I proposed to Biren that Heingang, the village of his birth might be the appropriate site for a natural preserve for the Manipuri Pony, dedicated to Ibudhou Marjing and named after Samadon Ayangba.

The Manipuri Pony is a semi-feral creature. I remember seeing as a child, herds of Manipuri Ponies in Lamphelpat, once a marshy lake much like Heingangpat. What sets the Manipuri Pony apart from other semi-feral ponies such as the Dartmoor Pony is that many of them are highly trained polo ponies. Indeed, the Manipuri Pony is the original polo pony of the modern game as it is Manipur's traditional game of sagol kangjei that Lt. Joseph Sherer of the Sylhet Light Infantry, today known as the 'father of modern polo', introduced to the British Empire and which became what is known today as modern polo. In the traditional style of rearing the Manipuri Pony, the owners let their animals roam in the commons, marshy areas that, being unfit for proper cultivation, was available as well as favored by the animals themselves. They fetch their animals when needed for war, games of polo or rituals, after which they are returned to the commons. Foals belong to the owner of the mother mare. The Manipuri Pony is never used as a pack animal. It is sacred to the Meiteis.

When I came back to Manipur in 2000, I was shocked at the deterioration in the city that I had not seen in many years. Was it that my eyes had become accustomed to the gleaming towers of New York? No, I had seen enough of the ghettoes there too. The quiet pretty town, with lanes lined with bamboo, neat houses with little ponds lined with hibiscus and jasmine had disappeared. Amid the bedraggled buildings ran broken roads lined by crooked poles strung with hundreds of power lines. In the place of droves of sarong-clad girls on tinkling bicycles was honking traffic. It looked like any other small, congested, dirty Indian town.

And there were ponies on the streets. Crippled ponies and thin foals in twos and threes, standing on traffic meridians, angry traffic swerving around them, hungry ponies feeding on piles of garbage filled with plastic bags, dead ponies. Their traditional grazing commons in Lamphelpat was now built up with offices and hospitals that encircled large garbage dumps. I saw some ponies living, feeding, surviving in squalor, reminding me of the garbage colonies in Tondo in Manila. The sacred animal, the magnificent beast of war and games, was now homeless and had turned into a garbage forager. I kept quiet, afraid people would say I had come back from a fancy, rich world with attitude to match.

I learned from my conversations with long-lost relatives and friends like Yambung R.K. Nimai and Moirangthem Shantikumar that there was only an uncertain census of the pony population and that they could be as few as 1000. I learned that the ponies on the streets were not technically homeless but had owners who could not afford to feed and keep them at home. Once more or less feeding themselves in the commons, and wandering on to paddies after the harvest, the ponies now had wandered on to the streets having lost their semi-domestic habitat. And many were polo ponies: smart, accomplished, valuable, sacred animals adept, having been trained for four or five years, in the Sport of Kings.

Yet, upon my now yearly visits, I kept seeing ponies on the streets. I wrote personal memos, as is my occasional wont, to concerned ministers and roped my friend Shantikumar who was a member of the polo associations in town into the venture. We visited the Pony Breeding Farm of the state's Veterinary Department that was run by the Manipur Horse Riding and Polo Association (MHRPA). There, Sanjenbam Buddhachandra and Tamo Ningthoukhongjam Tombiraj, son of Pundit Khelchandra, showed me around. There were neat, ordered fences and clean, sturdy stables. In the fields beyond, within the modest 11 acres of land, there were 30 or 40 ponies grazing contentedly. It was bracing to see some vital preservation being done in service of the game of polo. But why not a larger conservation of the Manipuri Pony to restore their land, their way of life, that we had taken from them, I asked?

My initial suggestions, starting in 2007, were general, uninformed and tentative: why don't we build a preserve for these ponies on the streets? No accomplished rider or polo player like many in my mother's family, or much of an environmental or animal activist, my concern was simply that of a citizen and a son of the soil. The Manipuri Pony was an animal sacred to Manipur; it was one of India's five equine breeds; it was the original polo pony of the modern game; its number was down to a perilous 1000, perhaps even 500; it was as endangered as the sangai; it was a traffic hazard; it needed a home. Back in the US, I found myself traveling regularly to Kentucky to work on film projects in the mountainous eastern Appalachian part of the state called the Cumberlands. Landing in the city of Lexington, I reconnected with Evelyn Knight, formerly of Appalshop, and then the Director of the Appalachian Center at the University of Kentucky. She heard of my stories of ponies back in Manipur and drove me past stately thoroughbred farms to the International Museum of the Horse at the Kentucky Horse Park. Bill Cooke, the Director of the Museum, showed me around this museum located in the heart of America's horse country. When we came to the permanent exhibit on the Horse in Sport, naturally an important field in this land of thoroughbred racing and the home of the Kentucky Derby, I remarked on the absence of Manipuri Polo in the exhibit. I proposed the addition of traditional sagol kangjei in their display of polo, and the Manipuri Pony in their catalogue of Breeds of the World, to which both Bill immediately and happily agreed.

On my next visit to Manipur, I discussed the idea with Yambung Nimai and we introduced the idea of a gift of a full set of sagol kangjei gear to Governor Gurbachan Jagat. His Excellency immediately agreed to donate a complete set made according to authentic traditional museum-quality standard to the International Museum of the Horse on behalf of the people of Manipur. Yambung Nimai commissioned Meisnam Khelen, a noted polo player and a former captain of the Manipur polo team and a member of the All Manipur Polo Association. Over the next two years, Khelen painstakingly made a traditional saddle of lamuk wood, coated with six layers of Burmese lacquer he specially imported from Mandalay; iron stirrups; shin guards of buffalo hide, braided bridle, and a full player's garments of raw silk and a turban of starched cotton.

This foray into the world of horses in Kentucky proved important in tying my work in cultural exchange in the US with the polo loving people in Manipur to forge a stronger push to save the Manipuri Pony. Now, each time I came to Manipur, I brought back horse-related books, brochures, artifacts, and souvenirs from Kentucky for the Governor and the Chief Minister of the state, as well as for the leaders of the polo community. It served to show what was being done in Kentucky, to inspire what we could do in Imphal. When the gifts from the Governor finally arrived in late 2011 and went up a year later, and today a Manipuri sagol kangjei player stands beside an American polo player in modern attire.

My friendship with Edward Armstrong of the United States Polo Association (USPA), then with its headquarters in Lexington, proved to be another plank in our campaign. A horse-lover and a polo player himself, the ruddy big-boned Bostonian had driven over early that morning to see the Governor's gifts when the crates arrived. He agreed to bring a team from the USPA to play in the next international tournament that the MHRPA organized. Early in 2012 I brought the news to the tournament's organizers, showing them photographs of the uncrating of the gifts. And when that summer, after Yambung Nimai and I were ushered into the presence of Okram Ibobi Singh, the Chief Minister of Manipur, and he had greeted us with a friendly, So have you come about the ponies again?, we briefed him on the interest Americans were beginning to take in Manipur's polo and pony culture. We requested for a natural preserve for the Manipuri Pony as international interest builds towards the 150th anniversary, in 2014, of Lt. Sherer's introduction on sagol kangjei to the outside world. He agreed to a preserve for the Manipuri Pony in Heingang at the foot of the shrine to Ibudhou Marjing and asked Yambung Nimai to submit a plan.

That was the tipping point.

Over the next twelve months, the Chief Minister looked at the plan, discussed it with Thoudam Debendra, Minister of Revenue to get the land surveyed. and sanctioned 200 acres. It included government khas land, paddy fields to be acquisitioned and low lying hills on either side of Heingang Hill around the villages of Heingang and Khundrakpam on the Pangei side. With Okram Surja, whom I call by his nickname Kennedy, I went to the shrines of Ibudhou Marjing and his winged mount Samadon Ayangba to offer flowers and lamps. And together we toured the prospective site.

It was from this point that I saw the Government in action, its chief executive at the helm. It was impressive to say the least. The Chief Minister assigned the project to Govindas Konthoujam, Minister of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services, turning over the land to his Ministry. A dynamic, quick and effective administrator, Minister Govindas swung into action. Maps were drawn up. Surveys were made. A census was initiated; a registration process begun.

For its part, the MHRPA resuscitated its sister organization, the Manipuri Pony Society and revived and revamped it as a breed society for the Manipuri Pony. It called a meeting of all the polo clubs and pony owners. Dr. Kshetrimayum Chourjit, the head of the Manipuri Pony Society, Ibungochoubi Ningthoukhongjam and Tamo Tombiraj documented and made a rough count of the ponies on the streets - there were about 300 - that we would need to house. Ta-yai Ningthoukhongjam Bedajeet put his considerable expertise into the feed, natural pasture and planting requirements - and how much it would all cost.

Preserve Site at Heingang
Preserve Site at Heingang



On several visits, Minister Govindas joined up 'Heingang' Biren and toured the site with their staff. Okram Kennedy came to gauge how volunteers from his Green Revolution Society might pitch in. Archeologist Thongbam Nanjesh of the Manipuri Pony Society drew up the coordinates of the site on his GPS. Ta-Buddha and Tamo Tombiraj checked the borders staked out to see where the water barriers, stables and drinking pools might go. Director S. Joute and his deputy in Veterinary Services, Haobijam Chaoba, oversaw the logistics and operations. All came together to draw up the plans and share a vision for a preserve suited to Manipur: a nature preserve dedicated to Ibudhou Marjing and named after Samadon Ayangba; a semi-feral commons along the traditional lines that would be the foundation of an appropriate equine science and management, and circled by with natural bamboo, water barriers and hills; stables of recyclable, indigenous materials and home-grown building technologies; a safe and pastoral home for the ponies to graze and breed undisturbed after many years among the street rubble and trash.

On Friday, an auspicious day of the week, the 8th of November 2103, two gargantuan excavators that had rumbled on to the site. The machinery operators offered balls of puffed sugarcane-sweet rice placed carefully upon banana leaves and lit candles. After we all kowtowed to Ibudhou Marjing, ground was broken for this Nature Pony Preserve.

But we have only just begun to scratch the surface, so to speak. The work ahead is immense and the road stretches far ahead. Over the next few weeks, temporary and natural barriers will be built on the state-owned land immediately available; shelters constructed; feed for the winter organized; pony owners notified to either take their animals home or bring them to the preserve; and caretakers hired. Over the next 4 months, the acquisition of assigned land will be completed, a state policy for the pony drafted, a governing body instituted, and a long term strategic development and maintenance plan developed.

And when the international tournament opens, a special protected status for the Manipuri Pony will be declared officially, giving this rare and sacred animal its rightful place in the land of Manipur, as well as a home. For we must satisfy the question Iche Achoubi from the Keirak Polo Club posed to the Manipuri Pony Society: We will bring our ponies to the preserve, but will you love them as we do? That is the heart of the matter.

See a full gallery photos on this Pony Preservation here


* L. Somi Roy wrote this article for e-pao.net

L. Somi Roy is a film and media curator based in New York and Imphal. His work in sports and culture may be seen at Huntre! International Manipur Projects.

The first phase of the preserve is at Heingang with a second area over the hill at Khundrakpam. Progress on the preserve may be followed by joining the open group Save the Manipuri Pony! on Facebook.

This article first appeared in the program souvenir book of the 7th International Manipur Polo Tournament of 2013.

This article was posted on December 10, 2013.


* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.


LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Mobile Application for Sangai Festival
  • Final: Hazari/Tombi Polo #1 :: Gallery
  • Sangai Festival 2017- Events Schedule
  • #TB hotspot cannot be on blindspot
  • United Metal 3.0 @Imphal
  • My name is Kom, Mary Kom
  • Swachch Bharath Swasth Bharath
  • Sangai Festival 2017- Online booking site
  • The Killing Fields (2013-17) :: Timeline
  • Mary set on Olympic gold
  • For every causes, there is a reason
  • Moibung Khunou -near khurkhul :: Gallery
  • Miss Kut #4 :: Gallery
  • On the Naga Framework Agreement
  • Media Challenge: Glance from hills #1
  • GIS day at NIT Manipur
  • Pangal Leader Mohammed Hanif Shah
  • NPF questions Speaker convening meet
  • Painting Exhibition by Babli Das (Tripura)
  • Indo-Naga Talks 2017 :: News Timeline
  • Looking out for possible measures
  • Manipur Sangai Festival 2016 #7 : Ooba
  • Cultural Program @ MCA :: Gallery
  • Parihal, Nimshimphy, Neilianthang: eMing
  • Ningol ChakKouba @MBC #3 :: Gallery
  • Oh dear Daddy, see I a Native Proud: Poem
  • Buddha's metta and karuna #3
  • Narendra Modi will never play Nehru
  • Photo Caption Contest by Whakal.com
  • General Call to All Former NPF Leaders
  • Penguin Readathon & Book Gifting
  • ENNG opposes inclusion of TCL..
  • Report alarm for Arunachal
  • Loktak witness drastic fall in migratory birds
  • Lecture on 'Rohingya Resettlement'
  • 'Weaves of Ching-tam' @London :: Gallery
  • Opening: Jadonang Football #1 :: Gallery
  • Robert's Weaves of valley & hills at London
  • Remembering boy..felled by fake encounter
  • Reorganisation of North Eastern Council #1
  • Sangai Photo Awards 2017 : Contest
  • Meeyam meekup nahum singna leibiyu
  • HighWays : Govt. needs seriousness
  • Singcha Wuya Won @Kamjong #4 :: Gallery
  • SDG Consultation: NE :: Gallery
  • North East Fashion Week #1 :: Gallery
  • Distribution Patterns of the Asian Eye
  • Sustainable Development Goal Consultation
  • Wrangle in Mapithel dam: Legal perspective
  • In the Slums of Heaven :: Poem
  • Wreath Laying Ceremony for AR Martyrs
  • Time to take a bow, Robert
  • Create jobs for NE to stop trafficking
  • March: Mera Houchongba #4:: Gallery
  • Sin-Lang Fest @DM College #2 :: Gallery
  • Sangai Festival: Ideas for a change
  • A shadowy dreamer :: Poem
  • Winter - A blessing in disguise for us ...
  • Course in Nanotechnology at NEHU
  • Pamel : Serene Natural Hub, near Lamlai
  • Vacancy at YVU Financial Services, Thoubal
  • System Operators @PR Enterprise, Khurai
  • Just by showing concern will not change..
  • Food Stall @Phayeng #2 :: Gallery
  • Miss Kut #3 :: Gallery
  • The moment :: Poem
  • Board exams decoded
  • 3rd NE Fashion at Itanagar: Day 2
  • Conference : North East in Globalized Era
  • NE-IAS launched to support Startup India
  • Painting Competition on Conservation
  • Ramkung Pamei is new MHJU Chief
  • Charuangc 2017: Rongmeis in Delhi & NCR
  • Priyogopal (Senior Artist)- Photo :: eRang
  • Kabui Dance @Jadonang Football:: Gallery
  • Fashion @NE Festival, Delhi :: Gallery
  • Deviance and Corruption in Kangleipak
  • Applied health research is vital to #endTB
  • 3rd NE Fashion at Itanagar: Day 1
  • Tri-nation Motorcycle Rally reach Imphal
  • Traffic woes continues
  • Kwatha festival #1 :: Gallery
  • Kokkhum Festival #1 :: Gallery
  • Special Rapporteur on Human Rights
  • The threat to balkanize Manipur
  • Cry of a Dying River - 6 :: Poem
  • Biological based integrated Congress grass
  • 3rd Audition of Fagi Unplugged
  • Sadar Hills District Demand: News Timeline
  • Of clean environment
  • Paonam Lily (Archery) Reception :: Gallery
  • North East Fest @ Delhi :: Gallery
  • Girls Football- Nov 4 #2 :: Gallery
  • IBSD, India & VITO, Belgium signed MOU
  • First angioplasty for in-stent restenosis
  • RIST Popular Talk-33: Quantum Hall states
  • Commonwealth alumni event of NE
  • Lecture on The Rohingya Conundrum
  • Tri-National Motorcycle Rally
  • 3rd North East Fashion Week at Itanagar
  • ILP Nov 30 deadline: Why not only for valley
  • Expected changes, do we see ?
  • Festival of Raas Leela #2 :: Gallery
  • Sin-Lang Fest @DM College #1 :: Gallery
  • Hari Uthan- Kang Chingba #2 :: Gallery
  • Code of silence: Concealing gender justice
  • God Rules Over All :: Poem
  • Five day 'Flower Show' at Ukhrul
  • Go birding to honour Bird Man of India
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Uphul Waiphul and Leikhom Leinang
  • A reminder to Central Govt.
  • Assam, Manipur bid to better ties
  • Ningol Chak-Kouba @Pune :: Gallery
  • Miss Kut #2 :: Gallery
  • Meitei Pictographic Writings :: Book Review
  • Careers related to mental health
  • Beauty & Money for a purpose
  • Human rights infractions in Mapithel Dam
  • AMAND Ningol Chakouba at Pune : Report
  • Chef Required at Kakching
  • NHPC Raising day at Loktak Power Station
  • Mary Kom enter Asian Ch'ships final
  • Of ST demand, ILP, peace talk
  • For elderly people
  • Prof. Nongmaithem Tombi Singh : A Profile
  • Hazari/ Tombi Polo Tournament #2:: Gallery
  • U-17 Footballer honored by Guv :: Gallery
  • Just in favour of nocturnal life
  • Dance of Fire Flies at Autumn :: Poem
  • North East Festival bids farewell
  • Protest over Naga pact
  • Agenda of Govt spelt out at DBC, Maram
  • Nurturing the future
  • Ningol Chak-Kouba @Delhi #2:: Gallery
  • NE Fashion Weekend @Delhi #1 :: Gallery
  • History will not forgive us
  • A girl :: Poem
  • Pre-merger political party struggle
  • JRF wanted at NIT Silchar
  • Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party
  • Welcome to Southern Nagalim greeting
  • March: Mera Houchongba #3:: Gallery
  • Girls Football- Nov 4 #1:: Gallery
  • Taxi- raising Air Pollution in Ukhrul
  • Back to basics to #endTB: Do it right
  • Man with Flower's Life :: Poem
  • Skill development training with MUDA
  • Quiz Competition at NE Festival
  • Free cataract operation at Loktak
  • Traffic control- still a flop show
  • Pui Thangamliu -Photos #1 :: eRang
  • NH7 Weekender [28 October] :: Gallery
  • Surjalal: Fellow of American Physical Society
  • Ithai Barrage for Irrigation: Beautiful Promise
  • NE Festival 2017 starts off
  • The Sun & the Cloud :: Poem
  • Land encroachment at Lamka College
  • Salesian College Grabs UK Project
  • Nagaland CM met Rajnath reg. Naga issue
  • Ranked 5th in women safety: stereotyping?
  • Prime focus
  • Miss Kut #1 :: Gallery
  • Hari Uthan- Kang Chingba #1 :: Gallery
  • Kangujam Chinglensana (Hockey) feted
  • reach the tipping point for childhood TB?
  • A round of applause for N Biren, CM..
  • Link Research with Education for NE
  • Culture is beyond Religion: Najma Heptulla
  • Vacancies @ Chirag Estate, Gurgaon
  • Defection of some party workers : NPCC
  • ST for Meiteis: Final say rests with Delhi
  • Understanding responsibility
  • Chavang Kut @Tengnoupal :: Gallery
  • Sub-Junior Girls Football #2:: Gallery
  • A crusade for a greener Manipur
  • Tourist Guide as career option #2
  • 'Govt working for inclusive development'
  • Namsai gets Buddha relic from Thailand
  • 5th NE Festival at Delhi: Program Schedule
  • 20th Asian Charter for Human Rights: Video
  • National Unity Day at Ukhrul
  • NPF MLA present at all parties meet
  • Of three Ws and Politics
  • Ningol Chak-Kouba @Delhi #1:: Gallery
  • Happy Kut Wishes :: e-pao Flash
  • Let's be racist
  • 3rd Ningol Chakouba, Delhi : A Report
  • Dr. Rahejuddin Sheikh : Best Director Award
  • I Am In You To Feel Myself :: Poem
  • Conference: North East in Globalized Era
  • Seeking contributions : Library Centre
  • RGU Celebrated National Unity Day
  • Run for Unity organized by AR
  • Of traffic chaos and mad rush
  • What if Pan Naga Hoho is final settlement
  • Chothe: Shabu Hong Rein :: Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • IT Employment Devlp Course :: Gallery
  • NH7 Weekender [27 October] :: Gallery
  • Red Light Area in Manipur ?
  • IT Enabled Employment Skill Development
  • Football in India needs encouragement
  • Indo-Naga Peace Process :: Articles
  • Meeting on Hornbill Festival 2017
  • Territorial integrity : No to separate admin
  • A confusing solution, if happens
  • Hazari/ Tombi Polo Tournament #1:: Gallery
  • Candle light for Belinda Morse :: Gallery
  • Hills are Better
  • Wedding :: Poem
  • Candle lighting in memory of Belinda Morse
  • NH7 Weekender: 2nd Day Report : 28 Oct
  • RGU launched Clean and Green Campus
  • Territorial integrity: All party meet sans NPF
  • Exhibition of Pottery Crafts #2 :: Gallery
  • Phayeng Cultural programme :: Gallery
  • Khongjom War Memorial #3 :: 360 ° View
  • Ichangi Laidhi #1 :: eRang
  • Ningol Chakkouba by Paomee:: Gallery
  • Ningol Chakkouba @Kolkata :: Gallery
  • Tourism Day @ Phayeng #1 :: Gallery
  • Ningol Chakkouba @Sikkim :: Gallery
  • Ningol to her mapam lamdam :: Gallery
  • Manipuri Calendar for 2018 : Download it
  • Mera Men Tongba :: Gallery
  • FIFA U-17 Profile :: Kh Ninthoinganba
  • FIFA U-17 Profile :: Thounaojam Jeakson
  • FIFA U-17 Profile :: Nongdamba Naorem
  • FIFA U-17 Profile :: Dheeraj Moirangthem
  • FIFA U-17 Profile :: Amarjit Kiyam (Captain)
  • FIFA U-17 Profile :: Thangjam Boris
  • FIFA U-17 Profile :: Wangjam Suresh
  • FIFA U-17 Profile :: Md Shahjahan
  • Featured Photo for 2017 #4 :: Gallery
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic
  • Landscape of Manipur #7: Wallpaper
  • SPONSORED ADS