TODAY -

Quality Enrichment in Teacher-Education Programme: Psychological Perspective

M Arunkumar Singh *

A Classroom at Moirang Multipurpose Higher Secondary School on 09th Oct, 2011
A Classroom at Moirang Multipurpose Higher Secondary School on 09th Oct, 2011 :: Pix - Shanjoy Mairembam



A teacher is a practical person. Knowing how to teach is not enough, rather being able to teach well is what is needed from a teacher. A good teacher is one who teaches well, more specifically one who makes the learner learn what is being taught. Teaching is done to make/help someone learn, know, understand, be clear, and be able to apply, use and act.

A teacher's task are many - motivating students, managing the classroom, assessing prior knowledge, communicating ideas effectively, taking into account the characteristics of the learners, assessing learning outcomes, and reviewing information (Slavin 2009). All the tasks, involved in teaching, are carried out through many activities. The teacher tells, explains a concept/theory, instructs what is to be done and how it is to be done, illustrates a phenomenon with an act, shows the steps to be followed, models the act, guides to be cleared about a concept, discusses the limitation of an approach, scaffolds the thinking process, etc, to mention a few. These are the activities involved in the real practice of teaching.

In addition to these teaching-specific activities, there are other activities for planning necessary acts and preparing necessary materials. They are meant to make the practice of teaching effective and they may be known as activities for teaching. These activities are not less important as compared to the teaching - specific activities. One such activity is seeking to know the learners, their nature, their problems, their talents and weaknesses, their learning, their needs, their differences, etc.

This knowledge will help to plan and carry out effective lessons, discussions, projects, and other learning experiences. Knowing about how learning, problem-solving skills, and creativity are acquired will help to plan the act to promote their acquisition. Seeking to know how to motivate children and how to deal with individual differences among students is an important activity for a teacher.

It is to note that research forms an important basis/ground for these varied activities. The aim of research in educational psychology is to test the various theories that guide the actions of teachers and others involved in education (Slavin, 2009). Research in educational psychology not only provides evidence for principles of effective practice but also provide evidence about the effectiveness of particular programs of practices (Fleischman, 2006).

There is evidence on the effectiveness of dozens of widely used programs, from methods in particular subjects to strategies for reforming entire schools (Ellis, 2001; Guter, Ester,& Schwab, 2003; Slavin & Lake,2006; Slavin, Lake, & Grot, 2007). It is important for a teacher to maintain a working knowledge of relevant research, and an interest in it. (Slavin, 2009). There is one caution, however, that teachers must critically analyse the research they read to judge whether the conclusions are warranted from the data reported and whether the findings are applicable to the teacher's own situations (Mc Devitt & Ormrod, 2002).

The research literature on children's thinking, development, and learning grows by leaps and bounds, every year. Nevertheless, teachers sometimes encounter problems in the classroom that the existing research literature doesn't address. In such circumstances, they can conduct their own research. When teachers conduct systematic studies of issues and problems in their own schools/classrooms, with the goal of seeking more effective interventions in the lives of children, they are conducting action research.

This teacher research is becoming an increasingly popular endeavor among teachers, educational administrators, and other professionals (Mc Devitt &Ormod, 2002). Such research takes numerous forms, for example, it might involve assessing the effectiveness of a new teaching technique, gathering information about student opinions on a schoolwide issue, or conducting an in-depth case study of a particular student (Cochram - Smith & Lytle, 1993; Mills, 2000).

Action research is a powerful tool, and it is important for the teachers to pursue opportunities, whether in their teacher preparation programs or in later course work or in services, to learn more about it (Mc Devitt & Ormrod, 2002). Research conducted by teachers provides a forum for solving problems, broadening and deepening perspectives on real-life issues of teaching and learning, creating alliances, fostering a community spirit among teachers, drawing attention to the legitimacy of teachers knowledge and practice, and transforming schools to promote social justice (Noffke, 1997).

In addition to this form of teacher research, there is another form of research in which teachers gather their own data in the classroom very informally, such as when they "read" their student's learning and thinking. This information will help them to take the next course of action. Thus, teachers may be informally "reading" their students or more formally collecting data for action research.

Research then forms an important part in teacher's life. It helps teachers in many ways, for instance, by illuminating effective and ineffective teaching practices, promoting new ways of thinking about child and adolescent development, and engendering optimism about making a difference in students' lives. Good research methods and critical analysis are not the activities for professors and college students; they can also shed light on the daily dilemmas or practicing teachers.

The questions researchers raise about the validity of measurement instruments are just as important in classroom teaching as they are in scholarly research. The questions researchers raise about casual relationships between variables are of as much interest to teachers as they are to theorists (Mc Devitt & Ormod, 2002). Then, it is important, for the teachers, to acquire/develop research and critical thinking skills. The thinking skills will help the teacher in all their activities.

Teacher education program is done to help students acquire necessary knowledge and skills to become effective teachers. In fact, they are learners, and thus they need to acquire learning skills as to how to learn to become self-regulated learners. The learning skills include thinking skills including reasoning and critical thinking skills.

They need to acquire research skills and skills in using psychological tools - psychological tests, questionnaires, interviews, observations, and experiments to collect relevant information about human behaviors. It is not simply the theoretical knowledge about the psychological tools that is important but the practical experiences of using these tools. This sort of learning will definitely help the future effectiveness of the students as teachers. They will be able to collect relevant and valid data for their formal or informal research work done for their practice.

Thinking skills are needed for the teachers to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills for their varied activities and also to carry out these same activities. In many studies that have looked at the differences between expert and novice teachers and between more and less effective teachers, one finding/difference emerges: expert teachers are critical thinkers ((Hogan, Roinowitz, & Craven 2003; Mosenthal et. al., 2004; Shulman, 2000).

It is a humble attempt to propose certain ideas relating to quality enrichment in teacher- education, programme: psychological perspective. As mentioned in the opening statement of this paper: "A teacher is a practical person". As such, it is important to get practical orientation of the skills to be acquired by the students so that these skills will be practically applied in carrying out different activities required for his/her practice as teacher.


* M Arunkumar Singh wrote this article for Hueiyen Lanpao (English Edition)
The writer is Guest Faculty at RK Sanatombi Devi College of Education, Imphal.
This article was posted on June 25 2012



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.


LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Northeast Indian Guide to Thailand
  • Interaction with Steelheart @Imphal: Gallery
  • Khongjom Numit: Last battle of Manipur
  • International Mother Earth Day
  • Selected Candidates to Global Shapers
  • Assam Rifles Ex-servicemen Rally
  • Paying tribute to our martyred forefathers
  • Death penalty for child rapists
  • TRAU Vs Bengaluru FC #1 : Gallery
  • Battle of Khongjhom :: Read about it
  • Ending Plastic Pollution- Earth Day 2018
  • Interaction with Steelheart in Imphal
  • Yet I have hopes and dreams - fancy
  • Seminar @ DM College : Atomic Energy ..
  • Lai Haraoba at Loktak Power Station
  • Teinem Luira Phanit #2: Gallery
  • Governor's Polo (Men) : Gallery
  • World Earth Day 2018
  • Edge of self determination #2
  • Save Meetei & other indigenous people
  • Nirmala Chongtham @ Bamboo Congress
  • Public Relations Day at Loktak
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Songs of the dark days
  • On cease work strike since March 22
  • Kang Amomgi Tentha : Funga Wari
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Piulong khul & Bunning Wildlife Sanctuary
  • The guy in the waiting list
  • Turmeric in beauty care
  • Crisis ahead; this is more dangerous
  • Gearing up for Shirui Lily Fest
  • Do not gag voice of opposition: NPF
  • Garlic Festival @ Ukhrul #1 : Gallery
  • Misplaced Agenda of our CSOs
  • Aribam Devabrata's Mime Play "Kangla Gate"
  • Edge of self determination #1
  • Vardhaman Mahaveer, his life & Jainism
  • Annual General Body meeting of STDCM
  • Land of thousand heroes
  • Present lull before the storm ?
  • Naorem Kalimohon Singh : A Profile
  • Floral tributes to PLA members #2 : Gallery
  • May I tie the knot with a Muslim woman ?
  • Quiz Competition at DM College
  • Cyber warfare: Estonia attack
  • Discussion : South China Sea Disputes
  • The Readers :: Book Discount @MU
  • Democracy: Is the countrymen listening?
  • From Nobap to the top stage
  • Cheiraoba Thabal by LGBTQ #1 : Gallery
  • Cheiraoba @ Kolkata : Gallery
  • Manipuri speaking diaspora in Assam
  • Mangginlian, Lalromawi :: eMing
  • Lomba: best garnish for Yongchak iromba
  • Modern civilisation in Manipur revisited
  • Earning the real good time
  • Meghalaya to consider implementation of ILP
  • NE girls held in Raipur for alleged sex trade
  • Pushing NH-37 to the back burner
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa [14 Apr] : Gallery
  • Brajabashimayum Gopal : Akademi Award
  • EEVFAM vs UoI case at Supreme Court
  • Litmus test for Mizoram
  • The present trend of our educational system
  • The rift between parents & children
  • Everything to know about Dermaplaning
  • A heady affair
  • Raped and defiled : India's shame
  • Leima Jagoi @ JNMDA Day: Gallery
  • Right to Religion is a fundamental right
  • Who are Meeteis
  • Meeting of Manipur photography Club
  • Dynamic Manipur's committee for 2018-20
  • BJP's Booth Level Training at Patsoi
  • Sexual violence against women
  • Yaoshang Halankar #2 : Gallery
  • TRAU Vs Mohammedan #2 : Gallery
  • Black sheep in ILPS movement #2
  • SC / HC verdict on Merger Agreement
  • How to practice homoeopathy
  • Sonowal's gesture to Assam journalists
  • Floral tributes to PLA members #1 : Gallery
  • Sikkim University Prospectus : Download
  • Schools are fine, colleges are not
  • The Deceptive Appearance :: Poem
  • Sports for peace and development
  • On organizing Thabal Chongba in Delhi
  • People's bishop gets Bharat Gaurav Award
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Banning the Bandh
  • A strong Opposition is healthy
  • Yangkhulen (57 Km from Maram) : Gallery
  • Statehood Women's Polo #2 : Gallery
  • An autobiography of MK Priyobarta
  • Lamkoi Shirui Camp 2.0 at Ukhrul
  • RIST Talk -35 @MU : Thermal plasma
  • Police Harassment of Human Rights Activist
  • Favouritism of PDA Govt is shameful
  • Where the mind is without fear
  • End authoritarian rule call of Cong
  • 'HUN' Thadou Cultural Festival #1 : Gallery
  • Kabui Dance @JNMDA : Gallery
  • Gangmei Aluna Kabuini : Nrityabhusan
  • Good & bad of Nung hawai consumption
  • Sadar Hills District Demand :: Timeline
  • Meitei - Scheduled Tribe ?
  • Career options after graduation
  • Food safety concerns
  • Response to Rijiju: Stand off on sovereignty
  • Two Princes :: Funga Wari
  • Yaoshang Sport @Bamon Leikai: Gallery
  • Armed Force (Special Power) Act 1958 #3
  • Cry of a Dying River - 25 :: Poem
  • Centre for Vietnam Studies, New Delhi
  • Leingakki Firem Handoktriphaoba..
  • Seeking report on Thoungamba's death
  • 3rd Northeast Fiesta 2018 : Event Report
  • Traffic: Still yet to find a lasting solution
  • From Go to Hills to Go to Village
  • Md Awaysh Khan: Mr. India : Gallery
  • Horizon : An Exhaustive Review
  • Is Delhi serious to resolve Naga issue?
  • JRF position wanted at Manipur University
  • Dams & hydropower push in Himalayas
  • Can satan encourage hard work ?
  • DGP distributed DG Commendation Discs
  • Of attack and threat to common men
  • Ruling out sovereignty, integration
  • Folk Dance @Retreat ceremony #4: Gallery
  • The entry of Gorkha in Manipur
  • Khelen Thokchom, some fond memories
  • The Singing Stones :: Poem
  • 109 Bn, CRPF celebrated 28th Raising day
  • Swarajya Magazine tender apology
  • Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #2 : Gallery
  • Women Final: Governor Polo #2 : Gallery
  • Air pollution is an invisible killer
  • Manipur as part of India during Krishna
  • Global Shapers is calling for Application
  • Heart OPD & Free Echo Screening Camp
  • Winter School 2018 at NEHU concluded
  • On forged cheque issue: Pandora Box
  • Accounting for two of 4 won so far
  • Mahesh Thounaojam #2 : eRang Photos
  • TRAU Vs Mohammedan #1 : Gallery
  • Science of stink: Dealing with odour
  • Time lost cost in cyber crime: IGI Airport
  • BJP Patsoi : 38th Foundation Day
  • The making of sports powerhouse
  • Rape in the land of Meira Paibis
  • Kamo Hau Culturals @Kamjong: Gallery
  • Armed Force (Special Power) Act 1958 #2
  • Cry of a Dying River - 24 :: Poem
  • Tribute to Khelen Thokchom
  • Last of his ilk
  • Open letter to Jaideep Majumdar- Swarajya
  • Effort to make our leader understand
  • RIMS road heist : Daylight robbery
  • Major Bob Ralengnao Khathing
  • Pung Chollom @JNMDA : Gallery
  • Mnipur Ima :: Seireng
  • Kou-kha : Wetland tuber cash crop
  • Jobs at Don Bosco Tech Society
  • NPF replies to news portal report
  • The Killing Fields (2013-17) :: Timeline
  • Prohibition against peoples' will
  • Congress in its avatar as an Oppn
  • Mukna Khong Kangjei #2: Gallery
  • Partnerships should be based on solidarity
  • Volunteers for Green Khamasom (VGK)
  • Social media: Boon or medium to hurt..
  • A requiem for Ta Khelen
  • Northeast Fiesta 2018 at Jalandhar, Punjab
  • Jobs @ PR Enterprises, Khurai
  • Vegetables grown @Thanga #2: Gallery
  • Khaidem Tarubi :: Akademi Awards
  • Angaobi :: Poem
  • A cocktail of mythology, science & religion
  • Beauty benefits of tomatoes
  • Condolence message for Khelen Thokchom
  • Communal politics in social media
  • RIP Tamo Khelen .. always in our heart
  • Blank Editorial
  • Tributes to Khelen Thokchom : Gallery
  • Men Final: Governor Polo #1 : Gallery
  • Armed Force (Special Power) Act 1958 #1
  • Scientific Perspective: Biren's speech
  • Ukhrul Sanitary Movement & social evil
  • JFA express grief at Thokchom's demise
  • Yaoshang Nakatheng Chatpa #3 : Gallery
  • April Calendar for Year 2018 :: Tools
  • Thangjiyen: Culinary item during Cheiraoba
  • Nongthombam Biren hasn't a clue
  • Easter: A moment of reorganization
  • A Spark of My Poem :: Poem
  • Asian solidarity on the Rohingya crisis
  • The blunder in Indian Political system
  • Respecting the essence of Good Friday
  • Folk Dance @Retreat ceremony #3: Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Chingkaba #3: Gallery
  • Dr. Athouba honored Hindi Sevi Pracharak
  • Women Final: Governor Polo #1 : Gallery
  • Ringui Luira Phanit @Ukhrul : Gallery
  • Landscape from Koubru #1 : Gallery
  • Yaoshang Sport - Marathon #2: Gallery
  • PM at Science Congress @MU #2: Gallery
  • Lui-Ngai-Ni @Longmai (TML) #5 : Gallery
  • Sanakhya Ebotombi Haorokcham: Biography
  • PM Narendra Modi @Imphal #2 : Gallery
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Chingkaba #2: Gallery
  • Enakta Leiringei (Film) #2 :: eRang
  • Yaoshang Cooking Contest #2 : Gallery
  • Front Page Photo 2018 #1: Gallery
  • Temples of Manipur : Gallery
  • Recipients of Akademi Awards for 2014
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic
  • SPONSORED ADS